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  • Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau (university, Freiburg, Germany)

    Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, academically autonomous coeducational institution of higher learning at Freiburg im Breisgau, Ger., financially supported by the state of Baden-Württemberg. Founded in 1457 by Archduke Albrecht of Austria and confirmed by the Holy Roman emperor and the pope,

  • Alberta (province, Canada)

    Alberta, most westerly of Canada’s three Prairie Provinces, occupying the continental interior of the western part of the country. To the north the 60th parallel (latitude 60° N) forms its boundary with the Northwest Territories, to the east the 110th meridian (longitude 110° W) forms the boundary

  • Alberta Basin (depression, Alberta, Canada)

    Alberta Basin, large, petroleum-rich sedimentary basin along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in western Canada. It extends from British Columbia through Alberta and Saskatchewan into Manitoba. The basin was formed when the Earth’s crust sank along the continental side of the Rocky Mountains

  • Alberta Plain (region, Canada)

    Canada: The interior plains: …to 650 metres), and the Alberta plain, which is more than 2,500 feet (750 metres). These plains are rolling landscapes of glacial deposits laid over almost horizontal bedrock. In some areas the undulating plains are interspersed with ranges of low hills (glacial moraines) studded with kettle lakes and flat-bottomed, steep-banked…

  • Alberta, flag of (Canadian provincial flag)

    Canadian provincial flag consisting of a blue field (background) with the provincial coat of arms in the centre. The crest includes (from bottom to top) the typical wheat fields of the province, rough prairie land, foothills, and finally the Rocky Mountains under a blue sky. At the very top of the

  • Alberta, University of (university, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada)

    University of Alberta, Canadian public university in Edmonton. Opened in 1908, it is one of Canada’s five largest research universities. It offers undergraduate and graduate programs in liberal arts, agriculture and forestry, science and engineering, business, law, education, and the health

  • Alberti bass (music theory)

    Domenico Alberti: …arpeggiated, chords known as the Alberti bass.

  • Alberti del Guidice (Florentine banking family)

    Alberti Family, wealthy Florentine merchant banking family that was influential in European politics in the second half of the 14th century and notable for its patronage of the arts and beneficence toward the poor. The ascendancy of the Alberti family began with Niccolò di Iacopo di Alberti (d. 1

  • Alberti family (Florentine banking family)

    Alberti Family, wealthy Florentine merchant banking family that was influential in European politics in the second half of the 14th century and notable for its patronage of the arts and beneficence toward the poor. The ascendancy of the Alberti family began with Niccolò di Iacopo di Alberti (d. 1

  • Alberti, Antonio (Italian art patron)

    Alberti Family: …struggles against the Albizzi was Antonio (1358–1415), who was prior (1384) and a leading patron of the arts. He maintained the Villa del Paradiso as a centre for artists, writers, and intellectuals before being banished in 1401.

  • Alberti, Benedetto (Italian political leader)

    Alberti Family: 1388), the Alberti sought to check the steadily growing ascendancy of the rival Albizzi family. A Guelf leader, Benedetto encouraged and participated in a popular insurrection against the oligarchic Florentine government (July 1378). Although briefly successful, this attempt ultimately failed (1382); Benedetto was exiled several years later.

  • Alberti, Domenico (Italian composer)

    Domenico Alberti, Venetian composer whose harpsichord sonatas depend heavily on an accompaniment pattern of broken, or arpeggiated, chords known as the Alberti bass. Alberti studied under the composer Antonio Lotti and was known in Rome as a singer and harpsichordist. Although he probably did not

  • Alberti, Friedrich August von (German geologist)

    geochronology: Completion of the Phanerozoic time scale: Based on his earlier work, Friedrich August von Alberti identified in 1834 these three distinct lithostratigraphic units, the Bunter Sandstone, the Muschelkalk Limestone, and the Keuper Marls and Clays, as constituting the Trias or Triassic System.

  • Alberti, Guido (Italian philanthropist)
  • Alberti, Leon Battista (Italian architect and author)

    Leon Battista Alberti, Italian humanist, architect, and principal initiator of Renaissance art theory. In his personality, works, and breadth of learning, he is considered the prototype of the Renaissance “universal man.” The society and class into which Alberti was born endowed him with the

  • Alberti, Niccolò di Iacopo di (Florentine banker)

    Alberti Family: …the Alberti family began with Niccolò di Iacopo di Alberti (d. 1377), whose immense success at directing a branch of the family’s bank at Avignon, Fr., then the papal seat, enabled the Alberti to become the almost exclusive banker of the papacy (1362). As codirector of the company (from 1369)…

  • Alberti, Rafael (Spanish poet and playwright)

    Rafael Alberti, Spanish writer of Italian Irish ancestry, regarded as one of the major Spanish poets of the 20th century. Alberti studied art in Madrid and enjoyed some success as a painter before 1923, when he began writing and publishing poems in magazines. His first book of poetry, Marinero en

  • Albertina Graphics Collection (museum, Vienna, Austria)

    Albertina Graphics Collection, compilation of graphic arts in the Hofburg, or Imperial Palace, of Vienna, Austria. It is important for its comprehensive collection of prints, drawings, sketchbooks, and miniatures assembled in the 18th century by Albert Kasimir, Duke of Saxe-Teschen, and cataloged

  • Albertine (fictional character)

    Albertine, fictional character, the mistress of Marcel, narrator of À la recherche du temps perdu (1913–27; Remembrance of Things Past, or In Search of Lost Time) by Marcel Proust. She appears in several volumes of the seven-part novel, notably À l’ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs (1919; Within a

  • Albertine duchies (historical region, Germany)

    Wettin Dynasty: …Wettin dynasty into Ernestine and Albertine lines in 1485. The Albertines secured the electorate of Saxony from the Ernestines in 1547. The Ernestines retained thereafter some less important possessions in Thuringia which they constantly subdivided between themselves. Their possessions became known as the Saxon duchies and included Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Eisenach,…

  • Albertine Simonet (fictional character)

    Albertine, fictional character, the mistress of Marcel, narrator of À la recherche du temps perdu (1913–27; Remembrance of Things Past, or In Search of Lost Time) by Marcel Proust. She appears in several volumes of the seven-part novel, notably À l’ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs (1919; Within a

  • Albertinelli di Biagio di Bindo, Mariotto (Italian painter)

    Mariotto Albertinelli, painter associated with Fra Bartolommeo, and an artist whose style upheld the principles of the High Renaissance in Florence a decade after its leading exponents had moved to Rome. Albertinelli and Fra Bartolommeo were fellow pupils of Cosimo Rosselli and later painted many

  • Albertinelli, Mariotto (Italian painter)

    Mariotto Albertinelli, painter associated with Fra Bartolommeo, and an artist whose style upheld the principles of the High Renaissance in Florence a decade after its leading exponents had moved to Rome. Albertinelli and Fra Bartolommeo were fellow pupils of Cosimo Rosselli and later painted many

  • Albertini, Luigi (Italian journalist)

    Luigi Albertini, Italian journalist, an early and outspoken opponent of Fascism, who made the Corriere della Sera (in Milan) one of the most respected and widely read daily newspapers in Europe. As a young man, Albertini lived in London, where he investigated labour conditions and studied the

  • Albertinum (museum, Dresden, Germany)

    Albertinum, museum in Dresden, Ger., displaying fine art and national treasures. It is one of several institutions associated with the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden. The Albertinum, named for King Albert of Saxony, was built on the foundations of a former armoury by Karl Adolf Canzler, who

  • Alberto de Churriguera (Spanish architect)

    Salamanca: …Plaza Mayor (1729–33; designed by Alberto Churriguera and completed by Andrés García de Quiñones), which was originally intended to serve on occasion as a bullring and which has a surrounding arcade ornamented on two sides with medallions of the kings of Spain and General Franco. There also is the Town…

  • Alberto de Morra (pope)

    Gregory VIII, pope from Oct. 21 to Dec. 17, 1187. A Cistercian of noble birth, he was appointed cardinal (1155–56) by Pope Adrian IV before being elected (October 21) at Ferrara, Romagna, to succeed Pope Urban III. Elected with imperial support, he began reforms in the Curia and for the clergy as a

  • Alberto J. Armando Stadium (stadium, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Boca Juniors: …Cichero Stadium, which was renamed Alberto J. Armando Stadium in 2000 in honour of a former club president. Fans know it as La Bombonera (“the Chocolate Box”) because of its unusual structure, with curving, steeply banked stands on three sides and one underdeveloped stand on the final side. The ground…

  • Albertosaurus (dinosaur genus)

    Albertosaurus, (genus Albertosaurus), large carnivorous dinosaurs of the Late Cretaceous Period (99.6 million to 65.5 million years ago) found as fossils in North America and eastern Asia. Albertosaurs are an early subgroup of tyrannosaurs, which appear to have evolved from them. In structure and

  • Alberts, Bruce (American scientist)

    Bruce Alberts, American biochemist best known for having served as president of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) from 1993 to 2005. Alberts developed an early interest in science, reading about chemistry and conducting experiments while growing up near Chicago. He earned a bachelor’s degree

  • Alberts, Bruce Michael (American scientist)

    Bruce Alberts, American biochemist best known for having served as president of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) from 1993 to 2005. Alberts developed an early interest in science, reading about chemistry and conducting experiments while growing up near Chicago. He earned a bachelor’s degree

  • Albertson, Harold (American actor)

    Jack Albertson, American stage, television, and movie actor who was noted for his work in the Broadway plays The Subject Was Roses (1964–66) and The Sunshine Boys (1972–74) and the television series Chico and the Man (1974–78). Born into poverty, Albertson earned a living as a pool hustler and

  • Albertson, Jack (American actor)

    Jack Albertson, American stage, television, and movie actor who was noted for his work in the Broadway plays The Subject Was Roses (1964–66) and The Sunshine Boys (1972–74) and the television series Chico and the Man (1974–78). Born into poverty, Albertson earned a living as a pool hustler and

  • Albertus (poem by Gautier)

    Théophile Gautier: Albertus, a long narrative about a young painter who falls into the hands of a sorcerer, was published in 1832. At this time he turned from the doctrines of Romanticism and became an advocate of art for art’s sake. The preface to Albertus and the…

  • Albertus Magnus, St. (German theologian, scientist, and philosopher)

    St. Albertus Magnus, ; canonized December 16, 1931; feast day November 15), Dominican bishop and philosopher best known as a teacher of St. Thomas Aquinas and as a proponent of Aristotelianism at the University of Paris. He established the study of nature as a legitimate science within the

  • Albertus VII (archduke of Austria)

    Albert VII, cardinal archduke of Austria who as governor and sovereign prince of the Low Countries (1598–1621) ruled the Spanish Netherlands jointly with his wife, Isabella, infanta of Spain. The son of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian II and Maria, daughter of Charles V, Albert was educated for

  • Albertus-Universität zu Königsberg (historical university, Prussia)

    Albertus University of Königsberg, institution of higher learning founded in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia), in 1544 by Albert, the first duke of Prussia. At first drawing its enrollment mainly from Prussia, Poland, and Lithuania, the Protestant-affiliated university after the Thirty

  • Albertville (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Kalemi, town, southeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, central Africa. It is a port on the west bank of Lake Tanganyika where the Lukuga River exits, and it has an airport and rail links to Lubumbashi and Kananga. In 1915 Kalemi, then the site of a British-Belgian military base, was chosen as

  • Albertville 1992 Olympic Winter Games

    Albertville 1992 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Albertville, France, that took place February 8–23, 1992. The Albertville Games were the 16th occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. The 1992 Games are noted for not only a change in the modern Olympics but a change in the world as

  • Albery family (British family)

    Albery family, British family of theatre managers and playwrights whose members helped build the London theatre into a prime tourist attraction. James Albery (b. 1838—d. 1889) was a dramatist whose work included Dr. Davy, produced at the Lyceum (1866), and Two Roses, produced at the Vaudeville

  • Albery, James (British dramatist)

    Albery family: James Albery (b. 1838—d. 1889) was a dramatist whose work included Dr. Davy, produced at the Lyceum (1866), and Two Roses, produced at the Vaudeville (1870). Albery’s wife was actress Mary Moore (b. 1861—d. 1931), who after his death became Lady Wyndham when she married…

  • Albery, Sir Bronson James (British theatrical manager)

    Albery family: …Wyndham, Bronson Albery (in full Sir Bronson James Albery, b. March 6, 1881, Greenhithe, Kent, Eng.—d. July 21, 1971, London), the second son of Mary Moore and James Albery, assumed joint control of the family theatres with Charles Wyndham’s son, Howard. Previously, Bronson earned renown for his productions of The…

  • Albery, Sir Donald Arthur Rolleston (British producer)

    Albery family: …his son, Donald (in full Sir Donald Arthur Rolleston Albery, b. June 19, 1914, London, Eng.—d. Sept. 14, 1988, Monte Carlo, Monaco), whose producing debut was with Graham Greene’s The Living Room (1953). It was followed by two decades of hits, including Waiting for Godot (1955); The Rose Tattoo, A…

  • Albeşti (Romania)

    Argeș: …natural monument, are located near Albești. The road between Pitești and Câmpulung was a former Roman-Dacian route. Most of the county’s railway lines and highways parallel river courses. Area 2,636 square miles (6,826 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) 644,236.

  • Albi (France)

    Albi, city, capital of Tarn département, Occitanie région, in the Languedoc, southern France. It lies along the Tarn River where the latter leaves the Massif Central for the Garonne Plain, northeast of Toulouse. Albi, or Albiga, was the capital of the Gallo-Roman Albigenses and later of the

  • Albian Stage (stratigraphy)

    Albian Stage, uppermost of six main divisions of the Lower Cretaceous Series, representing rocks deposited worldwide during the Albian Age, which occurred between 113 million and 100.5 million years ago during the Cretaceous Period. Albian rocks overlie rocks of the Aptian Stage and underlie rocks

  • albicore (fish)

    Albacore, (species Thunnus alalunga), large oceanic fish noted for its fine flesh. The bluefin tuna (T. thynnus) is also sometimes called albacore. See

  • Albida acacia (tree)

    Africa: Botanical resources: The Albida acacia tree of the “farmed parkland” areas of western Africa is of special economic importance. Unlike almost all other dry woodland trees, whose leaf shedding normally occurs at the onset of the dry season, the Albida appears to have a period of partial dormancy…

  • Albiev, Islam-Beka (Russian wrestler)

    Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: Key Events from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: August 13:

  • Albigenser, Die (work by Lenau)

    Nikolaus Lenau: …religious epics Savonarola (1837) and Die Albigenser (1842; “The Albigensians”), deal with his relentless and unsuccessful search for order and constancy in love, nature, and faith. Following Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s death in 1832, the appearance in 1833 of the second part of his Faust inspired many renditions of the…

  • Albigenses (French religious movement)

    Albigenses, the heretics—especially the Catharist heretics—of 12th–13th-century southern France. (See Cathari.) The name, apparently given to them at the end of the 12th century, is hardly exact, for the movement centred at Toulouse and in nearby districts rather than at Albi (ancient Albiga). The

  • Albigensian Crusade (French religious history)

    Albigensian Crusade, Crusade (1209–29) called by Pope Innocent III against the Cathari, a dualist religious movement in southern France that the Roman Catholic Church had branded heretical. The war pitted the nobility of staunchly Catholic northern France against that of the south, where the

  • Albigensians (French religious movement)

    Albigenses, the heretics—especially the Catharist heretics—of 12th–13th-century southern France. (See Cathari.) The name, apparently given to them at the end of the 12th century, is hardly exact, for the movement centred at Toulouse and in nearby districts rather than at Albi (ancient Albiga). The

  • Albiker, Karl (sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Conservative reaction (1920s): …vacuous figures of Arno Breker, Karl Albiker, and Ernesto de Fiori were simply variations on a studio theme in praise of youth and body culture. In the United States adherents of the countermovement included William Zorach, Chaim Gross, Adolph Block, Paul Manship, and Wheeler Williams.

  • Albini, Steve (American musician and producer)

    PJ Harvey: Under the engineering supervision of Steve Albini (whose reputation as a sonic extremist was based on his own bands, Big Black and Shellac, and on his production of groups such as the Pixies and Nirvana), they recorded Harvey’s most challenging album, Rid of Me (1993); a softer version of some…

  • albinism (genetic condition)

    Albinism, (from the Latin albus, meaning “white”), hereditary condition characterized by the absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, hair, scales, or feathers. Albino animals rarely survive in the wild because they lack the pigments that normally provide protective coloration and screen against the

  • Albino (horse)

    Albino, colour type of horse, characterized by pink skin and a pure white coat. Unlike some other colour types, which develop as the horse matures, the Albino is born white and remains white throughout life. Albinos conform to riding horse type. They are not true biological albinos, however, as

  • Albinoni, Tomaso Giovanni (Italian composer)

    Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni, Italian composer remembered chiefly for his instrumental music. The son of a wealthy paper merchant, Albinoni enjoyed independent means. Although he was a fully trained musician, he considered himself an amateur. Little is known of his life, except for the production of at

  • Albinovanus Pedo (Roman poet)

    Albinovanus Pedo, Roman poet who wrote a Theseid, referred to by his friend the poet Ovid (Epistles from Pontus); epigrams that are commended by the Latin poet Martial; and an epic poem on the military exploits of the Roman general Germanicus Caesar, the emperor Tiberius’ adopted son, under whom

  • Albintimilium (ancient town, Italy)

    Ventimiglia: …is the ruined Roman town Albium Intemelium, or Albintimilium, with the remains of a theatre. Ventimiglia’s town hall houses a collection of Roman antiquities. Ventimiglia was the seat of a county from the 10th century and later of a commune that fell under Genoese domination. Its medieval quarter contains the…

  • Albinus (Greek philosopher)

    Albinus, Greek philosopher, a pupil of Gaius and a teacher of Galen, and a forerunner of Neoplatonism. Albinus integrated the ideas of various schools of philosophy in order to shed light on the Platonic system of thought. One of his major works, the Epitome, is an analysis of Plato’s philosophy,

  • Albinus, Bernard Siegfried (German anatomist)

    Bernard Siegfried Albinus, German anatomist who was the first to show the connection of the vascular systems of the mother and the fetus. From 1721 until his death, Albinus occupied the chair of anatomy, surgery, and medicine at the University of Leiden. He is best known for the magnificent

  • Albinus, Decimus Clodius Septimius (Roman general)

    Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus, Roman general, a candidate for the imperial title in the years 193–197. He represented the aristocracy of the Latin-speaking West, in contrast to Pescennius Niger, candidate of the Greek-speaking East, and to Lucius Septimius Severus, candidate of the army and of

  • Albinus, Decimus Junius Brutus (Roman general)

    Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, Roman general who participated in the assassination of the dictator Julius Caesar, though he had been Caesar’s protégé. After serving under Caesar in Gaul, Brutus was given command of Caesar’s fleet. In 49, during the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, he led a

  • Albion (island, Europe)

    Albion, the earliest-known name for the island of Britain. It was used by ancient Greek geographers from the 4th century bc and even earlier, who distinguished “Albion” from Ierne (Ireland) and from smaller members of the British Isles. The Greeks and Romans probably received the name from the

  • Albion (poem by Saint-Amant)

    Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant: …is seen, for example, in Albion (1643). This mock-heroic poem contains a disenchanted account of a visit to England and includes an informative description of the London theatres. His Rome ridicule (1649) started the fashion for burlesque poems that was to be developed later by Paul Scarron. Saint-Amant was a…

  • Albion College (college, Albion, Michigan, United States)

    Albion College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning located in Albion, Michigan, U.S., 20 miles (30 km) west of Jackson. Albion College, affiliated with the United Methodist Church, is a liberal arts college offering bachelor’s degrees in the humanities, business, social sciences,

  • Albion Female Collegiate Institute (college, Albion, Michigan, United States)

    Albion College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning located in Albion, Michigan, U.S., 20 miles (30 km) west of Jackson. Albion College, affiliated with the United Methodist Church, is a liberal arts college offering bachelor’s degrees in the humanities, business, social sciences,

  • Albireo (star)

    astronomical map: Star names and designations: A conspicuous exception is Albireo in Cygnus, possibly a corruption of the words ab ireo in the first Latin edition of the Almagest in 1515. Most star names are in fact Arabic and are frequently derived from translations of the Greek descriptions. The stars of Orion illustrate the various…

  • Albishir (emir of Yauri kingdom)

    Yauri: About 1810 King Albishir (Mohammadu dan Ayi), the Hausa ruler of Yauri, pledged allegiance to the emir of Gwandu, the Fulani empire’s overlord of the western emirates, and became the first emir of Yauri.

  • albite (mineral)

    Albite, common feldspar mineral, a sodium aluminosilicate (NaAlSi3O8) that occurs most widely in pegmatites and felsic igneous rocks such as granites. It may also be found in low-grade metamorphic rocks and as authigenic albite in certain sedimentary varieties. Albite usually forms brittle, glassy

  • albite twin (crystallography)

    feldspar: Crystal structure: …twinning—those designated Carlsbad twinning and albite twinning—are shown in the figure. Carlsbad twinning occurs in both monoclinic and triclinic feldspars; albite twinning occurs only in triclinic feldspars. Albite twinning, which is typically polysynthetic (i.e., multiple or repeated), can be observed as a set of parallel lines on certain crystal or…

  • albite-epidote-hornfels facies (geology)

    metamorphic rock: Albite-epidote-hornfels facies: Rocks of the albite-epidote-hornfels facies are characteristically found as the outer zones of contact aureoles where the thermal episode fades out and the rocks pass into their regional grade of metamorphism. The mineral assemblages are quite similar to those found in regional greenschist-facies…

  • Albium Intemelium (ancient town, Italy)

    Ventimiglia: …is the ruined Roman town Albium Intemelium, or Albintimilium, with the remains of a theatre. Ventimiglia’s town hall houses a collection of Roman antiquities. Ventimiglia was the seat of a county from the 10th century and later of a commune that fell under Genoese domination. Its medieval quarter contains the…

  • albizia (plant)

    Albizia, (genus Albizia), genus of trees or shrubs in the pea family (Fabaceae). The genus is pantropical, though most species are native to warm regions of the Old World. The plants are widely used for fodder and timber, and many are important in traditional medicine. Several species are grown as

  • Albizia (plant)

    Albizia, (genus Albizia), genus of trees or shrubs in the pea family (Fabaceae). The genus is pantropical, though most species are native to warm regions of the Old World. The plants are widely used for fodder and timber, and many are important in traditional medicine. Several species are grown as

  • Albizia julibrissin (plant species)

    albizia: Silk tree, or powderpuff tree (Albizia julibrissin), native to Asia and the Middle East, grows to about 9 metres (30 feet) tall, has a broad spreading crown, and bears flat pods about 12 cm (5 inches) long. Indian albizia, or siris (A. lebbek), native to…

  • Albizia julibrizzin (plant species)

    albizia: Silk tree, or powderpuff tree (Albizia julibrissin), native to Asia and the Middle East, grows to about 9 metres (30 feet) tall, has a broad spreading crown, and bears flat pods about 12 cm (5 inches) long. Indian albizia, or siris (A. lebbek), native to…

  • Albizia lebbek (plant species)

    albizia: Indian albizia, or siris (A. lebbek), native to tropical Asia and Australia, grows about 24 metres tall and bears pods 23–30 cm long. Both species are common ornamental trees.

  • Albizia lophantha (plant)
  • Albizu Campos, Pedro (Puerto Rican attorney, social activist, and nationalist)

    Pedro Albizu Campos, Puerto Rican attorney, social activist, and nationalist. Albizu Campos was the son of a mixed-race mother who was the daughter of slaves and a Basque father from a farming and landowning family. The latter not only provided no financial support but also did not legally

  • Albizzi family (Italian family)

    Alberti Family: …growing ascendancy of the rival Albizzi family. A Guelf leader, Benedetto encouraged and participated in a popular insurrection against the oligarchic Florentine government (July 1378). Although briefly successful, this attempt ultimately failed (1382); Benedetto was exiled several years later.

  • Albo, Joseph (Spanish philosopher)

    Joseph Albo, Jewish philosopher and theologian of Spain who is noted for his classic work of Jewish dogmatics, Sefer ha-ʿiqqarim (1485; “Book of Principles”). Little is known of Albo’s life. He is known to have participated in the Disputation of Tortosa (1413–14), a definitive confrontation between

  • Alboacen (Naṣrid ruler)

    Naṣrid dynasty: Then, when the Naṣrid ruler Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī (1466–85) introduced a succession struggle at home, while externally antagonizing Castile by refusing to pay tribute, Naṣrid rule was finally ended by the Christian conquest of Granada (1492).

  • Alboin (king of Lombardy)

    Alboin, king of the Germanic Lombards whose exceptional military and political skills enabled him to conquer northern Italy. When Alboin succeeded his father, Audoin, about 565, the Lombards occupied Noricum and Pannonia (now in Austria and western Hungary), while their long-standing enemies the

  • alboka (musical instrument)

    Hornpipe, name of a wind instrument and of several dances supposedly performed to it. The instrument is a single-reed pipe with a cowhorn bell (sometimes two parallel pipes with a common bell) and is often converted into a bagpipe. Known since antiquity, it is today played in Basque Spain (where it

  • Alboni, Maria Anna Marzia (Italian opera singer)

    Marietta Alboni, Italian operatic contralto known for her classic Italian bel canto. Alboni’s year of birth is uncertain. Many sources give 1826, whereas others list 1823 or 1822. One of her early biographers states that she herself gave her age as 30 when she arrived in the United States on tour

  • Alboni, Marietta (Italian opera singer)

    Marietta Alboni, Italian operatic contralto known for her classic Italian bel canto. Alboni’s year of birth is uncertain. Many sources give 1826, whereas others list 1823 or 1822. One of her early biographers states that she herself gave her age as 30 when she arrived in the United States on tour

  • Alborán Basin (basin, Mediterranean Sea)

    Mediterranean Sea: Natural divisions: The Alborán Basin is east of Gibraltar, between the coasts of Spain and Morocco. The Algerian (sometimes called the Algero-Provençal or Balearic) Basin, east of the Alborán Basin, is west of Sardinia and Corsica, extending from off the coast of Algeria to off the coast of…

  • Alborán Island (island, Spain)

    Alborán Island, islet, belonging to Spain, in the western Mediterranean Sea. About 2 miles (3 km) long, Alborán lies roughly midway between Spain to the north and Morocco to the south. It is a station on the Almeria-Melilla undersea cable and is uninhabited except for lighthouse keepers. Alborán is

  • Alborán, Isla de (island, Spain)

    Alborán Island, islet, belonging to Spain, in the western Mediterranean Sea. About 2 miles (3 km) long, Alborán lies roughly midway between Spain to the north and Morocco to the south. It is a station on the Almeria-Melilla undersea cable and is uninhabited except for lighthouse keepers. Alborán is

  • Alboreto, Michele (Italian race-car driver)

    Michele Alboreto, Italian race-car driver (born Dec. 23, 1956, Milan, Italy—died April 25, 2001, Klettwitz, Ger.), was one of Italy’s most popular and successful Formula One (F1) drivers in the early 1980s. After being the European Formula Three champion in 1980, Alboreto won five F1 Grand Prix r

  • Ålborg (Denmark)

    Ålborg, city and port, northern Jutland, Denmark, on the south side of Limfjorden. Ålborg has existed since about ad 1000 and is one of the oldest towns in Denmark. Chartered in 1342, it became a bishop’s see in 1554. The town recovered slowly from the Count’s War (a religious civil war, 1533–36)

  • Ålborg akvavit (distilled liquor)

    aquavit: …best known Danish types is Ålborg akvavit, named for a small town in Jutland, on Denmark’s northern coast. The only brand exported from Denmark, it is produced by Danish Distilleries, a private organization granted the sole right to produce alcohol and yeast since 1927 under a monopoly of the Danish…

  • Albornoz, Gil Álvarez Carrillo de (Spanish cardinal)

    Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz, Spanish cardinal and jurist who paved the way for the papacy’s return to Italy from Avignon, France (where the popes lived from about 1309 to 1377). Albornoz was first a soldier, then entered the church and became archbishop of Toledo in 1338. He supported the

  • Alborz Mountains (mountain range, Iran)

    Elburz Mountains, major mountain range in northern Iran, 560 miles (900 km) long. The range, most broadly defined, extends in an arc eastward from the frontier with Azerbaijan southwest of the Caspian Sea to the Khorāsān region of northeastern Iran, southeast of the Caspian Sea, where the range

  • Albourz Mountains (mountain range, Iran)

    Elburz Mountains, major mountain range in northern Iran, 560 miles (900 km) long. The range, most broadly defined, extends in an arc eastward from the frontier with Azerbaijan southwest of the Caspian Sea to the Khorāsān region of northeastern Iran, southeast of the Caspian Sea, where the range

  • Albrecht der Bär (margrave of Brandenburg)

    Albert I, the first margrave of Brandenburg and founder of the Ascanian dynasties. He was one of the main leaders of 12th-century German expansion into eastern Europe. In 1123 Albert inherited Saxon estates between the Harz Mountains and the middle reaches of the Elbe River from his father, Otto

  • Albrecht der Beherzte (duke of Saxony)

    Albert III, duke of Saxony, founder of the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin, and marshal of the Holy Roman Empire. Albert was the son of Frederick II, elector of Saxony. When he was 12 years of age, he and his brother Ernest were abducted by their father’s enemy, the Saxon noble Kunz von

  • Albrecht Dürer (work by Panofsky)

    Erwin Panofsky: …da Vinci’s Art Theory (1940); Albrecht Dürer, 2 vol. (1943; later published as The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer [1955]); Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St.-Denis and Its Art Treasures (1946); Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism (1951); Early Netherlandish Painting, 2 vol. (1953); Meaning in the Visual Arts…

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