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  • ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kay-Qubādh II (Seljuq ruler)

    Anatolia: Division and decline: …IV (1248–65) and ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kay-Qubādh II (1249–57) were installed east of the Kızıl. From this point onward the Seljuq sultans were essentially figureheads, while real power remained in the hands of administrators such as Shams al-Dīn Iṣfahānī (1246–49), Jalāl al-Dīn Qaraṭāy (1249–54), and especially Muʿīn al-Dīn Sulaymān Parvāna (1261–77).

  • ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kay-Qubādh III (Seljuq ruler)

    Anatolia: Division and decline: …is recorded that ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kay-Qubādh III (1298–1303) was put to death by order of Ghazan, the Mongol khan, the fate of his son Ghiyās̄ al-Dīn Masʿūd III, who assumed the rule in 1307, is obscure. Though some sources mention the existence of Seljuq scions in later years in various…

  • ʿAlāʾ al-Dawlah (Persian ruler)

    Avicenna: Life and education: At Eṣfahān, under ʿAlā al-Dawlah, he found the stability and security that had eluded him. If Avicenna could be said to have had any halcyon days, they occurred during his time at Eṣfahān, where he was insulated from political intrigues and could hold his own scholars’ court every…

  • ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn (fictional hero)

    Aladdin, hero of one of the best-known stories in The Thousand and One Nights. The son of a deceased Chinese tailor and his poor widow, Aladdin is a lazy, careless boy who meets an African magician claiming to be his uncle. The magician brings Aladdin to the mouth of a cave and bids him enter and

  • ʿAlāʾ al-Din Husayn (Afghani ruler)

    Ghūrid sultanate: Its founder was ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḥusayn.

  • ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad (Khwārezm-Shāh ruler)

    Khwārezm-Shāh Dynasty: ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Muḥammad (reigned 1200–20), the penultimate Khwārezm-Shāh, created a short-lived empire that stretched from the borders of India to those of Anatolia. The empire did not endure, however; the Mongol army of Genghis Khan conquered Transoxania in 1220. The last Khwārezm-Shāh, Jalāl ad-Dīn Mingburnu…

  • ʿAlāʾ al-Din Tekish (Khwārezm-Shah ruler)

    Iraq: The later ʿAbbāsids (1152–1258): …was killed by the Khwārezm-Shah ʿAlāʾ al-Din Tekish (1172–1200), the ruler of the province lying along the lower course of the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) in Central Asia. When Tekish insisted on greater formal recognition from the caliph a few years later, al-Nāṣir refused, and inconclusive fighting broke out…

  • ʿAlāʾ od-Dīn ʿAṭā Malek Joveynī (Persian historian)

    ʿAṭā Malek Joveynī, Persian historian. Joveynī was the first of several brilliant representatives of Persian historiography who flourished during the period of Mongol domination in Iran (1220–1336). Born into a well-known and highly respected family of governors and civil servants, Joveynī gained

  • ʿAlāʾ-ud-Dīn Aḥmad II (Bahmanī ruler)

    India: External and internal rivalries: …the new sultan, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Aḥmad II (reigned 1436–58). Even though Aḥmad II had to face a rebellion by one of his brothers, a precedent was set for a rule of primogeniture, which seemed to alleviate the problem of succession disputes for the rest of the century. Unfortunately for later…

  • ʿAlāʾ-ud-Dīn Ḥusayn (Afghani ruler)

    Ghūrid sultanate: Its founder was ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḥusayn.

  • alb (liturgical vestment)

    Alb, liturgical vestment worn in some services by Roman Catholic officiants, some Anglicans, and some Lutherans. A symbol of purity, it is a full-length, long-sleeved, usually white linen tunic secured at the waist by a cord or belt called a cincture. The equivalent vestment in the Eastern

  • Alba (historical kingdom, Scotland)

    Alba, the kingdom formed by the union of the Picts and Scots under Kenneth I MacAlpin in 843. Their territory, ranging from modern Argyll and Bute to Caithness, across much of southern and central Scotland, was one of the few areas in the British Isles to withstand the invasions of the Vikings.

  • alba (music)

    Alba, (Provençal: “dawn”) in the music of the troubadours, the 11th- and 12th-century poet-musicians of southern France, a song of lament for lovers parting at dawn or of a watchman’s warning to lovers at dawn. A song of the latter type sometimes takes the form of a dialogue between a watchman and

  • Alba (county, Romania)

    Alba, judeƫ (county), western Romania, occupying an area of 2,410 square miles (6,242 square km). The Western Carpathians rise above the settled areas in intermontane valleys. The county is drained westward by the Mureş River and its tributaries. Neolithic artifacts have been found at Alba Iulia

  • Alba (Italy)

    Alba, town, Piedmont regione, northwestern Italy, lying along the Tanaro River southeast of Turin. It occupies the site of the Roman Alba Pompeia, which was probably founded by Pompeius Strabo (consul, 89 bce) when he constructed the road from Aquae Statiellae (Acqui Terme) to Augusta Taurinorum

  • ALBA (international organization)

    Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA), regional bloc, organized in 2004, that aims for social, political, and economic integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. ALBA, which means “dawn” in Spanish, was conceived by Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chávez and was created by Venezuela

  • ALBA (Bahraini company)

    Bahrain: Economy: The government-owned Aluminum Bahrain B.S.C. (Alba), one of the world’s largest aluminum smelters, and Bapco have been profitable, but this has provided less incentive for privatization. Bahrain has remained the most important commercial and financial centre in the gulf, although it has faced growing competition from the…

  • Alba Fucens (historical city, Italy)

    Alba Fucens, ancient fortified hilltop town of the Aequi in central Italy. It was settled by Rome as a Latin colony in 303 bc and was important for its domination of the Via Valeria, which linked Rome with the Adriatic Sea. Alba Fucens was situated on a hill with three distinct summits, all of

  • Alba Iulia (Romania)

    Alba Iulia, city, capital of Alba judeƫ (county), west-central Romania. It lies along the Mureş River, 170 miles (270 km) northwest of Bucharest. One of the oldest settlements in Romania, the site was selected by the Romans for a military camp. The remains of Apulum, an important city in Roman

  • Alba Longa (ancient city, Italy)

    Alba Longa, ancient city of Latium, Italy, in the Alban Hills about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Rome, near present Castel Gandolfo. Tradition attributes its founding (c. 1152 bc) to Ascanius, the son of the legendary Aeneas, thus making it, according to legend at least, the oldest Latin city,

  • Alba Regia (Hungary)

    Székesfehérvár, city with county status and seat of Fejér megye (county), west-central Hungary. One of the oldest cities in Hungary, it is located on the northeastern fringe of the Bakony Mountains, southwest of Budapest. A Roman settlement, Herculea, superseded an earlier Celtic village on the

  • Alba, Duke of (Spanish soldier and statesman)

    Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3er duque de Alba, Spanish soldier and statesman famous for his conquest of Portugal (1580) and notorious for his tyranny as governor-general of the Netherlands (1567–73). In the Netherlands he instituted the Council of Troubles (nicknamed the Council of

  • Alba, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3er duque de (Spanish soldier and statesman)

    Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3er duque de Alba, Spanish soldier and statesman famous for his conquest of Portugal (1580) and notorious for his tyranny as governor-general of the Netherlands (1567–73). In the Netherlands he instituted the Council of Troubles (nicknamed the Council of

  • ALBA-Caribe Fund

    PetroCaribe: …component of PetroCaribe is the ALBA-Caribe Fund, which is available to member countries to be used for social programs and development projects such as the construction of refineries and power plants and the development of alternative sources of energy.

  • Albacete (province, Spain)

    Albacete, provincia (province) in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Castile–La Mancha, southeast-central Spain. It occupies the southeastern end of the Meseta Central (plateau). Albacete is the driest interior province of the Iberian Peninsula, with about 14 inches (350 mm) average

  • Albacete (Spain)

    Albacete, city, capital of Albacete provincia (province), in the Castile-La Mancha comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southeast-central Spain. Albacete is located in the historic La Mancha region, on the Don Juan River at its juncture with the María Cristina Canal. Of Moorish origin

  • Albach-Retty, Rosemarie (German actress)

    Romy Schneider, German motion-picture actress. The popular Sissi series of movies about the Austro-Hungarian royal family brought the daughter of actor Wolf Albach-Retty and 1930s film star Magda Schneider popular recognition throughout the German-speaking world in the 1950s as Elizabeth of

  • albacore (fish)

    Albacore, (species Thunnus alalunga), large oceanic fish noted for its fine flesh. The bluefin tuna (T. thynnus) is also sometimes called albacore. See

  • Albae Vigiliae (periodical)

    Károly Kerényi: …mythology, and founded the periodical Albae Vigiliae to disseminate anthropological studies. His many works on classical mythology include Die antike Religion (1940; “Ancient Religion”) and Die Mythologie der Griechen (1951; “Mythology of the Greeks”).

  • Albaicín (quarter, Granada, Spain)

    Granada: …of the city is the Albaicín (Albayzin) quarter, the oldest section of Granada, with its narrow cobbled streets and cármenes (Moorish-style houses). Albaicín is bounded to the south by the Darro River, and on the other side of the river is the hill upon which stands the famous Moorish palace…

  • Albalag, Isaac (European Jewish philosopher)

    Isaac Albalag, Jewish philosopher who rendered a Hebrew translation of parts of the Maqāṣid al-falāsifah (“Aims of the Philosophers”), a review of doctrines of earlier thinkers by the Arabic philosopher al-Ghazālī, to which Albalag added his own views and comments. In defending philosophy against

  • Alban Hills (hills, Italy)

    Alban Hills, volcanic area in the Lazio (Latium) regione (region) of central Italy, southeast of Rome. The hills consist of an outer circle, 6–8 miles (10–13 km) in diameter, rising to 3,113 feet (949 metres) at Mount Cavo, and an inner crater rim, about 1.5 miles (2 km) across, rising to 3,136

  • Alban, Saint (British martyr)

    Saint Alban, ; feast day June 22), first British martyr. According to the historian Bede, he served in the Roman army and was converted to Christianity by a fugitive priest whom he sheltered and with whom he exchanged clothes, so that he was martyred in the priest’s place (c. 304; other dates

  • Albán, Vicente (artist)

    Latin American art: Latin American themes: …in Quito in 1783, when Vicente Albán created idealized portraits of indigenous and Latin American-born Spanish people in their typical costume. In his set of six paintings titled Fruits of Ecuador, both people and fruits are labeled. Similarly, about 1790–1800 an anonymous artist from Bolivia rendered pairs of different ethnic…

  • Albanerpetodonidae (fossil amphibian family)

    amphibian: Annotated classification: Batrachia †Family Albanerpetodonidae (albanerpetodontids) Middle Jurassic to Lower Miocene. A peg and socket syphyseal articulation of the mandible. 1 genus and several species. Order Anura (frogs and toads) Middle Jurassic to present. A single frontoparietal and no lacrimal bone in skull; ilium elongated and oriented

  • Albanese, Felicia (Italian-born American singer)

    Licia Albanese, (Felicia Albanese), Italian-born American opera singer (born July 23, 1909, near Bari, Italy—died Aug. 15, 2014, New York, N.Y.), captivated audiences with her nuanced gestures, passionate intensity, and deeply felt character portrayals, notably as the tragic heroines in operas by

  • Albanese, Licia (Italian-born American singer)

    Licia Albanese, (Felicia Albanese), Italian-born American opera singer (born July 23, 1909, near Bari, Italy—died Aug. 15, 2014, New York, N.Y.), captivated audiences with her nuanced gestures, passionate intensity, and deeply felt character portrayals, notably as the tragic heroines in operas by

  • Albani (people)

    Albania: From Illyria to Albania: …Ptolemy of Alexandria, of the Albanoi tribe, which inhabited what is now central Albania. From a single tribe the name spread to include the rest of the country as Arbëri and, finally, Albania. The genesis of Albanian nationality apparently occurred at this time as the Albanian people became aware that…

  • Albani, Alessandro (Italian cardinal)

    Johann Winckelmann: …and, later, secretary to Cardinal Albani, who had one of the great private collections of classical art. Winckelmann’s position and influential patronage gave him access to the art treasures of Rome and the freedom to develop his talents as art critic and consultant to visitors from among the European nobility.…

  • Albani, Colli (hills, Italy)

    Alban Hills, volcanic area in the Lazio (Latium) regione (region) of central Italy, southeast of Rome. The hills consist of an outer circle, 6–8 miles (10–13 km) in diameter, rising to 3,113 feet (949 metres) at Mount Cavo, and an inner crater rim, about 1.5 miles (2 km) across, rising to 3,136

  • Albani, Francesco (Italian painter)

    Francesco Albani, Italian painter, one of the 17th-century Bolognese masters trained in the studio of the Carracci. He assisted Guido Reni in a number of major decorative cycles, including that of the Chapel of the Annunciation (1609–12) in the Quirinal Palace and the choir (1612–14) of Santa Maria

  • Albani, Giovanni Francesco (pope)

    Clement XI, pope from 1700 to 1721. Of noble birth, Albani received an impressive education in the classics, theology, and canon law, after which he successively became governor of the Italian cities of Rieti and Orvieto. Pope Alexander VIII made him cardinal deacon in 1690, and he was ordained in

  • Albani, Monti (hills, Italy)

    Alban Hills, volcanic area in the Lazio (Latium) regione (region) of central Italy, southeast of Rome. The hills consist of an outer circle, 6–8 miles (10–13 km) in diameter, rising to 3,113 feet (949 metres) at Mount Cavo, and an inner crater rim, about 1.5 miles (2 km) across, rising to 3,136

  • Albania

    Albania, country in southern Europe, located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. The capital city is Tirana (Tiranë). Albanians refer to themselves as shqiptarë—often taken to mean “sons of eagles,” though it may well

  • Albania, flag of

    national flag consisting of a red field (background) with a black two-headed eagle in its centre. Its width-to-length ratio is 5 to 7.On November 28, 1443, the national hero of Albania, a prince known as Skanderbeg (George Kastrioti), raised his flag over the fortress of Krujë in defiance of the

  • Albania, history of

    Albania: History: The origins of the Albanian people are not definitely known, but data drawn from history and from archaeological and anthropological studies have led some researchers to consider the Albanians to be the direct descendants of the ancient Illyrians. The

  • Albania, Orthodox Church of

    Albania: From Illyria to Albania: Iconoclastic Controversy, detached the Albanian church from the Roman pope and placed it under the patriarch of Constantinople. When the Christian church split in 1054 between the East and Rome, southern Albania retained its tie to Constantinople while northern Albania reverted to the jurisdiction of Rome. This split in…

  • Albania, People’s Republic of

    Albania, country in southern Europe, located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. The capital city is Tirana (Tiranë). Albanians refer to themselves as shqiptarë—often taken to mean “sons of eagles,” though it may well

  • Albania, People’s Republic of

    Albania, country in southern Europe, located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. The capital city is Tirana (Tiranë). Albanians refer to themselves as shqiptarë—often taken to mean “sons of eagles,” though it may well

  • Albania, People’s Socialist Republic of

    Albania, country in southern Europe, located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. The capital city is Tirana (Tiranë). Albanians refer to themselves as shqiptarë—often taken to mean “sons of eagles,” though it may well

  • Albania, Republic of

    Albania, country in southern Europe, located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. The capital city is Tirana (Tiranë). Albanians refer to themselves as shqiptarë—often taken to mean “sons of eagles,” though it may well

  • Albanian (people)

    Kosovo: Ethnic groups: The Albanian share of the population rose from about half in 1946 to about four-fifths by the 1990s. Meanwhile, the proportion of Serbs fell to less than one-fifth. After the Kosovo conflict of 1998–99, additional Serbs emigrated. Thus, in the early 21st century, the population makeup…

  • Albanian Alps (mountains, Albania)

    Albania: Relief: The North Albanian Alps, an extension of the Dinaric Alps, cover the northern part of the country. With elevations approaching 8,900 feet (2,700 metres), this is the most rugged part of the country. It is heavily forested and sparsely populated.

  • Albanian Communist Party (political party, Albania)

    Enver Hoxha: …communists helped Hoxha found the Albanian Communist Party (afterward called the Party of Labour). Hoxha became first secretary of the party’s Central Committee and political commissar of the communist-dominated Army of National Liberation. He was prime minister of Albania from its liberation in 1944 until 1954, simultaneously holding the ministry…

  • Albanian language

    Albanian language, Indo-European language spoken in Albania and by smaller numbers of ethnic Albanians in other parts of the southern Balkans, along the east coast of Italy and in Sicily, in southern Greece, and in Germany, Sweden, the United States, Ukraine, and Belgium. Albanian is the only

  • Albanian League (Balkan history)

    Albanian League, first Albanian nationalist organization. Formed at Prizren (now in Kosovo) on July 1, 1878, the league, initially supported by the Ottoman Turks, tried to influence the Congress of Berlin, which was formulating a peace settlement following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and which

  • Albanian literature

    Albanian literature, the body of written works produced in the Albanian language. The Ottoman Empire, which ruled Albania from the 15th to the early 20th century, prohibited publications in Albanian, an edict that became a serious obstacle to the development of literature in that language. Books in

  • Albanian Orthodox Church

    Albania: From Illyria to Albania: Iconoclastic Controversy, detached the Albanian church from the Roman pope and placed it under the patriarch of Constantinople. When the Christian church split in 1054 between the East and Rome, southern Albania retained its tie to Constantinople while northern Albania reverted to the jurisdiction of Rome. This split in…

  • Albanian Party of Labour (political party, Albania)

    Enver Hoxha: …communists helped Hoxha found the Albanian Communist Party (afterward called the Party of Labour). Hoxha became first secretary of the party’s Central Committee and political commissar of the communist-dominated Army of National Liberation. He was prime minister of Albania from its liberation in 1944 until 1954, simultaneously holding the ministry…

  • Albanian Republican Party (political party, Albania)

    Albania: Political process: …Human Rights Party, and the Albanian Republican Party. There are also several agrarian, ecological, and socialist parties.

  • Albanian Socialist Party (political party, Albania)

    Enver Hoxha: …communists helped Hoxha found the Albanian Communist Party (afterward called the Party of Labour). Hoxha became first secretary of the party’s Central Committee and political commissar of the communist-dominated Army of National Liberation. He was prime minister of Albania from its liberation in 1944 until 1954, simultaneously holding the ministry…

  • Albano, Francesco (Italian painter)

    Francesco Albani, Italian painter, one of the 17th-century Bolognese masters trained in the studio of the Carracci. He assisted Guido Reni in a number of major decorative cycles, including that of the Chapel of the Annunciation (1609–12) in the Quirinal Palace and the choir (1612–14) of Santa Maria

  • Albano, Lago (lake, Italy)

    Lake Albano, crater lake in the Alban Hills (Colli Albani), southeast of Rome. Elliptical in shape, formed by the fusion of two ancient volcanic craters, it lies 961 feet (293 m) above sea level and has an area of 2 square miles (5 square km) and a maximum depth of 558 feet (170 m). It is fed by

  • Albano, Lake (lake, Italy)

    Lake Albano, crater lake in the Alban Hills (Colli Albani), southeast of Rome. Elliptical in shape, formed by the fusion of two ancient volcanic craters, it lies 961 feet (293 m) above sea level and has an area of 2 square miles (5 square km) and a maximum depth of 558 feet (170 m). It is fed by

  • Albanoi (people)

    Albania: From Illyria to Albania: …Ptolemy of Alexandria, of the Albanoi tribe, which inhabited what is now central Albania. From a single tribe the name spread to include the rest of the country as Arbëri and, finally, Albania. The genesis of Albanian nationality apparently occurred at this time as the Albanian people became aware that…

  • Albany (county, New York, United States)

    Albany, county, east-central New York state, U.S., bordered by the Mohawk River to the northeast and the Hudson River to the east. The terrain rises from the Hudson valley lowlands in the east to the Helderberg Mountains in the centre of the county; Alcove Reservoir is in the south. Parklands

  • Albany (New York, United States)

    Albany, city, capital (1797) of the state of New York, U.S., and seat (1683) of Albany county. It lies along the Hudson River, 143 miles (230 km) north of New York City. The heart of a metropolitan area that includes Troy and Schenectady, it is a port city, the northern terminus of the deepwater

  • Albany (Oregon, United States)

    Albany, city, seat (1851) of Linn county, western Oregon, U.S., in the Willamette Valley, at the juncture of the Willamette and Calapooia rivers, 26 miles (42 km) south of Salem. Established in 1848 by Walter and Thomas Monteith and named for the New York state capital, it became a shipping point

  • Albany (Georgia, United States)

    Albany, city, seat (1853) of Dougherty county, southwestern Georgia, U.S. It lies along the Flint River at the head of navigation, about 90 miles (145 km) southeast of Columbus. Founded in 1836 by Colonel Nelson Tift, it was named for Albany, New York, and was early established as a leading cotton

  • Albany (Western Australia, Australia)

    Albany, southernmost town and seaport of Western Australia. It lies on the northern shore of Princess Royal Harbour, King George Sound. The area was inhabited by the Minang Noongar Aboriginal people for some 18,000 years before it was first encountered by Europeans. During the summer they lived

  • Albany Congress (United States history [1754])

    Albany Congress, conference in U.S. colonial history (June 19–July 11, 1754) at Albany, New York, that advocated a union of the British colonies in North America for their security and defense against the French, foreshadowing their later unification. Seven colonies—Connecticut, Maryland,

  • Albany Evening Journal (newspaper)

    Thurlow Weed: His paper, the Albany Evening Journal, founded in 1830 to support anti-Masonry, became a leading Whig organ.

  • Albany pitcher plant (plant)

    Western Australian pitcher plant, (Cephalotus follicularis), carnivorous plant, native to damp sandy or swampy terrain in southwestern Australia, the only species in the flowering plant family Cephalotaceae (order Oxalidales). As with most carnivorous plants, the Western Australian pitcher plant is

  • Albany Plan of Union (American history)

    Albany Congress: …Pennsylvania delegate, presented the so-called Albany Plan of Union, which provided for a loose confederation presided over by a president general and having a limited authority to levy taxes to be paid to a central treasury. Although the plan was approved by the delegates, neither the Crown (jealous of its…

  • Albany River (river, Ontario, Canada)

    Albany River, river, north central Ontario, Canada, rising in Lake St. Joseph at an elevation of 1,218 ft (371 m) and flowing generally eastward into James Bay. For 250 mi (400 km) of its 610-mi course, the river is navigable, and it served as an important route during the fur-trading days, when

  • Albany, Alexander Stewart, duke of (Scottish noble)

    Alexander Stewart, duke of Albany, second son of James II of Scotland, created duke of Albany in or before 1458. Both he and John, earl of Mar, quarrelled with their brother James III, who imprisoned them in 1479. Mar died, but Albany escaped to carry on a series of intrigues with the English, who

  • Albany, Duke of (British lord)

    Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, father of King James I of Great Britain and Ireland (James VI of Scotland), and direct ancestor of all subsequent British sovereigns. Darnley was the son of Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of Lennox, whose pretension to the

  • Albany, Henry Stewart, duke of (British lord)

    Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, father of King James I of Great Britain and Ireland (James VI of Scotland), and direct ancestor of all subsequent British sovereigns. Darnley was the son of Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of Lennox, whose pretension to the

  • Albany, James, Duke of (king of England, Scotland, and Ireland)

    James II, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1685 to 1688, and the last Stuart monarch in the direct male line. He was deposed in the Glorious Revolution (1688–89) and replaced by William III and Mary II. That revolution, engendered by James’s Roman Catholicism, permanently established

  • Albany, John Stewart, 2nd duke of (Scottish regent)

    John Stewart, 2nd duke of Albany, regent of Scotland during the reign of James V and advocate of close ties between France and Scotland. His father, Alexander Stewart (c. 1454–85), the 1st duke of Albany of the second creation, died when he was scarcely more than an infant, and he was raised in

  • Albany, Louise Maximilienne Caroline, Countess of (Austrian noblewoman)

    Louise Maximilienne Caroline, countess of Albany, wife of the Young Pretender, Prince Charles Edward, unsuccessful Stuart claimant to the English throne. Later she became the mistress of the Italian poet and dramatist Vittorio Alfieri. The elder daughter of Gustav Adolf, prince of Stolberg-Gedern,

  • Albany, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of (Scottish regent)

    Robert Stewart, 1st duke of Albany, regent of Scotland who virtually ruled Scotland from 1388 to 1420, throughout the reign of his weak brother Robert III and during part of the reign of James I, who had been imprisoned in London. The third son of Robert II of Scotland, he was made high chamberlain

  • albarello (pottery jar)

    Albarello, pottery jar for apothecaries’ ointments and dry drugs made in the Near East and in Spain and produced in Italy from the 15th through the 18th century in the form known as majolica (q.v.), or tin-glazed earthenware. Since the jar had to be easy to hold, use, and shelve, its basic form

  • Albarn, Damon (British musician)

    Damon Albarn, English musician who found fame as the front man for the rock band Blur and as the main creative force behind the pop group Gorillaz but was also noted for his eclectic output as a composer, producer, and collaborator. Albarn, whose parents were involved in London’s creative

  • Albarno, Montréal d’ (Italian condottiere)

    condottiere: …developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d’Albarno. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood, one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri, came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years’ War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of…

  • Albasini, João (Mozambican author)

    African literature: Portuguese: In Mozambique, João Albasini was, in 1918, one of the founders of O Brado Africano (“The African Roar”), a bilingual weekly in Portuguese and Ronga in which many of Mozambique’s writers had their work first published. Albasini’s collection of short stories O livro da dor (“The Book…

  • Albategni (Arab astronomer and mathematician)

    Al-Battānī, Arab astronomer and mathematician who refined existing values for the length of the year and of the seasons, for the annual precession of the equinoxes, and for the inclination of the ecliptic. He showed that the position of the Sun’s apogee, or farthest point from the Earth, is

  • Albategnus (Arab astronomer and mathematician)

    Al-Battānī, Arab astronomer and mathematician who refined existing values for the length of the year and of the seasons, for the annual precession of the equinoxes, and for the inclination of the ecliptic. He showed that the position of the Sun’s apogee, or farthest point from the Earth, is

  • Albatenius (Arab astronomer and mathematician)

    Al-Battānī, Arab astronomer and mathematician who refined existing values for the length of the year and of the seasons, for the annual precession of the equinoxes, and for the inclination of the ecliptic. He showed that the position of the Sun’s apogee, or farthest point from the Earth, is

  • Albatros (weapon)

    tactical weapons system: Surface-to-air systems: The Italian Albatros system utilizes the existing fire-control system for a warship’s guns to control an added system employing the Aspide homing missile.

  • albatross (bird)

    Albatross, (family Diomedeidae), any of more than a dozen species of large seabirds that collectively make up the family Diomedeidae (order Procellariiformes). Because of their tameness on land, many albatrosses are known by the common names mollymawk (from the Dutch for “foolish gull”) and gooney.

  • Albatross Plateau (plateau, Pacific Ocean)

    oceanic plateau: Thus, the Albatross Plateau of the eastern equatorial Pacific now is recognized as belonging to the East Pacific Rise and has been shown to possess a much more irregular summit than early data indicated.

  • Albatrossaster richardi (sea star)

    sea star: Albatrossaster richardi has been taken at a depth of 6,035 metres (19,800 feet) near the Cape Verde Islands. The mud star (Ctenodiscus crispatus), about 10 cm (4 inches) across, with blunt, short arms and a broad, yellow disk, is abundant worldwide on mud bottoms of…

  • Albayzin (quarter, Granada, Spain)

    Granada: …of the city is the Albaicín (Albayzin) quarter, the oldest section of Granada, with its narrow cobbled streets and cármenes (Moorish-style houses). Albaicín is bounded to the south by the Darro River, and on the other side of the river is the hill upon which stands the famous Moorish palace…

  • Albazin (Russia)

    Kangxi: Acquisition of actual power: …expelled from their fortresses of Albazin and Nerchinsk by the Qing army before Kangxi’s reign. But the Russians restored the two fortresses and were building many more in that region, and Kangxi prepared to deal them a blow. In 1685 Qing forces attacked Albazin and captured it in a few…

  • Albazino (Russia)

    Kangxi: Acquisition of actual power: …expelled from their fortresses of Albazin and Nerchinsk by the Qing army before Kangxi’s reign. But the Russians restored the two fortresses and were building many more in that region, and Kangxi prepared to deal them a blow. In 1685 Qing forces attacked Albazin and captured it in a few…

  • Albe (historical city, Italy)

    Alba Fucens, ancient fortified hilltop town of the Aequi in central Italy. It was settled by Rome as a Latin colony in 303 bc and was important for its domination of the Via Valeria, which linked Rome with the Adriatic Sea. Alba Fucens was situated on a hill with three distinct summits, all of

  • albedo (physics)

    Albedo, fraction of light that is reflected by a body or surface. It is commonly used in astronomy to describe the reflective properties of planets, satellites, and asteroids. Albedo is usually differentiated into two general types: normal albedo and bond albedo. The former, also called normal

  • Albee, Edward (American author)

    Edward Albee, American dramatist and theatrical producer best known for his play Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962), which displays slashing insight and witty dialogue in its gruesome portrayal of married life. Albee was the adopted child of a father who had for a time been the assistant

  • Albee, Edward Franklin (American theatrical manager)

    Edward Franklin Albee, theatrical manager who, as the general manager of the Keith-Albee theatre circuit, was the most influential person in vaudeville in the United States. A circus ticket seller when he joined Benjamin Franklin Keith in 1885 to establish the Boston Bijou Theatre, he was

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