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  • Alfonso the Kind (king of Aragon)

    Alfonso IV, king of Aragon from 1327 to 1336, son of James II. He was well-intentioned but weak. His reign was marked by a serious revolt in Sardinia, which led to war with Genoa, and by the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Moorish kingdoms of North Africa. The failure of the king t

  • Alfonso the Learned (king of Castile and Leon)

    Alfonso X, king of Castile and Leon from 1252 to 1284. Alfonso’s father, Ferdinand III, conquered Andalusia and imposed tribute on the remaining Muslim states in Spain—Murcia and Granada. His mother, Beatrice, was granddaughter of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I. Alfonso, already known as a

  • Alfonso the Liberal (king of Aragon)

    Alfonso III, king of Aragon from 1285 to 1291, son of Peter III. A weak king, he was involved in an unsuccessful constitutional struggle with the Aragonese nobles. In 1287 he was compelled to grant the so-called “Privilegio de la Unión,” which handed over a number of important royal prerogatives

  • Alfonso the Magnanimous (king of Aragon and Naples)

    Alfonso V, king of Aragon (1416–58) and king of Naples (as Alfonso I, 1442–58), whose military campaigns in Italy and elsewhere in the central Mediterranean made him one of the most famous men of his day. After conquering Naples, he transferred his court there. Alfonso was born and brought up in

  • Alfonso the Monk (king of Leon and Asturias)

    Alfonso IV, king of Leon and Asturias from c. 926 to c. 932, the son of Ordoño II and the successor of his uncle Fruela II. He became a monk, abdicated, and then thought better of it and tried to recover his throne. His short reign was, in consequence, one of political chaos, ending about

  • Alfonso the Noble (king of Leon)

    Alfonso V, king of Leon from 999 to 1028, son of Bermudo II. He came to the throne because the devastating campaigns of Almanzor (see Manṣūr, Abū ʿĀmir al-) had forced his father to accept Almanzor’s de facto suzerainty over Leon. The Leonese were forced to take part in the Moorish campaign

  • Alfonso the Wise (king of Castile and Leon)

    Alfonso X, king of Castile and Leon from 1252 to 1284. Alfonso’s father, Ferdinand III, conquered Andalusia and imposed tribute on the remaining Muslim states in Spain—Murcia and Granada. His mother, Beatrice, was granddaughter of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I. Alfonso, already known as a

  • Alfonso V (king of Leon)

    Alfonso V, king of Leon from 999 to 1028, son of Bermudo II. He came to the throne because the devastating campaigns of Almanzor (see Manṣūr, Abū ʿĀmir al-) had forced his father to accept Almanzor’s de facto suzerainty over Leon. The Leonese were forced to take part in the Moorish campaign

  • Alfonso V (king of Aragon and Naples)

    Alfonso V, king of Aragon (1416–58) and king of Naples (as Alfonso I, 1442–58), whose military campaigns in Italy and elsewhere in the central Mediterranean made him one of the most famous men of his day. After conquering Naples, he transferred his court there. Alfonso was born and brought up in

  • Alfonso VI (king of Leon and Castile)

    Alfonso VI, king of Leon (1065–70) and king of reunited Castile and Leon (1072–1109), who by 1077 had proclaimed himself “emperor of all Spain” (imperator totius Hispaniae). His oppression of his Muslim vassals led to the invasion of Spain by an Almoravid army from North Africa (1086). His name is

  • Alfonso VII (king of Leon and Castile)

    Alfonso VII, king of Leon and Castile from 1126 to 1157, son of Raymond of Burgundy and the grandson of Alfonso VI, whose imperial title he assumed. Though his reign saw the apogee of the imperial idea in medieval Spain and though he won notable victories against the Moors, he remains a somewhat

  • Alfonso VIII (king of Castile)

    Alfonso VIII, king of Castile from 1158, son of Sancho III, whom he succeeded when three years old. Before Alfonso came of age his reign was troubled by internal strife and the intervention of the kingdom of Navarre in Castilian affairs. Throughout his reign he maintained a close alliance with the

  • Alfonso X (king of Castile and Leon)

    Alfonso X, king of Castile and Leon from 1252 to 1284. Alfonso’s father, Ferdinand III, conquered Andalusia and imposed tribute on the remaining Muslim states in Spain—Murcia and Granada. His mother, Beatrice, was granddaughter of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I. Alfonso, already known as a

  • Alfonso XI (king of Castile and Leon)

    Alfonso XI, king of Castile and Leon from 1312, who succeeded his father, Ferdinand IV, when he was only a year old. His minority was marked by violent strife between factions of nobles, but when he came of age, in 1325, he restored order with unprecedented vigour. He gave new powers to the

  • Alfonso XII (king of Spain)

    Alfonso XII, Spanish king whose short reign (1874–85) gave rise to hopes for a stable constitutional monarchy in Spain. The eldest surviving son of Queen Isabella II and, presumably, her consort, the duque de Cádiz, Alfonso accompanied his mother into exile following her deposition by the

  • Alfonso XIII (king of Spain)

    Alfonso XIII, Spanish king (1902–31) who by authorizing a military dictatorship hastened his own deposition by advocates of the Second Republic. The posthumous son of Alfonso XII, Alfonso XIII was immediately proclaimed king under the regency of his mother, María Cristina. Although lively and

  • Alfonso, José (Portuguese musician)

    fado: In the 1970s José Alfonso pioneered a fado-based fusion music in which he combined fado with rock music, as well as with various folk music traditions, most notably nueva canción (“new song”), a type of political protest music that was popular throughout Latin America at the time.

  • Alford, Phillip (American actor)

    To Kill a Mockingbird: Cast:

  • Alfoxden Journal 1798 (work by Wordsworth)

    Dorothy Wordsworth: …Westmorland), English prose writer whose Alfoxden Journal 1798 and Grasmere Journals 1800–03 are read today for the imaginative power of their description of nature and for the light they throw on her brother, the Romantic poet William Wordsworth.

  • Alfred (king of Wessex)

    Alfred, king of Wessex (871–899), a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England. He prevented England from falling to the Danes and promoted learning and literacy. Compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle began during his reign, circa 890. When he was born, it must have seemed unlikely that Alfred would

  • Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. (American publishing company)

    Alfred A. Knopf: …of the prestigious publishing house Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

  • Alfred Brehm Animal House (animal house, Berlin, Germany)

    Berlin Zoo: A notable feature is the Alfred Brehm Animal House, one of the largest zoo buildings in the world. This structure houses a huge aviary containing hundreds of species of birds. The aviary is flanked by cages of wild cats and by terrariums of lizards and snakes, and the whole is…

  • Alfred Hitchcock Hour, The (American television series)

    Robert Altman: Early years: Bonanza, and Alfred Hitchcock Presents, among many other programs.

  • Alfred Hitchcock on film production

    Five years after his Psycho forever changed perspectives on taking a shower, the legendary film director and “master of suspense” Alfred Hitchcock shared his knowledge in the 14th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. His discussion of film production was first published in 1965 as part of a

  • Alfred Hitchcock Presents (American television series)

    Robert Altman: Early years: Bonanza, and Alfred Hitchcock Presents, among many other programs.

  • Alfred Jarry, Théâtre (theatre, France)

    Theatre of Cruelty: …and Robert Aron founded the Théâtre Alfred Jarry in 1926; they presented four programs, including August Strindberg’s A Dream Play and Vitrac’s Victor, before disbanding in 1929. Between 1931 and 1936 Artaud formulated a theory for what he called a Theatre of Cruelty in a series of essays published in…

  • Alfred Jewel (ornament)

    Alfred Jewel, elaborate gold ornament consisting of an enameled plaque with a figure held in place on one side by an engraved design and on the other by a gold fret of Old English words. The inscription reads, “Aelfred mec heht gewyrcan” (“Alfred ordered me to be made”). The Alfred Jewel (now in

  • Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building (government building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States)

    Oklahoma City: History: …bomb destroyed part of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in the downtown area, killing 168 people and injuring more than 500. Timothy J. McVeigh was found guilty of the bombing in 1997 and was executed in 2001. The Oklahoma City National Memorial, established in 1997, encompasses an outdoor memorial,…

  • Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (American organization)

    Census of Marine Life: Origins and oversight: …report was forwarded to the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, an American nonprofit that provided research grants. In 1997 the foundation proceeded to commission a series of workshops to determine the feasibility of such a survey.

  • Alfred the Great (king of Wessex)

    Alfred, king of Wessex (871–899), a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England. He prevented England from falling to the Danes and promoted learning and literacy. Compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle began during his reign, circa 890. When he was born, it must have seemed unlikely that Alfred would

  • Alfred University (university, Alfred, New York, United States)

    Alfred University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Alfred, New York, U.S. The university comprises the privately endowed Colleges of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Business, and Engineering and Professional Studies and the publicly funded New York State College of Ceramics,

  • Alfred, a Masque (work by Arne)

    Thomas Arne: …melodic style was apparent in Alfred, a Masque (notable for “Rule, Britannia”) and The Judgment of Paris, both produced at the Prince of Wales’s residence at Cliveden in 1740. Arne’s settings of Shakespeare’s songs, written for revivals of As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and The Merchant of Venice in…

  • Alfred, Lord Tennyson (English poet)

    Alfred, Lord Tennyson, English poet often regarded as the chief representative of the Victorian age in poetry. He was raised to the peerage in 1884. Tennyson was the fourth of 12 children, born into an old Lincolnshire family, his father a rector. Alfred, with two of his brothers, Frederick and

  • Alfredsson, Daniel (Swedish hockey player)

    Ottawa Senators: …the play of right winger Daniel Alfredsson and centre Alexi Yashin, Ottawa made its first trip to the play-offs, where it lost in the opening round to the Buffalo Sabres. The following season the Senators earned the lowest seed in the Eastern Conference play-offs, in which they upset the top-seeded…

  • Alfvén wave (physics)

    plasma: Low-frequency waves: At the lowest frequency are Alfvén waves, which require the presence of a magnetic field to exist. In fact, except for ion acoustic waves, the existence of a background magnetic field is required for any wave with a frequency less than the plasma frequency to occur in a plasma. Most…

  • Alfvén, Hannes (Swedish physicist)

    Hannes Alfvén, astrophysicist and winner, with Louis Néel of France, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his essential contributions in founding plasma physics—the study of plasmas (ionized gases). Alfvén was educated at Uppsala University and in 1940 joined the staff of the Royal Institute

  • Alfvén, Hannes Olof Gösta (Swedish physicist)

    Hannes Alfvén, astrophysicist and winner, with Louis Néel of France, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his essential contributions in founding plasma physics—the study of plasmas (ionized gases). Alfvén was educated at Uppsala University and in 1940 joined the staff of the Royal Institute

  • Alfyorov, Zhores Ivanovich (Russian physicist)

    Zhores Alferov, Soviet physicist who, with Herbert Kroemer and Jack S. Kilby, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2000 for their work that laid the foundation for the modern era of computers and information technology. Alferov received a doctorate in physics and mathematics from the A.F.

  • alga (protist)

    Algae, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista. Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonas species to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Their photosynthetic pigments are more

  • algae (protist)

    Algae, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista. Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonas species to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Their photosynthetic pigments are more

  • algae eater (fish)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Gyrinocheilidae (algae eaters) Adaptations to fast currents include fleshy, suctorial mouth and inhalant-exhalant gill openings. Algae feeders. Size to 30 cm (12 inches). Inhabits mountain streams of Southeast Asia. 1 genus, 3 species. Family Psilorhynchidae (mountain carps) Size to about 8 cm (3.3 inches). Inhabits mountain…

  • algal bloom (ecology)

    water pollution: Domestic sewage: …and rapid growths known as algal blooms. When the algae die, oxygen dissolved in the water declines because microorganisms use oxygen to digest algae during the process of decomposition (see also biochemical oxygen demand). Anaerobic organisms (organisms that do not require oxygen to live) then metabolize the organic wastes, releasing…

  • algal poison

    algae: Toxicity: Some algae can be harmful to humans. A few species produce toxins that may be concentrated in shellfish and finfish, which are thereby rendered unsafe or poisonous for human consumption. The dinoflagellates (class Dinophyceae) are the most notorious producers of toxins. Paralytic

  • algal toxin

    algae: Toxicity: Some algae can be harmful to humans. A few species produce toxins that may be concentrated in shellfish and finfish, which are thereby rendered unsafe or poisonous for human consumption. The dinoflagellates (class Dinophyceae) are the most notorious producers of toxins. Paralytic

  • Algardi, Alessandro (Italian sculptor)

    Alessandro Algardi, one of the most important Roman sculptors of the 17th century working in the Baroque style. Algardi, the son of a silk merchant from Bologna, was trained under Lodovico Carracci at the Accademia degli Incamminati, where he acquired the skills of a first-rate draftsman. After a

  • Algarotti, Francesco (Italian art connoisseur)

    Francesco Algarotti, cosmopolitan connoisseur of the arts and sciences who was esteemed by the philosophers of the Enlightenment for his wide knowledge and elegant presentation of advanced ideas. Algarotti was the son of well-to-do middle-class parents. He was educated in his native Venice and in

  • Algarve (historical province, Portugal)

    Algarve, historical province of southern Portugal, bounded by the Atlantic Ocean (south and west) and the lower Guadiana River (east). Much of the interior upland region is of low productivity and is sparsely populated; the fertile coastal lowland is more densely inhabited. The Phoenicians

  • algas (protist)

    Algae, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista. Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonas species to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Their photosynthetic pigments are more

  • Algazel (Muslim jurist, theologian, and mystic)

    Al-Ghazālī, Muslim theologian and mystic whose great work, Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm ad-dīn (“The Revival of the Religious Sciences”), made Ṣūfism (Islāmic mysticism) an acceptable part of orthodox Islām. Al-Ghazālī was born at Ṭūs (near Meshed in eastern Iran) and was educated there, then in Jorjān, and finally

  • algebra (mathematics)

    Algebra, branch of mathematics in which arithmetical operations and formal manipulations are applied to abstract symbols rather than specific numbers. The notion that there exists such a distinct subdiscipline of mathematics, as well as the term algebra to denote it, resulted from a slow historical

  • algebra, elementary

    Elementary algebra, branch of mathematics that deals with the general properties of numbers and the relations between them. Algebra is fundamental not only to all further mathematics and statistics but to the natural sciences, computer science, economics, and business. Along with writing, it is a

  • algebra, fundamental theorem of

    Fundamental theorem of algebra, Theorem of equations proved by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1799. It states that every polynomial equation of degree n with complex number coefficients has n roots, or solutions, in the complex

  • algebra, linear

    Linear algebra, mathematical discipline that deals with vectors and matrices and, more generally, with vector spaces and linear transformations. Unlike other parts of mathematics that are frequently invigorated by new ideas and unsolved problems, linear algebra is very well understood. Its value

  • algebra, modern (mathematics)

    Modern algebra, branch of mathematics concerned with the general algebraic structure of various sets (such as real numbers, complex numbers, matrices, and vector spaces), rather than rules and procedures for manipulating their individual elements. During the second half of the 19th century, various

  • algebraic curve (geometry)

    Algebraic Versus Transcendental Objects: One important difference between the differential calculus of Pierre de Fermat and René Descartes and the full calculus of Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is the difference between algebraic and transcendental objects. The rules of differential calculus are complete

  • algebraic equation

    Algebraic equation, statement of the equality of two expressions formulated by applying to a set of variables the algebraic operations, namely, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to a power, and extraction of a root. Examples are x3 + 1 and (y4x2 + 2xy – y)/(x – 1) = 12. An

  • algebraic expression (mathematics)

    elementary algebra: Algebraic expressions: Any of the quantities mentioned so far may be combined in expressions according to the usual arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Thus, ax + by and axx + bx + c are common algebraic expressions. However, exponential notation is commonly used…

  • algebraic form (mathematics)

    Arthur Cayley: …quantic, known today as an algebraic form, is a polynomial with the same total degree for each term; for example, every term in the following polynomial has a total degree of 3: x3 + 7x2y − 5xy2 + y3. Alongside work produced by his friend James Joseph Sylvester, Cayley’s study…

  • algebraic function (mathematics)

    elementary algebra: Algebraic expressions: Any of the quantities mentioned so far may be combined in expressions according to the usual arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Thus, ax + by and axx + bx + c are common algebraic expressions. However, exponential notation is commonly used…

  • algebraic geometry (mathematics)

    Algebraic geometry, study of the geometric properties of solutions to polynomial equations, including solutions in dimensions beyond three. (Solutions in two and three dimensions are first covered in plane and solid analytic geometry, respectively.) Algebraic geometry emerged from analytic geometry

  • algebraic integer

    mathematics: Developments in pure mathematics: …two reasons: the theory of algebraic integers forms part of it, because algebraic integers naturally form into rings; and (as Kronecker and Hilbert had argued) algebraic geometry forms another part. The rings that arise there are rings of functions definable on the curve, surface, or manifold or are definable on…

  • algebraic linguistics

    linguistics: Mathematical linguistics: …may be termed statistical and algebraic linguistics, respectively, are typically distinct. Attempts have been made to derive the grammatical rules of languages from the statistical structure of texts written in those languages, but such attempts are generally thought to have been not only unsuccessful so far in practice but also,…

  • algebraic map (mathematics)

    celestial mechanics: Algebraic maps: In numerical calculations for conservative systems with modest values of n over long time spans, such as those seeking a determination of the stability of the solar system, the direct solution of the differential equations governing the motions requires excessive time on any…

  • algebraic notation (chess notation system)

    chess: Algebraic notation: Individual moves and entire games can be recorded using one of several forms of notation. By far the most widely used form, algebraic (or coordinate) notation, identifies each square from the point of view of the player with the light-coloured pieces, called White.…

  • algebraic number

    Algebraic number, real number for which there exists a polynomial equation with integer coefficients such that the given real number is a solution. Algebraic numbers include all of the natural numbers, all rational numbers, some irrational numbers, and complex numbers of the form pi + q, where p

  • Algebraic Oriented Language (computer language)

    ALGOL, computer programming language designed by an international committee of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM), led by Alan J. Perlis of Carnegie Mellon University, during 1958–60 for publishing algorithms, as well as for doing computations. Like LISP, ALGOL had recursive

  • algebraic quantity (mathematics)

    elementary algebra: Algebraic quantities: The principal distinguishing characteristic of algebra is the use of simple symbols to represent numerical quantities and mathematical operations. Following a system that originated with the 17th-century French thinker René Descartes, letters near the beginning of the alphabet (a, b, c,…) typically represent…

  • algebraic structure

    mathematics: Developments in pure mathematics: …axiom systems for the known algebraic structures, that for the theory of fields, for example, being developed by the German mathematician Ernst Steinitz in 1910. The theory of rings (structures in which it is possible to add, subtract, and multiply but not necessarily divide) was much harder to formalize. It…

  • algebraic surface

    Algebraic surface, in three-dimensional space, a surface the equation of which is f(x, y, z) = 0, with f(x, y, z) a polynomial in x, y, z. The order of the surface is the degree of the polynomial equation. If the surface is of the first order, it is a plane. If the surface is of order two, it is

  • algebraic topology (mathematics)

    Algebraic topology, Field of mathematics that uses algebraic structures to study transformations of geometric objects. It uses functions (often called maps in this context) to represent continuous transformations (see topology). Taken together, a set of maps and objects may form an algebraic group,

  • algebraic versus transcendental objects

    One important difference between the differential calculus of Pierre de Fermat and René Descartes and the full calculus of Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is the difference between algebraic and transcendental objects. The rules of differential calculus are complete in the world of

  • Algeciras (Spain)

    Algeciras, port city, Cádiz provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, in extreme southern Spain, across the Bay of Gibraltar from Gibraltar. The port, at the mouth of the Río de la Miel, was founded in 713 by Moors and is probably on the site of the Roman

  • Algeciras Conference (Moroccan-European history)

    Algeciras Conference, (Jan. 16–April 7, 1906), international conference of the great European powers and the United States, held at Algeciras, Spain, to discuss France’s relationship to the government of Morocco. The conference climaxed the First Moroccan Crisis (see Moroccan crises). Two years

  • Algeciras, Act of (1906)

    Algeciras Conference: …surface, nevertheless, the convention, the Act of Algeciras, signed on April 7, 1906, appeared to limit French penetration. It reaffirmed the independence of the sultan and the economic equality of the powers, and it provided that French and Spanish police officers be under a Swiss inspector general.

  • Algemeen Nederlands

    Dutch language: Standard Dutch (Standaardnederlands or Algemeen Nederlands) is used for public and official purposes, including instruction in schools and universities. A wide variety of local dialects are used in informal situations, such as among family, friends, and others from the same village (these exist in far…

  • Algenib (star)

    astronomical map: Star names and designations: …article “the”: Aldebaran (“the Follower”), Algenib (“the Side”), Alhague (“the Serpent Bearer”), and Algol (“the Demon”). A conspicuous exception is Albireo in Cygnus, possibly a corruption of the words ab ireo in the first Latin edition of the Almagest in 1515. Most star names are in fact Arabic and are…

  • Alger (national capital, Algeria)

    Algiers, capital and chief seaport of Algeria. It is the political, economic, and cultural centre of the country. Algiers is built on the slopes of the Sahel Hills, which parallel the Mediterranean Sea coast, and it extends for some 10 miles (16 km) along the Bay of Algiers. The city faces east and

  • Alger hero (fictional character)

    Horatio Alger: …famous and contribute the “Alger hero” to the American language. In a steady succession of books that are almost alike except for the names of their characters, he preached that by honesty, cheerful perseverance, and hard work, the poor but virtuous lad would have his just reward—though the reward…

  • Alger of Cluny (Flemish priest)

    Alger Of Liège, Flemish priest famed in his day for his learning and writings. Alger was first a deacon of the Church of Saint-Barthélemy at Liège and was appointed (c. 1100) to the cathedral church of St. Lambert. He declined many offers of posts from German bishops and retired to the Monastery o

  • Alger of Liège (Flemish priest)

    Alger Of Liège, Flemish priest famed in his day for his learning and writings. Alger was first a deacon of the Church of Saint-Barthélemy at Liège and was appointed (c. 1100) to the cathedral church of St. Lambert. He declined many offers of posts from German bishops and retired to the Monastery o

  • Alger, Horatio (American author)

    Horatio Alger, one of the most popular American authors in the last 30 years of the 19th century and perhaps the most socially influential American writer of his generation. Alger was the son of a Unitarian minister, Horatio Alger, Sr., who tutored him in reading from the age of six. The young

  • Alger, Horatio, Jr. (American author)

    Horatio Alger, one of the most popular American authors in the last 30 years of the 19th century and perhaps the most socially influential American writer of his generation. Alger was the son of a Unitarian minister, Horatio Alger, Sr., who tutored him in reading from the age of six. The young

  • Alger-Républicain (Algerian periodical)

    Albert Camus: Camus’s literary career: …apprenticeship as a journalist with Alger-Républicain in many capacities, including those of leader- (editorial-) writer, subeditor, political reporter, and book reviewer. He reviewed some of Jean-Paul Sartre’s early literary works and wrote an important series of articles analyzing social conditions among the Muslims of the Kabylie region. These articles, reprinted…

  • Algeria

    Algeria, large, predominantly Muslim country of North Africa. From the Mediterranean coast, along which most of its people live, Algeria extends southward deep into the heart of the Sahara, a forbidding desert where the Earth’s hottest surface temperatures have been recorded and which constitutes

  • Algeria, flag of

    vertically striped green-white national flag with a central red star and crescent. Its width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.When the regency of Algiers was invaded by the French in the early 19th century, Emir Abdelkader raised a resistance movement. He supposedly developed the flag design now used by

  • Algeria, history of

    Algeria: History: This discussion focuses on Algeria from the 19th century onward. For a treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa.

  • Algerian Basin (basin, Mediterranean Sea)

    Mediterranean Sea: Natural divisions: The Algerian (sometimes called the Algero-Provençal or Balearic) Basin, east of the Alborán Basin, is west of Sardinia and Corsica, extending from off the coast of Algeria to off the coast of France. These two basins together constitute the western basin. The Tyrrhenian Basin, that part…

  • Algerian cuisine (gastronomy)

    Algeria: Daily life and social customs: Algerian cuisine, like that of most North African countries, is heavily influenced by Arab, Amazigh, Turkish, and French culinary traditions. Couscous, a semolina-based pasta customarily served with a meat and vegetable stew, is the traditional staple. Although Western-style dishes, such as pizza and other fast…

  • Algerian literature

    Algeria: The arts: Algeria has produced many important writers. Some, such as the Nobel Prize winner Albert Camus and his contemporary Jean Sénac, were French, although their work was influenced by the many years they spent in Algeria. The writing of Henri Kréa reflects the two worlds he inhabited as the son of…

  • Algerian Manifesto (Algerian history)

    Algeria: World War II and the movement for independence: Algerian Manifesto in December 1942 for presentation to Allied as well as French authorities; it sought recognition of political autonomy for Algeria. General Charles de Gaulle declared a year later that France was under an obligation to the Muslims of North Africa because of the…

  • Algerian music

    Algeria: The arts: Various types of music are native to Algeria. One of the most popular, originating in the western part of the country, is raï (from Arabic raʾy, meaning “opinion” or “view”), which combines varying instrumentation with simple poetic lyrics. Both men and women are free to express themselves in…

  • Algerian Muslim Ulama, Association of (Muslim religious organization)

    Association of Algerian Muslim Ulama, a body of Muslim religious scholars (ʿulamāʾ) who, under French rule, advocated the restoration of an Algerian nation rooted in Islamic and Arabic traditions. The association, founded in 1931 and formally organized on May 5, 1935, by Sheikh ʿAbd al-Hamid ben

  • Algerian Popular Party (Algerian revolutionary movement)

    Ahmed Messali Hadj: …the Parti Populaire Algérien (PPA; Algerian Popular Party), which was suppressed only to reemerge in 1946 as the Mouvement pour le Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques (MTLD; Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties). His influence, however, declined dramatically in the postwar period. In 1954 he formed the Mouvement National Algérian…

  • Algerian Reformist Ulama, Association of (Muslim religious organization)

    Association of Algerian Muslim Ulama, a body of Muslim religious scholars (ʿulamāʾ) who, under French rule, advocated the restoration of an Algerian nation rooted in Islamic and Arabic traditions. The association, founded in 1931 and formally organized on May 5, 1935, by Sheikh ʿAbd al-Hamid ben

  • Algerian War

    Algerian War, (1954–62) war for Algerian independence from France. The movement for independence began during World War I (1914–18) and gained momentum after French promises of greater self-rule in Algeria went unfulfilled after World War II (1939–45). In 1954 the National Liberation Front (FLN)

  • Algerian War of Independence

    Algerian War, (1954–62) war for Algerian independence from France. The movement for independence began during World War I (1914–18) and gained momentum after French promises of greater self-rule in Algeria went unfulfilled after World War II (1939–45). In 1954 the National Liberation Front (FLN)

  • Algernon (fictional character)

    Algernon, fictional character, a witty man-about-town in Oscar Wilde’s play The Importance Of Being Earnest (1895). Algernon Moncrieff, known as Algy, is the nephew of Lady Bracknell. He pretends to be the brother of his friend Jack Worthing so that he may meet Cecily, Jack’s ward. Algernon invents

  • Algernon Moncrieff (fictional character)

    Algernon, fictional character, a witty man-about-town in Oscar Wilde’s play The Importance Of Being Earnest (1895). Algernon Moncrieff, known as Algy, is the nephew of Lady Bracknell. He pretends to be the brother of his friend Jack Worthing so that he may meet Cecily, Jack’s ward. Algernon invents

  • Algero-Provençal Basin (basin, Mediterranean Sea)

    Mediterranean Sea: Natural divisions: The Algerian (sometimes called the Algero-Provençal or Balearic) Basin, east of the Alborán Basin, is west of Sardinia and Corsica, extending from off the coast of Algeria to off the coast of France. These two basins together constitute the western basin. The Tyrrhenian Basin, that part…

  • Algerus Magister (Flemish priest)

    Alger Of Liège, Flemish priest famed in his day for his learning and writings. Alger was first a deacon of the Church of Saint-Barthélemy at Liège and was appointed (c. 1100) to the cathedral church of St. Lambert. He declined many offers of posts from German bishops and retired to the Monastery o

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