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  • ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (king of Saudi Arabia)

    Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, king of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2015. As crown prince (1982–2005), he had served as the country’s de facto ruler following the 1995 stroke of his half-brother King Fahd (reigned 1982–2005). Abdullah was one of King ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Saʿūd’s 37 sons. For his support of

  • ʿAbd Allāh II (Kuwaiti ruler)

    Kuwait: Early settlers: …of the century, one ruler, ʿAbd Allāh II (reigned 1866–92), began to move Kuwait closer to the Ottoman Empire, although he never placed his country under Ottoman rule. That trend was reversed with the accession of Mubārak the Great, who came to power by assassinating his brother ʿAbd Allāh—an act…

  • ʿAbd Allāh II ibn Fayṣal (Arab leader)

    Saudi Arabia: Death of Fayṣal: His eldest son, ʿAbd Allāh, succeeded first, maintaining himself against the rebellion of his brother Saʿūd II for six years until the Battle of Jūdah (1871), in which Saʿūd triumphed. ʿAbd Allāh fled, and Saʿūd took power. But during the next five years the throne changed hands no…

  • ʿAbd Allāh Khan II (Shaybānid ruler)

    Uzbekistan: The early Uzbeks: …of the greatest Shaybānid ruler, ʿAbd Allāh Khan II (reigned 1557–98), Shaybānid authority was expanded in Balkh, Samarkand, Tashkent, and Fergana. Uzbek hegemony extended eastward as far as Badakhstān and East Turkistan and westward to Khorāsān and Khwārezm.

  • ʿAbd Allah Khan Sayyid (Mughal minister)

    India: Struggle for a new power centre: …accession to the Sayyid brothers, ʿAbd Allāh Khan and Ḥusayn ʿAlī Khan Bāraha. The Sayyids thus earned the offices of vizier and chief bakhshī and acquired control over the affairs of state. They promoted the policies initiated earlier by Ẓulfiqār Khan. In addition to the jizyah, other similar taxes were…

  • ʿAbd Allāh, Khawr (estuary, Iraq)

    Khawr ʿAbd Allāh, estuary (khawr) separating Kuwait and Iraq, probably a drowned river mouth of the Shatt (stream) al-Arab, whose mouth is now farther north and forms the southeastern part of the border between Iraq and Iran. It extends into Iraqi territory in the form of the Khawr az-Zubayr, on

  • Abd ar-Rahman (sultan of Morocco)

    Abd ar-Rahman, sultan of Morocco (1822–59) who was the 24th ruler of the ʿAlawī dynasty. His reign was marked by both peaceful and hostile contacts with European powers, particularly France. Having succeeded to the throne without internal conflict, Abd ar-Rahman became an able administrator and

  • ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān ibn Hishām (sultan of Morocco)

    Abd ar-Rahman, sultan of Morocco (1822–59) who was the 24th ruler of the ʿAlawī dynasty. His reign was marked by both peaceful and hostile contacts with European powers, particularly France. Having succeeded to the throne without internal conflict, Abd ar-Rahman became an able administrator and

  • Abd el-Kader (Algerian leader)

    Abdelkader, amīr of Mascara (from 1832), the military and religious leader who founded the Algerian state and led the Algerians in their 19th-century struggle against French domination (1840–46). His physical handsomeness and the qualities of his mind had made Abdelkader popular even before his

  • Abd el-Krim (Berber leader)

    Abd el-Krim, leader of the Berber forces during the Rif War (1921–26) against Spanish and French rule in North Africa and founder of the short-lived Republic of the Rif (1923–26). A skilled tactician and a capable organizer, he led a liberation movement that made him the hero of the Maghrib

  • ʿAbd Manāf (Quraysh clan)

    history of Arabia: Arabian and Islamic expansion: …of the Quraysh house of ʿAbd Manāf concluded pacts with Byzantium, Persia, and rulers of Yemen and Ethiopia, promoting commerce outside Arabia. The ʿAbd Manāf house could effect such agreements because of Quraysh’s superior position with the tribes. Quraysh had some sanctity as lords of the Meccan temple (the Kaʿbah)…

  • ʿAbd-al-Raḥīm Khān-e Khānān (Mughal general)

    Islamic arts: Decentralization of Islamic literatures: …for example, by Akbar’s general, ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Khān-e Khānān (died 1626), who was a great patron of fine arts and poetry.

  • Abd-el-Kerim (Maba chieftain)

    Ouaddaï: …about 1640 a Maba chieftain, Abd-el-Kerim, conquered the country and overthrew the Tungur, a dynasty originating in Darfur to the east. For the next 200 years there were intermittent wars with the kingdoms of Bagirmi and Kanem-Bornu, many for the purpose of maintaining Ouaddaï’s supply of slaves and eunuchs for…

  • ʿAbd-uṣ-Ṣamad, Khwāja (Persian painter)

    Khwāja ʿAbd-uṣ-Ṣamad, Persian painter who, together with Mīr Sayyid ʿAlī, was one of the first members of the imperial atelier in India and is thus credited with playing a strong part in the foundation of the Mughal school of miniature painting (see Mughal painting). ʿAbd-uṣ-Ṣamad was born into a

  • ABDA Command (Australian-European-United States history)

    World War II: Pearl Harbor and the Japanese expansion, to July 1942: A unified American–British–Dutch–Australian Command, ABDACOM, under Wavell, responsible for holding Malaya, Sumatra, Java, and the approaches to Australia, became operative on January 15, 1942; but the Japanese had already begun their advance on the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. They occupied Kuching (December 17), Brunei Bay (January 6),…

  • ABDACOM (Australian-European-United States history)

    World War II: Pearl Harbor and the Japanese expansion, to July 1942: A unified American–British–Dutch–Australian Command, ABDACOM, under Wavell, responsible for holding Malaya, Sumatra, Java, and the approaches to Australia, became operative on January 15, 1942; but the Japanese had already begun their advance on the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. They occupied Kuching (December 17), Brunei Bay (January 6),…

  • Abdālī (people, Afghanistan)

    Durrānī, one of the two chief tribal confederations of Afghanistan, the other being the Ghilzay. In the time of Nāder Shāh the Durrānī were granted lands in the region of Qandahār, which was their homeland; and they moved there from Herāt. In the late 18th century the Durrānī took up agriculture. U

  • ʿAbdali (people, Yemen)

    ʿAbdali sultanate: The ʿAbdali tribal people then seized Aden and remained independent until 1839, when they signed the first of several treaties with the British that led to the formation of the Aden Protectorate. The sultanate was held by the Turks during World War I. The Ṣubayḥī (Subeihi)…

  • ʿAbdali sultanate (historical state, Yemen)

    ʿAbdali sultanate, former semi-independent state in the southern Arabian Peninsula, in what is now Yemen. Located just north of Aden city, it was one of the most important tribal areas of the Aden Protectorate, which was the forerunner of independent Yemen (Aden); its capital was Laḥij. The

  • Abdālī, Aḥmad Khān (ruler of Afghanistan)

    Aḥmad Shah Durrānī, founder of the state of Afghanistan and ruler of an empire that extended from the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) to the Indian Ocean and from Khorāsān into Kashmir, the Punjab, and Sindh. Head of the central government, with full control of all departments of state in domestic

  • ʿAbdallabi dynasty (East African history)

    Funj Dynasty: …at the same time the ʿAbdallabi dynasty was extending its dominion southward from the region of Sūbah.

  • Abdallah, Ahmed (president of Comoros)

    Comoros: History: …its own status, Comorian President Ahmed Abdallah (who was deposed later that year) declared the whole archipelago independent on July 6, 1975. Comoros was subsequently admitted to the United Nations, which recognized the integrity of the entire archipelago as one nation. France, however, acknowledged the sovereignty of only the three…

  • Abdallahi, Sidi Ould Cheikh (president of Mauritania)

    Mauritania: Coups of 2005 and 2008 and the return to stability: …the March 2007 presidential election, Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi became Mauritania’s first democratically elected president.

  • Abdel Aziz Abdallah Salem Trophy (football)

    African Cup of Nations: …the final to win the Abdel Aziz Abdallah Salem Trophy, named after its donor, an Egyptian who was the first CAF president. That trophy was permanently awarded to Ghana in 1978 when it became the first country to win the tournament three times. The next trophy, known as the African…

  • Abdel Rahman, Omar (Egyptian-born cleric)

    Omar Abdel Rahman, Egyptian-born cleric who served as the spiritual leader of al-Jamāʿah al-Islāmiyyah (Arabic: “the Islamic Group”), one of Egypt’s largest and most active militant organizations in the late 20th century. In 1996 he was sentenced to life in prison in the United States for

  • Abdel Shafi, Haidar (Palestinian nationalist)

    Haidar Abdel Shafi, Palestinian nationalist (born June 10, 1919, Gaza, British-occupied Palestine—died Sept. 25, 2007, Gaza, Emerging Palestinian Autonomous Area), was a founding member (1964–65) of the executive committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and a longtime secular voice

  • Abdelazer (work by Purcell)

    Abdelazer, incidental music in 10 movements composed by Henry Purcell to accompany performances of a revenge tragedy of the same name (first performed 1676) by English dramatist Aphra Behn. The music dates from 1695, the last year of Purcell’s life. Although Behn’s play is no longer performed, the

  • Abdelazer; or, The Moor’s Revenge (work by Purcell)

    Abdelazer, incidental music in 10 movements composed by Henry Purcell to accompany performances of a revenge tragedy of the same name (first performed 1676) by English dramatist Aphra Behn. The music dates from 1695, the last year of Purcell’s life. Although Behn’s play is no longer performed, the

  • Abdelaziz, Mohammed (Saharawi militant)

    Mohammed Abdelaziz, Saharawi militant (born 1947/48?, Marrakech, Mor.? or Semara, Spanish Sahara [now Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara]?—died May 31, 2016, Rochester, Minn.), devoted his life to the fight for an independent state for the Saharawi people, the indigenous nomadic inhabitants of

  • Abdelkader (Algerian leader)

    Abdelkader, amīr of Mascara (from 1832), the military and religious leader who founded the Algerian state and led the Algerians in their 19th-century struggle against French domination (1840–46). His physical handsomeness and the qualities of his mind had made Abdelkader popular even before his

  • Abdera (ancient town, Greece)

    Abdera, in ancient Greece, town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the Néstos River. The people of Teos, evacuating Ionia when it was overrun by the Persians under Cyrus (c. 540 bc), succeeded in establishing a colony there that developed a brisk trade with the Thracian interior. Abdera was a

  • Abdeslam, Salah (Moroccan terrorist)

    Paris attacks of 2015: The response to the Paris attacks: Another Molenbeek native, Salah Abdeslam, was sought by police for his involvement in the Paris attacks. He had rented several of the cars used by the attackers and was believed to have been the driver for the suicide bombers at the Stade de France. Abdeslam was stopped by…

  • Abdi-Kheba (ruler of Jerusalem)

    Jerusalem: Ancient origins of the city: …message from the city’s ruler, Abdi-Kheba (Abdu-Ḥeba), requiring his sovereign’s help against the invading Hapiru (Habiru, ʿApiru). A biblical narrative mentions the meeting of the Canaanite Melchizedek, said to be king of Salem (Jerusalem), with the Hebrew patriarch Abraham. A later episode in the biblical text mentions another king, Adonizedek,…

  • Abdias, Book of (Old Testament)

    Book of Obadiah, the fourth of 12 Old Testament books that bear the names of the Minor Prophets, in the Jewish canon treated as one book, The Twelve. Obadiah, with only one chapter consisting of 21 verses, is the shortest of all Old Testament books and purports to be a record of “the vision of

  • abdication (government)

    Abdication, the renouncing of office and of power before the end of the term for which it was assumed. In ancient Roman law abdicare meant primarily “to disown,” as when a father disowned a son, who was thereby disinherited. The word was also used in Latin as meaning “to renounce,” and its modern

  • Abdim’s stork (bird)

    ciconiiform: Relations with humans: Abdim’s stork (Sphenorhynchus abdimii), for instance, will nest on native huts in a treeless area. And many of the arboreal colonies of heron and stork species in Africa are in or near villages. The cattle egret’s dependence on domestic stock to flush insects, as an…

  • ʿAbdīn (district, Cairo, Egypt)

    Cairo: Development of the city: …Al-Azbakiyyah (with its large park), ʿAbdīn, and Ismāʿīliyyah—all now central zones of contemporary Cairo. By the end of the 19th century these districts were well-developed, but with the beginning of British rule of Egypt in 1882 they were transformed into a colonial enclave.

  • Abdju (ancient city, Egypt)

    Abydos, prominent sacred city and one of the most important archaeological sites of ancient Egypt. The site, located in the low desert west of the Nile River near Al-Balyanā, was a necropolis for the earliest Egyptian royalty and later a pilgrimage centre for the worship of Osiris. The western

  • Abdnor, James (United States senator)

    John Thune: Jim Abdnor, who sparked his interest in politics. After earning a bachelor’s degree (1983) at Biola University, he studied business administration (M.B.A., 1984) at the University of South Dakota. Soon after graduating, he married Kimberley Weems, and the couple later had two children. From 1985…

  • Abdo Benítez, Mario (president of Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Paraguay in the 21st century: …sidelined, the Colorado Party chose Mario Abdo Benítez, a 46-year-old former senator, as its candidate in the April 2018 presidential election. Abdo Benítez, whose father had been Stroessner’s private secretary, shared a pro-business, socially conservative outlook with his main competitor, Alegre, who ran as the candidate of the Liberal Party…

  • ʿAbdollāh Anṣārī (Persian poet)

    Islamic arts: The mystical poem: Khwajah ʿAbd Allāh al-Anṣārī of Herāt (died 1088), a prolific writer on religious topics in both Arabic and Persian, first popularized the literary “prayer,” or mystical contemplation, written in Persian in rhyming prose interspersed with verses. Sanāʾī (died 1131?), at one time a court poet…

  • abdomen (anatomy)

    Abdomen, in human anatomy, the body cavity lying between the chest or thorax above and the pelvis below and from the spine in the back to the wall of abdominal muscles in the front. The diaphragm is its upper boundary. There is no wall or clear-cut boundary between it and the pelvis. It contains

  • abdominal actinomycosis (pathology)

    actinomycosis: …lungs and surrounding structures, and abdominal and pelvic actinomycosis. Thoracic actinomycosis may result from inhalation of the organism into the air passages and is usually associated with weight loss, night sweats, coughing, and high fever. Lesions of the abdomen and pelvis may follow surgery for appendicitis or perforation of the…

  • abdominal aorta (anatomy)

    aorta: In the abdominal cavity the aorta gives off a number of branches, which form an extensive network supplying blood to the stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen, small and large intestines, kidneys, reproductive glands, and other organs. At the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra, which is about even…

  • abdominal cavity (anatomy)

    Abdominal cavity, largest hollow space of the body. Its upper boundary is the diaphragm, a sheet of muscle and connective tissue that separates it from the chest cavity; its lower boundary is the upper plane of the pelvic cavity. Vertically it is enclosed by the vertebral column and the abdominal

  • abdominal ectopic pregnancy (pathology)

    ectopic pregnancy: Abdominal ectopic pregnancy occurs when the placenta is attached to some part of the peritoneal cavity other than the uterus, ovary, or fallopian tube. Although a few of these pregnancies are a result of implantation in the abdominal lining, most are the result of expulsion…

  • abdominal muscle (anatomy)

    Abdominal muscle, any of the muscles of the anterolateral walls of the abdominal cavity, composed of three flat muscular sheets, from without inward: external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis, supplemented in front on each side of the midline by rectus abdominis. The first three

  • Abdominal Operations (work by Moynihan)

    Berkeley George Andrew Moynihan, 1st Baron Moynihan: …exposition of his surgical doctrine, Abdominal Operations, was published in 1905 and remained a standard text for two decades. His book Duodenal Ulcer (1910) secured his reputation as a clinical scientist.

  • Abdou Moumouni University (university, Niamey, Niger)

    Niamey: …is the site of the University of Niamey (1971; university status 1973), the National School of Administration (1963), the national museum, and research institutes for geology and minerals, human sciences, oral tradition, tropical forestry, tropical agriculture, and veterinary studies. There is an international airport, and roads link Niamey with Atlantic…

  • Abdu Zanga (Nigerian explorer)

    Keffi: …was founded about 1800 by Abdu Zanga (Abdullahi), a Fulani warrior from the north who made it the seat of a vassal emirate subject to the emir of Zaria (a town 153 miles [246 km] north). Although Keffi paid tribute to Zaria throughout the 19th century, it was constantly raided…

  • Abdu-Ḥeba (ruler of Jerusalem)

    Jerusalem: Ancient origins of the city: …message from the city’s ruler, Abdi-Kheba (Abdu-Ḥeba), requiring his sovereign’s help against the invading Hapiru (Habiru, ʿApiru). A biblical narrative mentions the meeting of the Canaanite Melchizedek, said to be king of Salem (Jerusalem), with the Hebrew patriarch Abraham. A later episode in the biblical text mentions another king, Adonizedek,…

  • abducens nerve

    human nervous system: Abducens nerve (CN VI or 6): From its nucleus in the caudal pons, the abducens nerve exits the brainstem at the pons-medulla junction, pierces the dura mater, passes through the cavernous sinus close to the internal carotid artery, and exits the cranial vault via the…

  • abduction (law)

    Abduction, in law, the carrying away of any female for purposes of concubinage or prostitution. The taking of a girl under a designated age for purposes of marriage is in most jurisdictions also included in the crime of abduction. Abduction is generally regarded as a form of kidnapping

  • abduction (reason)

    philosophy of mind: Abduction: Another sort of nondeductive rationality that is indispensable to at least much of the higher intelligence displayed by human beings is reasoning to a conclusion that essentially contains terms not included in the premises. This typically occurs when someone gets a good idea about…

  • abduction (extraterrestrial hypothesis)

    unidentified flying object: Possible explanations for UFO sightings and alien abductions: “Contact events,” such as abductions, are often associated with UFOs because they are ascribed to extraterrestrial visitors. However, the credibility of the ETH as an explanation for abductions is disputed by most psychologists who have investigated this phenomenon. They suggest that a common experience known as “sleep paralysis” may…

  • Abduction from the Seraglio, The (opera by Mozart)

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Vienna: the early years: …Entführung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio). (Joseph II currently required that German opera, rather than the traditional Italian, be given at the court theatre.) In the summer of 1781, rumours began to circulate, as far as Salzburg, that Mozart was contemplating marriage with the third of…

  • abductor muscle

    Abductor muscle, any of the muscles that cause movement of a limb away from the midplane of the body or away from a neighbouring part or limb (compare adductor muscle), as in raising the arms to the side (effected by the deltoideus muscle) or spreading the fingers or toes. In man certain muscles of

  • ʿAbduh, Muḥammad (Egyptian scholar and jurist)

    Muḥammad ʿAbduh, religious scholar, jurist, and liberal reformer, who led the late 19th-century movement in Egypt and other Muslim countries to revitalize Islamic teachings and institutions in the modern world. As muftī (Islamic legal counsellor) for Egypt (from 1899), he effected reforms in

  • Abdul Basit, Malik (American music artist)

    the Roots: With the addition of rapper Malik B (Malik Abdul Basit) and bassist Hub (Leonard Hubbard), they began making a name for themselves in clubs in Philadelphia and New York City.

  • Abdul Kalam, A. P. J. (president of India)

    A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Indian scientist and politician who played a leading role in the development of India’s missile and nuclear weapons programs. He was president of India from 2002 to 2007. Kalam earned a degree in aeronautical engineering from the Madras Institute of Technology and in 1958 joined

  • Abdul Kalam, Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen (president of India)

    A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Indian scientist and politician who played a leading role in the development of India’s missile and nuclear weapons programs. He was president of India from 2002 to 2007. Kalam earned a degree in aeronautical engineering from the Madras Institute of Technology and in 1958 joined

  • Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (international research center)

    Esther Duflo: …then at MIT), founded the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), a research centre supporting scientifically informed policy making to reduce global poverty. Duflo and Banerjee were married in 2015.

  • Abdul Mahdi, Adel (prime minister of Iraq)

    Iraq: The struggle for stability and reform after ISIL: …he designated an independent politician, Adel Abdul Mahdi, as prime minister and tasked him with forming a cabinet. But Abdul Mahdi was unable to receive approval from the parliament on key cabinet positions and was sworn in on October 24 with only a partial cabinet.

  • Abdul Rahman (sultan of Riau-Johor)

    Singapore: East India Company: …a subordinate of his cousin Abdul Rahman, sultan of Riau-Johor, who was under Dutch surveillance. Furthermore, Abdul Rahman was a younger son and not a sultan de jure. Raffles, disobeying instructions not to offend the Dutch, withdrew his own recognition of Abdul Rahman’s suzerainty over Singapore and installed Abdul Rahman’s…

  • Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj, Tunku (prime minister of Malaysia)

    Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj, first prime minister of independent Malaya (1957–63) and then of Malaysia (1963–70), under whose leadership the newly formed government was stabilized. After studies in England (1920–31), Abdul Rahman returned to Malaya to enter the Kedah civil service. In 1947 he

  • Abdul Rahman, Tuanku (Malaysian leader)

    Tuanku Abdul Rahman, first supreme chief of state of the Federation of Malaya. After the declaration of independence from Great Britain in 1957, the tuanku became the first head of state, or paramount ruler, elected by and from the Malay rulers for a five-year term. Abdul Rahman died before

  • Abdul Rauf, Feisal (Egyptian American author and religious leader)

    Feisal Abdul Rauf, Kuwaiti-born Egyptian American imam, author, and interfaith leader. He led an effort to build an Islamic community centre in Manhattan, New York, a few blocks from the World Trade Center site—one of the targets of the September 11 attacks by Islamic extremists in 2001—which

  • Abdul Razak bin Hussein, Tun Haji (prime minister of Malaysia)

    Tun Haji Abdul Razak bin Hussein, prime minister, foreign minister, and defense minister of Malaysia from 1970 to 1976. A lawyer by training, Abdul Razak joined the civil service in 1950, entered politics in 1955, and was a key figure in gaining his country’s independence from Britain in 1957. As

  • Abdul Scam (United States history)

    Abscam, undercover criminal investigation (1978–80) by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), whose most prominent targets were U.S. elected officials. Although some saw the investigators’ methods as excessive—critics characterized them as entrapment—the convictions of one U.S. senator, six

  • Abdul Wahhab Sachal Sarmast (Sufi poet)

    Sindhi literature: …poet, also a Sufi saint, Abdul Wahhab Sachal Sarmast (1739–1826), who enriched the tradition of religious songs. His contemporary Sami (1743?–1850) was a Vedantist. He represented the tradition of bhakti poetry then in decline in other parts of India.

  • Abdul, Paula (American singer, dancer, and choreographer)

    American Idol: …consisting of former pop star Paula Abdul, music producer Randy Jackson, and British music executive Simon Cowell. During the auditions the judges critiqued the performers in a predictable manner: Abdul’s comments were typically sympathetic, Jackson’s humorous, and Cowell’s biting. After American Idol’s first season (2002), Dunkleman left the program, and…

  • Abdul-Hamid II (Ottoman sultan)

    Abdülhamid II, Ottoman sultan from 1876 to 1909, under whose autocratic rule the reform movement of Tanzimat (Reorganization) reached its climax and who adopted a policy of pan-Islamism in opposition to Western intervention in Ottoman affairs. A son of Sultan Abdülmecid I, he came to the throne at

  • Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem (American basketball player)

    Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, American collegiate and professional basketball player who, as a 7-foot 2-inch- (2.18-metre-) tall centre, dominated the game throughout the 1970s and early ’80s. Alcindor played for Power Memorial Academy on the varsity for four years, and his total of 2,067 points set a New

  • Abdul-Medjid I (Ottoman sultan)

    Abdülmecid I, Ottoman sultan from 1839 to 1861 who issued two major social and political reform edicts known as the Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane (Noble Edict of the Rose Chamber) in 1839 and the Hatt-ı Hümayun (Imperial Edict) in 1856, heralding the new era of Tanzimat (“Reorganization”). Well educated,

  • Abdul-Medjid II (Ottoman prince and caliph)

    Abdülmecid II, the last caliph and crown prince of the Ottoman dynasty of Turkey. Following Ottoman custom, Abdülmecid was confined to the palace until he was 40, during which time his father, Abdülaziz, and three of his cousins reigned. When his fourth cousin took the throne as Mehmed VI in 1918,

  • Abdul-Mejid I (Ottoman sultan)

    Abdülmecid I, Ottoman sultan from 1839 to 1861 who issued two major social and political reform edicts known as the Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane (Noble Edict of the Rose Chamber) in 1839 and the Hatt-ı Hümayun (Imperial Edict) in 1856, heralding the new era of Tanzimat (“Reorganization”). Well educated,

  • Abdul-Mejid II (Ottoman prince and caliph)

    Abdülmecid II, the last caliph and crown prince of the Ottoman dynasty of Turkey. Following Ottoman custom, Abdülmecid was confined to the palace until he was 40, during which time his father, Abdülaziz, and three of his cousins reigned. When his fourth cousin took the throne as Mehmed VI in 1918,

  • Abdul-Qadir (Algerian leader)

    Abdelkader, amīr of Mascara (from 1832), the military and religious leader who founded the Algerian state and led the Algerians in their 19th-century struggle against French domination (1840–46). His physical handsomeness and the qualities of his mind had made Abdelkader popular even before his

  • Abdülaziz (Ottoman sultan)

    Abdülaziz, Ottoman sultan (1861–76) who continued the Westernizing reforms that had been initiated by his predecessors until 1871, after which his reign took an absolutist turn. Like his brother Abdülmecid I, whom he succeeded as sultan on June 25, 1861, Abdülaziz was an ardent admirer of the

  • Abdülaziz Oglu Mahmud II (Ottoman sultan)

    Abdülaziz, Ottoman sultan (1861–76) who continued the Westernizing reforms that had been initiated by his predecessors until 1871, after which his reign took an absolutist turn. Like his brother Abdülmecid I, whom he succeeded as sultan on June 25, 1861, Abdülaziz was an ardent admirer of the

  • Abdülbâkî, Mahmud (Turkish author)

    Bâkî, one of the greatest lyric poets of the classical period of Ottoman Turkish literature. The son of a muezzin, he lived in Constantinople. After an apprenticeship as a saddler, he entered a religious college, where he studied Islāmic law. He also came into contact with many famous men of

  • Abdülhak Hâmid (Turkish author)

    Abdülhak Hâmid, poet and playwright, considered one of the greatest Turkish Romantic writers. He was instrumental in introducing Western influences into Turkish literature. Born into a family of famous scholars, Hâmid was educated in Istanbul and in Paris. Later in Tehrān, he studied Arabic and P

  • Abdülhak Hâmid Tarhan (Turkish author)

    Abdülhak Hâmid, poet and playwright, considered one of the greatest Turkish Romantic writers. He was instrumental in introducing Western influences into Turkish literature. Born into a family of famous scholars, Hâmid was educated in Istanbul and in Paris. Later in Tehrān, he studied Arabic and P

  • Abdülhamid I (Ottoman sultan)

    Abdülhamid I, Ottoman sultan from 1774 to 1789 who concluded the war with Russia by signing the humiliating Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. By the terms of the treaty, Russia obtained the fortresses on the coast of the Sea of Azov, the area between the Dnieper and Bug rivers, and navigation and

  • Abdülhamid II (Ottoman sultan)

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