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  • alkoxy-silane (chemical compound)

    art conservation and restoration: Stone sculpture: …similar manner, the application of alkoxy silanes in recent decades offers the conservator a method by which amorphous silica can be introduced as a binder and strengthener for deteriorated sandstone. Some silanes will also impart water repellency to the stone. Synthetic polymer-based consolidants include acrylic polymers, epoxies, and polyesters. Although…

  • alkyd (chemical compound)

    Alkyd resin, a complex oil-modified polyester that serves as the film-forming agent in some paints and clear coatings. Developed in the 1920s, alkyd-based enamel paints were once one of the most important types of surface coating. Owing to their incorporation of volatile organic solvents and to

  • alkyd resin (chemical compound)

    Alkyd resin, a complex oil-modified polyester that serves as the film-forming agent in some paints and clear coatings. Developed in the 1920s, alkyd-based enamel paints were once one of the most important types of surface coating. Owing to their incorporation of volatile organic solvents and to

  • alkyl fluoride (chemical compound)

    organohalogen compound: Nucleophilic substitution: Alkyl fluorides have the strongest carbon-halogen bond and react so slowly as to rarely undergo nucleophilic substitutions.

  • alkyl group (chemical compounds)

    carbonium ion: Preparation and stability.: …system; and (4) protonation, or alkylation (addition of an alkyl, or hydrocarbon, group), of a carbon–carbon or carbon–hydrogen single bond. Since carbonium ions are positively charged species, they are most readily formed in relatively polar solvents (solvents consisting of molecules with unsymmetrical distribution of electrons), which help disperse their charges…

  • alkyl halide (chemical compound)

    alcohol: Substitution to form alkyl halides: Alkyl halides are often synthesized from alcohols, in effect substituting a halogen atom for the hydroxyl group. Hydrochloric (HCl), hydrobromic (HBr), and hydroiodic (HI) acids are useful reagents for this substitution, giving their best yields with tertiary alcohols. Thionyl chloride (SOCl2), phosphorus tribromide…

  • alkyl iodide (chemical compound)

    organohalogen compound: Nucleophilic substitution: Alkyl iodides have the weakest carbon-halogen bond and react at the fastest rate. Alkyl fluorides have the strongest carbon-halogen bond and react so slowly as to rarely undergo nucleophilic substitutions.

  • alkylaluminum (chemical compound)

    organometallic compound: Importance of organometallic compounds: Alkylaluminum compounds are also employed in organic synthesis. Used with titanium salts, they are important catalysts in the polymerization of unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as ethylene and propylene. The mechanism of action of the titanium-aluminum alkyl catalysts probably involves interaction between the titanium atoms and the…

  • alkylating agent (chemical compound)

    Alkylating agent, any highly reactive drug that binds to certain chemical groups (phosphate, amino, sulfhydryl, hydroxyl, and imidazole groups) commonly found in nucleic acids and other macromolecules, bringing about changes in the DNA and RNA of cells. Alkylating agents were the first anticancer

  • alkylation (petrochemical process)

    Alkylation, in petroleum refining, chemical process in which light, gaseous hydrocarbons are combined to produce high-octane components of gasoline. The light hydrocarbons consist of olefins such as propylene and butylene and isoparaffins such as isobutane. These compounds are fed into a reactor,

  • alkylation (organic chemistry)

    soap and detergent: Raw materials: …benzene by a reaction called alkylation, with various catalysts, to form the alkylbenzene. By sulfonation, alkylbenzene sulfonate is produced; marketed in powder and liquid form, it has excellent detergent and cleaning properties and produces high foam.

  • alkylbenzene (chemical compound)

    soap and detergent: Raw materials: …War II, another raw material, alkylbenzene, became available in huge quantities. Today it is the most important raw material for synthetic detergent production; about 50 percent of all synthetic detergents produced in the United States and western Europe are based on it. The alkyl molecular group has in the past…

  • alkylbenzene sulfonate (chemical compound)

    soap and detergent: Raw materials: By sulfonation, alkylbenzene sulfonate is produced; marketed in powder and liquid form, it has excellent detergent and cleaning properties and produces high foam.

  • alkylidene (chemical compound)

    organometallic compound: Alkylidene ligands: Alkylidene ligands, such as CH2, CHR, or CR2, form the M=C d-p double bonds (i.e., bonds between the d orbitals of the metal and the p orbitals of the carbon), and their metal compounds are often called carbenes. The first stable metal carbene…

  • alkylidyne (chemical compound)

    organometallic compound: Alkylidyne ligands: Alkylidyne ligands have the general formula CH or CR. They are bound to the metal by an M≡C triple bond involving one σ bond and two d-p π bonds. The simplest member of this series is methylidyne, CH, and the next simplest, CCH3,…

  • alkyllithium (chemical compound)

    organometallic compound: Formation of alkyllithium and Grignard reagents: The highly active metals combine with a halogen-substituted hydrocarbon to produce simple organometallic compounds. For example, methyllithium, an important reagent in organic synthesis, is produced commercially by following the reaction: 2Li + CH3Cl → LiCH3 +

  • alkylmagnesium (chemical compound)

    organometallic compound: Carbanion character: alkylmagnesium compounds are the most common carbanion reagents in laboratory-scale synthetic chemistry; carbanion character is greatly diminished for the less metallic elements boron and silicon. The nucleophilic character of organometallic compounds of active metals has many synthetic applications. For example, the organic group in organometallic…

  • alkyne (chemical compound)

    hydrocarbon: Alkenes and alkynes: Alkenes (also called olefins) and alkynes (also called acetylenes) belong to the class of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond, whereas alkynes have a carbon-carbon triple bond. Alkenes are characterized by the general molecular formula CnH2n

  • ALL (pathology)

    blood disease: Leukemia: In acute lymphocytic anemia (ALL), most frequently seen in children, the cells are immature forms of the lymphatic series of cells. In acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the predominant cells are the youngest recognizable precursors (myeloblasts) of the neutrophils of the blood. In a third and the…

  • All About Eve (film by Mankiewicz [1950])

    All About Eve, American film, released in 1950, that delighted critics with its acid wit and that starred Bette Davis, Anne Baxter, and George Sanders. The movie received six Academy Awards, including that for best picture. The film opens at a theatre awards banquet held by the fictional Sarah

  • All About My Mother (film by Almodóvar [1999])

    Pedro Almodóvar: …Todo sobre mi madre (1999; All About My Mother), which he also wrote. The film—the bittersweet story of a woman’s search for her recently deceased son’s father—won an Academy Award for best foreign-language film, and Almodóvar was honoured as best director at the Cannes film festival. He received similar praise…

  • All America Football Conference (American sports organization)

    gridiron football: Birth and early growth of professional football: Finally, the All-America Football Conference (1946–1949) seriously challenged the existing league and contributed the Cleveland Browns, San Francisco 49ers, and a first version of the Baltimore Colts to an expanded NFL in 1950. Yet professional football could offer the public nothing comparable to the compelling rivalries, youthful

  • All American Airways, Inc. (American company)

    US Airways, former American airline that was incorporated on March 5, 1937, as All American Aviation, Inc. It underwent numerous name changes before becoming US Airways in 1997. In 2015, two years after announcing plans to merge with American Airlines, the carrier flew its last flight. The company

  • All American Aviation, Inc. (American company)

    US Airways, former American airline that was incorporated on March 5, 1937, as All American Aviation, Inc. It underwent numerous name changes before becoming US Airways in 1997. In 2015, two years after announcing plans to merge with American Airlines, the carrier flew its last flight. The company

  • All Aunt Hagar’s Children (work by Jones)

    Edward P. Jones: …third book followed in 2006, All Aunt Hagar’s Children, a collection of short stories that returned to the working-class Washington, D.C., in which Jones’s first book was set. Like Lost in the City, it drew comparisons to James Joyce’s Dubliners.

  • All Basotho Convention (political party, Lesotho)

    Lesotho: Challenges in the 21st century: …Thabane, leaving to form the All Basotho Convention (ABC); many other LCD ministers followed Thabane to the ABC. Nevertheless, the LCD managed to maintain control of the parliament after early elections were called in February 2007. Although the elections were generally viewed as free and fair by international observers, the…

  • all believers, priesthood of (Christianity)

    Priesthood of all believers, cardinal doctrinal principle of the churches of the 16th-century Reformation, both Lutheran and Reformed, and the Protestant Free churches that arose from the Reformation churches. The doctrine asserts that all humans have access to God through Christ, the true high

  • All Blacks (New Zealand rugby team)

    Sean Fitzpatrick: …any other member of the All Blacks (nickname of the New Zealand national team), having played 92 Test matches. He also played in a record 63 consecutive Test matches (1983–95).

  • All Citizens Are Soldiers (play by Vega)

    Lope de Vega: Works: In Fuente Ovejuna the entire village assumes responsibility before the king for the slaying of its overlord and wins his exoneration. This experiment in mass psychology, the best known outside Spain of all his plays, evoked a particular response from audiences in tsarist Russia.

  • All Creatures Great and Small (work by Herriot)

    James Herriot: as All Creatures Great and Small (1972). The instant best-seller inaugurated a series of highly popular books, which was adapted for two films and a long-running television series.

  • All Eyez on Me (album by Shakur)

    Tupac Shakur: That album, All Eyez on Me (1996), was a two-disc paean to the “thug life” that Shakur embodied. It debuted at number one on the Billboard charts and sold more than five million copies within its first year of release. Quick to capitalize on his most recent…

  • All Fall Down (film by Frankenheimer [1962])

    John Frankenheimer: Films of the 1960s: Next came All Fall Down (1962), a drama based on a novel by James Leo Herlihy, with a screenplay by William Inge. It starred Warren Beatty as a callous womanizer whose adoring younger brother (Brandon deWilde) gradually comes to despise him. Frankenheimer’s first popular success was Birdman…

  • All Fall Down (work by Arden)

    John Arden: …fellow students performed his comedy All Fall Down (1955), about the construction of a railway. He continued to write plays while working as an architectural assistant from 1955 to 1957. His first play to be produced professionally was a radio drama, The Life of Man (1956). Waters of Babylon (1957),…

  • All Fires the Fire, and Other Stories (short stories by Cortázar)

    Julio Cortázar: …los fuegos el fuego (1966; All Fires the Fire, and Other Stories), Un tal Lucas (1979; A Certain Lucas), and Queremos tanto a Glenda, y otros relatos (1981; We Love Glenda So Much, and Other Tales). Cortázar also wrote poetry and plays and published numerous volumes of essays.

  • all fives (domino game)

    Muggins, domino game similar to the regular drawing game except for the rule that if a player can play a piece that makes the sum of the open-end pips on the layout a multiple of five, he scores that number. Each player takes five pieces. If the leader poses (places) either 5-5 (double-five), 6-4,

  • All Fools’ Day (social custom)

    April Fools’ Day, in most countries the first day of April. It received its name from the custom of playing practical jokes on this day—for example, telling friends that their shoelaces are untied or sending them on so-called fools’ errands. Although the day has been observed for centuries, its

  • All for Love (play by Dryden)

    John Dryden: Writing for the stage: …different mode was his tragedy All for Love (1677), based on Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra and written in a flowing but controlled blank verse. He had earlier adapted The Tempest (1667), and later he reworked yet another Shakespeare play, Troilus and Cressida (1679). Dryden had now entered what may be…

  • all fours (card game)

    All fours, ancestor of a family of card games dating back to 17th-century England and first mentioned in The Complete Gamester of Charles Cotton in 1674. The face card formerly known as the knave owes its modern name of jack to this game. Originally, all fours was regarded as a lower-class game—it

  • All Green Shall Perish (work by Mallea)

    Eduardo Mallea: In Todo verdor perecerá (1941; All Green Shall Perish), which many consider his greatest work, he explored—by the use of interior monologue and flashback techniques—the anguish of a woman living in the provinces.

  • All Hallows’ Day (Christianity)

    All Saints’ Day, in the Christian church, a day commemorating all the saints of the church, both known and unknown, who have attained heaven. It is celebrated on November 1 in the Western churches and on the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Eastern churches. In Roman Catholicism, the feast is

  • All Hallows’ Eve

    Halloween, a holiday observed on October 31, the evening before All Saints’ (or All Hallows’) Day. The celebration marks the day before the Western Christian feast of All Saints and initiates the season of Allhallowtide, which lasts three days and concludes with All Souls’ Day. In much of Europe

  • All Hands on the Bad One (album by Sleater-Kinney)

    Sleater-Kinney: …further raised Sleater-Kinney’s profile, and All Hands on the Bad One (2000), with its intimations of 1960s girl-group vocal harmonies, showed a marked turn toward pop songcraft while maintaining the band’s distinct edge.

  • All I Desire (film by Sirk [1953])

    Douglas Sirk: Films of the early to mid-1950s: All I Desire (1953), another period piece, starring Richard Carlson and Barbara Stanwyck, left more of an impression as Sirk presented the melodramatic elements of the story with a conviction and flourish uncommon to the genre. Taza, Son of Cochise (1954), released in 3-D before…

  • All in the Family (American television show)

    All in the Family, American television situation comedy that aired on the Columbia Broadcasting System (now CBS Corporation) for eight seasons (1971–79). The show continued from 1979 to 1983 under the title Archie Bunker’s Place. All in the Family became one of the most successful sitcoms of its

  • All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (political party, India)

    All India Dravidian Progressive Federation, Regional political party of India, principally in Tamil Nadu state. It was formed in 1972 by veteran movie-actor-turned-politician Maruthur Gopala Ramachandran (popularly known as MGR), who broke away from the Dravidian Progressive Federation (Dravida

  • All India Dravidian Progressive Federation (political party, India)

    All India Dravidian Progressive Federation, Regional political party of India, principally in Tamil Nadu state. It was formed in 1972 by veteran movie-actor-turned-politician Maruthur Gopala Ramachandran (popularly known as MGR), who broke away from the Dravidian Progressive Federation (Dravida

  • All India Muslim League (Indian Muslim group)

    Muslim League, political group that led the movement calling for a separate Muslim nation to be created at the time of the partition of British India (1947). The Muslim League was founded in 1906 to safeguard the rights of Indian Muslims. At first the league was encouraged by the British and was

  • All India Radio (Indian broadcasting company)

    radio: In Asia: …stations created in the 1990s): All India Radio (AIR) broadcast in 24 languages and 146 dialects to reach 98 percent of its burgeoning population. In addition to hundreds of daily news bulletins, AIR developed special bulletins on sports, youth, and other major events. Some 80 stations by the late 1990s…

  • All India Trinamool Congress Party (political party, India)

    West Bengal: History: …the All India Trinamool (or Trinamul) Congress (AITC), had been an ally in what was then the Congress Party’s national ruling coalition government. The AITC’s founder and leader, Mamata Banerjee, became the state’s first female chief minister (head of government).

  • All India Women’s Conference (Indian organization)

    All India Women’s Conference (AIWC), organization dedicated to improving women’s education and social welfare in India. The All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) is one of the oldest women’s organizations in the country. Several hundred local AIWC branches are located across India, with thousands of

  • All Is Lost (film by Chandor [2013])

    Robert Redford: Better received, however, was All Is Lost (2013), in which he played a sailor whose yacht is struck by a shipping container; the tense survival drama featured little dialogue, and Redford was the only actor in the movie. He then appeared in the action film Captain America: The Winter…

  • All Is True (film by Branagh [2018])

    Kenneth Branagh: …then directed and starred in All Is True (2018), which centres on Shakespeare’s final years.

  • All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference (political party, India)

    Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (JKNC), regional political party in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, northwestern India. In October 1932 the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference, the precursor of the Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (JKNC), was founded at Srinagar by Sheikh Muhammad

  • All Men Are Brothers (Chinese novel)

    Water Margin, ancient Chinese vernacular novel known from several widely varying manuscripts under the name Shuihuzhuan. Its variations are so extreme as to make the work the most textually complex in Chinese literature; the text cannot be dated with accuracy, and its authors cannot be identified.

  • All My Children (American television soap opera)

    Melissa Leo: …role on the soap opera All My Children in 1984. She was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award in 1985, and she continued to make occasional appearances on the show until 1988.

  • All My Sons (play by Miller)

    All My Sons, drama in three acts by Arthur Miller, performed and published in 1947. All My Sons was considered Miller’s first significant play. With an underlying theme of guilt and responsibility, the drama centres on Joe Keller, a manufacturer of war materials, whose substandard and defective

  • All Nations (American baseball team)

    baseball: Segregation: Especially noteworthy was the All Nations team, composed of African Americans, whites, a Japanese, a Hawaiian, an American Indian, and several Latin Americans. On its roster at various times before World War I were two of the greatest black pitchers, John Donaldson and Jose Mendez.

  • All Nippon Airways Co., Ltd. (Japanese company)

    All Nippon Airways Co., Ltd. (ANA), the largest domestic air carrier in Japan, and one of the largest in the world. The company was founded in 1952 and is headquartered in Tokyo. Under the Japanese government’s strict regulation of civil aviation, All Nippon Airways was basically restricted to

  • All of Me (film by Reiner [1984])

    Carl Reiner: Film directing: Next was All of Me (1984), possibly Reiner’s most-sustained comic effort. It starred Martin as an attorney whose body becomes possessed by the soul of a sour millionaire (Lily Tomlin). Although the film continued the streak of hits for Reiner and Martin, it was the last they…

  • All of No Man’s Land Is Ours (song by Europe)

    Harlem Hellfighters: The Hellfighters at war: “All of No Man’s Land Is Ours” described a soldier’s first call to his sweetheart, and “How Ya Gonna Keep ’Em Down on the Farm?” was a playful tune about the appeal of Paris in contrast to life at home. The latter song carried a…

  • All or Nothing (film by Leigh [2002])

    Mike Leigh: …to a contemporary setting with All or Nothing (2002), which focuses on the residents of a public housing estate. He captured Oscar nominations for best director and best original screenplay for Vera Drake (2004), about a kindhearted woman in early 1950s England who clandestinely performs abortions. In his next two…

  • All or Nothing at All (song)

    Harry James: The James-Sinatra recording of “All or Nothing at All” was a flop when first released in 1939, but it sold more than a million copies when rereleased in 1943.

  • All Pakistan Muslim League (political party, Pakistan)

    Pervez Musharraf: …a new political party, the All Pakistan Muslim League, and vowed to return to Pakistan in time for the 2013 national elections. He did so in March 2013, but his bid to stand in elections faced a variety of legal and political obstacles, including several open criminal investigations regarding his…

  • All People’s Congress (political party, Sierra Leone)

    Sierra Leone: Constitutional framework: …one-party republic based on the All People’s Congress; the head of state, or executive president, was elected by delegates of the All People’s Congress, and there was a parliament. Mounting political pressures and violence resulted in the adoption of a new constitution in 1991 that established a multiparty system. However,…

  • all possible worlds, best of (philosophy)

    Best of all possible worlds, in the philosophy of the early modern philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), the thesis that the existing world is the best world that God could have created. Leibniz’s argument for the doctrine of the best of all possible worlds, now commonly called

  • All Progressive Congress (political party, Nigeria)

    Nigeria: The 2015 elections and electorate concerns: …state (1984–85) who was the All Progressives Congress (APC) candidate and enjoyed a reputation as being tough on corruption and adept at handling security issues. The election was the most closely contested ever in Nigeria. When it became clear that Buhari had won the election, Jonathan conceded. The election marked…

  • All Progressive Grand Alliance (political party, Nigeria)

    Odumegwu Ojukwu: …that he helped form, the All Progressive Grand Alliance, unsuccessfully ran for president. He ran again in 2007 but was defeated by the ruling party’s candidate, Umaru Yar’Adua, in an election that was strongly criticized by international observers as being marred by voting irregularities.

  • All Quiet Along the Potomac To-night (work by Beers)

    Ethel Lynn Beers: …Magazine printed her poem entitled “The Picket Guard,” which soon became better known by its first line, “All Quiet Along the Potomac To-night,” a familiar newspaper caption of those early months of the Civil War. The poem, often reprinted and later regularly anthologized, was subsequently claimed by several others. In…

  • All Quiet on the Western Front (novel by Remarque)

    All Quiet on the Western Front, novel by German writer Erich Maria Remarque, published in 1929 as Im Westen nichts Neues and in the United States as All Quiet on the Western Front. An antiwar novel set during World War I, it relies on Remarque’s personal experience in the war to depict the era’s

  • All Quiet on the Western Front (film by Milestone [1930])

    All Quiet on the Western Front, American war film, released in 1930 and set during World War I, that is regarded as one of the most effective antiwar movies ever made. It won great praise in the United States but was banned in several other countries, including Germany, because of its pacifist

  • All Rise (film by Mandler [2018])

    Jennifer Hudson: …also appeared in the films All Rise (2018) and Cats (2019), the latter of which is an adaptation of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s blockbuster stage musical.

  • all risks (insurance)

    insurance: Perils insured: ” All-risk policies offer insurance on any peril except those later excluded in the policy. The advantage of these contracts is that if property is destroyed by a peril not specifically excluded the insurance is good. In named-peril policies, no coverage is provided unless the property…

  • All Saints (monastery, Greece)

    Metéora: …Great Metéoron, Varlaám (also called All Saints [Áyioi Pándes]), Roussanou, St. Nikolas (Áyios Nikolaos), Holy Trinity (Áyia Triada), and St. Stephen (Áyios Stéfanos). Some still serve a religious function, though they are now only sparsely populated by monks and nuns. Since the construction of paved roads through the area in…

  • All Saints (monastery, Schaffhausen, Switzerland)

    Schaffhausen: …there the Benedictine monastery of All Saints, around which the community developed. The town became a free imperial city between 1190 and 1218 but fell under Habsburg domination from 1330, until it bought its independence in 1415. It allied with the Swiss Confederation against the Habsburgs in 1454 and was…

  • All Saints Bay (bay, Brazil)

    Todos os Santos Bay, sheltered bay of the Atlantic Ocean on the eastern coast of Brazil. A natural harbour, it is 25 miles (40 km) long and 20 miles (32 km) wide. Salvador, the principal seaport and capital of Bahia state, is on the peninsula that separates the bay from the Atlantic. Todos os

  • All Saints’ Church, Margaret Street (church, London, United Kingdom)

    Western architecture: From the 19th to the early 20th century: …his power and originality was All Saints’, Margaret Street, London, designed in 1849 and largely completed by 1852. This church was sponsored by the Ecclesiological Society. But it is not its liturgical correctness that makes it so important in the history of the Gothic Revival. From the pavement to the…

  • All Saints’ Day (Christianity)

    All Saints’ Day, in the Christian church, a day commemorating all the saints of the church, both known and unknown, who have attained heaven. It is celebrated on November 1 in the Western churches and on the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Eastern churches. In Roman Catholicism, the feast is

  • All Saints’ Roman Catholic Church (church, New York City, New York, United States)

    James Renwick: …Saint Bartholomew’s Church (1871–72) and All Saints’ Roman Catholic Church (1882–93), both in New York City, feature Gothic-Romanesque forms built with stonework of contrasting colours and textures to produce effects of dazzling richness.

  • All Saints, Feast of (Christianity)

    All Saints’ Day, in the Christian church, a day commemorating all the saints of the church, both known and unknown, who have attained heaven. It is celebrated on November 1 in the Western churches and on the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Eastern churches. In Roman Catholicism, the feast is

  • All Sorts and Conditions of Men (work by Besant)

    Sir Walter Besant: …his first independent novel, entitled All Sorts and Conditions of Men and based on his impressions of the East London slums, which he saw as joyless rather than vicious places. The “Palace of Delights” that he projected in his book became a reality when the People’s Palace was founded (1887)…

  • All Souls Day (Buddhism)

    Buddhism: All Souls festival: The importance of the virtues of filial piety and the reverence of ancestors in China and Japan have established Ullambana, or All Souls Day, as one of the major Buddhist festivals in those countries. In China worshipers in Buddhist temples make fachuan…

  • All Souls’ Day (Christianity)

    All Souls’ Day, in Roman Catholicism, a day for commemoration of all the faithful departed, those baptized Christians who are believed to be in purgatory because they died with the guilt of lesser sins on their souls. It is observed on November 2. Roman Catholic doctrine holds that the prayers of

  • All Stalin’s Men (work by Medvedev)

    Roy Aleksandrovich Medvedev: …of that Soviet leader, while All Stalin’s Men (1984) presents biographies of six of Stalin’s lieutenants who managed to survive him. In On Socialist Democracy (1975), Medvedev presented his own political views, calling for both democratic reforms and the continuation of the Soviet system of state socialism.

  • All That Fall (work by Beckett)

    Samuel Beckett: The humour and mastery: His radio plays, such as All That Fall (1957), are models in the combined use of sound, music, and speech. The short television play Eh Joe! (1967) exploits the television camera’s ability to move in on a face and the particular character of small-screen drama. Finally, his film script Film…

  • All That Heaven Allows (film by Sirk [1955])

    Douglas Sirk: From All That Heaven Allows to Imitation of Life: With the glossy All That Heaven Allows (1955), Sirk again found plenty of room for his carefully heightened embellishments, creating another work that was hugely popular with contemporary audiences. It later would be championed by a wide range of critics, as would Written on the Wind (1956), which…

  • All That Is: A Naturalistic Faith for the Twenty-first Century (work by Peacock)

    Arthur Peacocke: The posthumously published All That Is: A Naturalistic Faith for the Twenty-first Century (2007), composed as he was dying of cancer, contains a summation of Peacocke’s beliefs, as well as responses from noted theologians and scientists.

  • All That Jazz (film by Fosse [1979])

    Bob Fosse: Later work: Following open-heart surgery, Fosse directed All That Jazz (1979), a self-indulgent though hardly self-serving autobiographical film. In a career-defining performance, Roy Scheider starred as the driven, womanizing, self-destructive director-choreographer. The musical featured notable dance numbers and a strong script, but Fosse frequently interrupted the fast-paced story for hallucinations about death…

  • All That Money Can Buy (film by Dieterle [1941])

    The Devil and Daniel Webster, American fantasy film, released in 1941, that was based on Stephen Vincent Benét’s 1937 short story of the same name. The movie is noted for its innovative camera work and Academy Award-winning score. Jabez Stone (played by James Craig), a down-on-his-luck 19th-century

  • All That You Can’t Leave Behind (album by U2)

    U2: The aptly titled All That You Can’t Leave Behind (2000) and How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb (2004) were focused on riffs and songs rather than atmosphere and mystery, and they succeeded in reestablishing the quartet as a commercial force, but at what price? The band took five…

  • All the Dirty Parts (novel by Handler)

    Daniel Handler: …later explored teeenage sexuality in All the Dirty Parts (2017), which centres on a 17-year-old boy. The dark comedy Bottle Grove was published in 2019. He also wrote Why We Broke Up (2011), a young-adult novel about first love, and the children’s picture book The Dark (2013).

  • All the King’s Men (work by Warren)

    All the King’s Men, novel by Robert Penn Warren, published in 1946. The story concerns the rise and fall of Willie Stark, a character modeled on Huey Long, the governor of Louisiana during the time frame of the novel (late 1920s to early ’30s). The book won the Pulitzer Prize in 1947. Stark comes

  • All the King’s Men (film by Rossen [1949])

    Robert Rossen: The 1940s and early ’50s: …rank of Hollywood directors with All the King’s Men (1949), which he also produced and scripted, adapting the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Robert Penn Warren. It was an enormous critical and commercial success, winning Academy Awards for best picture, best actor (Broderick Crawford), and best supporting actress (Mercedes

  • …All the Marbles (film by Aldrich [1981])

    Robert Aldrich: The 1970s: …amusing was the popular comedy …All the Marbles (1981), with Peter Falk as the unprincipled manager of a pair of women wrestlers. Faced with declining health, Aldrich subsequently retired from directing.

  • All the Money in the World (film by Scott [2017])

    Ridley Scott: …2017 included Alien: Covenant and All the Money in the World, about the 1973 kidnapping of oil baron and philanthropist J. Paul Getty’s grandson. The movie was finished in October 2017—some two months before its scheduled release—when Kevin Spacey, who played Getty, was accused of sexual harassment. Fearing moviegoers would…

  • All the News That’s Fit to Print (slogan by Ochs)

    Adolph Simon Ochs: …Ochs adopted the slogan “All the News That’s Fit to Print” (first used October 25, 1896) and insisted on reportage that lived up to that promise. Despite an early shortage of capital, he refused advertisements that he considered dishonest or in poor taste. In 1898, when sales were low…

  • All the News That’s Fit to Sing (album by Ochs)

    Phil Ochs: His first album, All the News That’s Fit to Sing (1964), reflected his aspirations as a “singing journalist.” A wavery tenor, Ochs employed melodic lyricism, strident leftist views, and dry wit to engage listeners. For a time he was seen as the most serious challenger to Bob Dylan…

  • All the President’s Men (film by Pakula [1976])

    Alan J. Pakula: Films of the 1970s: His next effort, All the President’s Men (1976), was an adaptation of the best-selling book by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein (played in the movie by Robert Redford and Dustin Hoffman, respectively) about the Watergate scandal. Applying the techniques he had developed in Klute and The Parallax View…

  • All The President’s Men (work by Woodward and Bernstein)

    All the President’s Men, nonfictional book written by The Washington Post journalists Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward and published in 1974. The book recounts their experiences as journalists covering the break-in on June 17, 1972, at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate

  • All the Pretty Horses (novel by McCarthy)

    All the Pretty Horses, best-selling novel by Cormac McCarthy, published in 1992 and made into a film in 2000. All the Pretty Horses, the first novel in Cormac McCarthy’s "Border Trilogy," centers on John Grady Cole, a 16-year-old cowboy old enough to choose his way of life but too young to realize

  • All the Pretty Horses (film by Thornton [2000])

    Billy Bob Thornton: …Damon and Penélope Cruz in All the Pretty Horses (2000), a film adaptation of Cormac McCarthy’s 1992 novel, and wrote, directed, and starred in Daddy and Them (2001), a comedy about a dysfunctional southern family.

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