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  • Afro-Cuban dance

    Latin American dance: Cuba: Afro-Cuban ritual dances form a huge group of Cuban dances and reflect the four main groups of Africans that were transported to Cuba: the Kongo-Angola of west-central Africa, Arará (as they are known in Cuba, descendants of Fon and other ethnic groups from what are…

  • Afro-Cuban jazz (music)

    Latin jazz, a style of music that blends rhythms and percussion instruments of Cuba and the Spanish Caribbean with jazz and its fusion of European and African musical elements. Latin jazz was the result of a long process of interaction between American and Cuban music styles. In New Orleans around

  • Afro-Cuban Jazz Suite (jazz recording)

    Latin jazz: Norman Granz recorded the successful Afro-Cuban Jazz Suite, which featured the Machito orchestra along with soloists Charlie Parker on alto saxophone, Buddy Rich on drums, Flip Phillips on tenor saxophone, and Harry (“Sweets”) Edison on trumpet, with arrangements by Arturo (“Chico”) O’Farrill. Musicians in Cuba, led by pianists Frank Emilio…

  • Afro-Cuban music

    percussion instrument: The Americas: …of Nigeria are played in Cuba; the claves, a pair of cylindrical percussion sticks of Haiti and Cuba, are standard equipment in Western rhythm bands. The xylophone may already have entered the Western Hemisphere in pre-Columbian times. Known chiefly as the marimba, it has been accepted in Western musical culture.…

  • Afro-Shirazi Party (Tanzanian political organization)

    Tanzania: Political process: …colony to independence, and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) of Zanzibar, which had taken power after a coup in 1964, merged to form the Revolutionary Party (Chama cha Mapinduzi; CCM), and a new constitution was adopted the same year. Prior to the 1992 amendment, the CCM dominated all aspects of political…

  • Afroasiatic languages

    Afro-Asiatic languages, languages of common origin found in the northern part of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and some islands and adjacent areas in Western Asia. About 250 Afro-Asiatic languages are spoken today by a total of approximately 250 million people. Numbers of speakers per language

  • Afrocentrism (cultural and political movement)

    Afrocentrism, cultural and political movement whose mainly African American adherents regard themselves and all other blacks as syncretic Africans and believe that their worldview should positively reflect traditional African values. The terms Afrocentrism, Afrocology, and Afrocentricity were

  • Afropavo congensis (bird)

    Antwerp Zoo: …then newly discovered okapi and Congo peafowl. In 1936 the zoo acquired 36 hectares (90 acres) in Planckendael on which it later developed a breeding station for endangered species such as the bongo antelope and Indian rhinoceros.

  • Afropithecus (fossil primate genus)

    ape: the modern apes are Proconsul, Afropithecus, Dryopithecus, and Sivapithecus, the latter being a possible ancestor of the orangutan.

  • Afrotarsius chatrathi (fossil primate)

    primate: Eocene: …Quercy deposits of France, and Afrotarsius chatrathi, from the Fayum of Egypt, are likely to contain the ancestor of the modern genus Tarsius. The tarsier is indeed a “living fossil” (in the best sense of that overworked term), and teeth referred to the modern genus Tarsius are known from the…

  • Afrotropical region (faunal region)

    Ethiopian region, one of the major land areas of the world defined on the basis of its characteristic animal life. Part of the Paleotropical, or Afro-Tethyan, realm, it encompasses Africa south of the Sahara and the southwestern tip of Arabia. The island of Madagascar is part of the separate M

  • AFRS (United States government agency)

    radio: American radio goes to war: …were programs produced by the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS), a wartime unit that broadcast on shortwave and sent recorded transcriptions of the shows to low-powered radio stations at outposts around the world. The AFRS also sent specially edited versions of popular network shows that had already been broadcast. Its…

  • AFSC (religious organization)

    American Friends Service Committee, organization to promote peace and reconciliation through programs of social service and public information, founded by American and Canadian Friends (Quakers) in 1917. In World War I, the AFSC helped conscientious objectors to find work in relief projects and

  • AFSCME (American organization)

    American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), American union representing a wide variety of public- and private-sector employees including local and state government workers, hospital workers, university employees, teachers, and other public school workers. Almost all

  • Afshārid Turkmen (people)

    Iran: The Afghan interlude: Nādr, an Afshārid Turkmen from northern Khorāsān, was eventually able to reunite Iran, a process he began on behalf of the Ṣafavid prince Ṭahmāsp II (reigned 1722–32), who had escaped the Afghans. After Nādr had cleared the country of Afghans, Ṭahmāsp made him governor of a large…

  • Afsluitdijk (dam, Netherlands)

    IJsselmeer: …building of a dam (Afsluitdijk; completed 1932) separating the IJsselmeer from both the Waddenzee (the northern part of the former Zuiderzee) and the North Sea.

  • Afsluttende uvidenskabelig Efterskrift (work by Kierkegaard)

    Hegelianism: Anti-Hegelian criticism: …his Afsluttende uvidenskabelig Efterskrift (1846; Concluding Unscientific Postscript)—Kierkegaard waged a continuous polemic against the philosophy of Hegel. He regarded Hegel as motivated by the spirit of the harmonious dialectical conciliation of every opposition and as committed to imposing universal and panlogistic resolutions upon the authentic antinomies of life. Kierkegaard saw…

  • AFT (labour organization)

    American Federation of Teachers (AFT), U.S. trade union for classroom educators, school personnel, and public employees. It was formed in 1916 as an affiliate of the American Federation of Labor (see AFL–CIO). Through collective bargaining and teachers’ strikes, it has obtained for its members

  • Afṭasid dynasty (Berber dynasty)

    Afṭasid dynasty, Muslim Berber dynasty that ruled one of the party kingdoms (ṭāʾifahs) at Badajoz in western Spain (1022–94) in the period of disunity after the demise of the Umayyad caliphate of Córdoba. The Lower Frontier (modern central Portugal) had enjoyed a measure of autonomy after the death

  • Aftenposten (Norwegian newspaper)

    Aftenposten, (Norwegian: “The Evening Post”) daily newspaper published in Oslo. It is one of the leading newspapers in Norway and in all of Scandinavia. It was established in 1860 by Christian Schibsted and played a significant role in developing a sense of Norwegian nationhood. Noted from its

  • After Apple-Picking (poem by Frost)

    Robert Frost: Works: …one outstanding example being “After Apple-Picking,” with its random pattern of long and short lines and its nontraditional use of rhyme. Here he shows his power to stand as a transitional figure between the old and the new in poetry. Frost mastered blank verse (i.e., unrhymed verse in iambic…

  • After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation (work by Steiner)

    George Steiner: …wrote in several languages, and After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation (1975) is perhaps his most ambitious work. In 1996 Steiner published No Passion Spent: Essays 1978–1995, about language and its relation to both religion and literature.

  • After Dark (software)

    After Dark, series of interactive screensaver software created by the American software company Berkeley Systems in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The series later developed into a collection of games and gained a large cult following. The original After Dark software allowed users to apply

  • After Dark, My Sweet (work by Thompson)

    Jim Thompson: After Dark, My Sweet (1955), considered one of Thompson’s best works, presents a mentally imbalanced narrator who becomes embroiled in a kidnapping scheme with his lover but kills himself rather than harm her.

  • After Everest (work by Tenzing Norgay)

    Tenzing Norgay: After Everest (1978), as told to Malcolm Barnes, tells of his travels after the Everest ascent and his directorship of the Field Training Himalayan Mountaineering Institute in Darjeeling, which the Indian government established in 1954. Tenzing: Hero of Everest (2003), a biography of Tenzing Norgay…

  • After Every Green Thing (work by Abse)

    Dannie Abse: …his first book of verse, After Every Green Thing (1949), in a declamatory style. Walking Under Water (1952) followed. He established his mature voice and his reputation with Tenants of the House (1957), in which he addressed moral and political concerns with parables. Poems, Golders Green (1962) explores the poet’s…

  • After Henry (essays by Didion)

    Joan Didion: …the essays constituting the volume After Henry (1992; also published as Sentimental Journeys).

  • After Hours (film by Scorsese [1985])

    Martin Scorsese: Films of the 1980s: Raging Bull, The King of Comedy, and The Color of Money: After Hours (1985) was a minor but amusing diversion, with Griffin Dunne as a mild-mannered office worker who finds himself imperiled by a colourful variety of lunatics on one long, strange night. Shot on location by cinematographer Michael Ballhaus, this is an exhilarating, unusual illustration…

  • After Julius (novel by Howard)

    Elizabeth Jane Howard: … (1956), The Sea Change (1959), After Julius (1965), and Something in Disguise (1969). The last two were later adapted as television plays for which Howard wrote the scripts. She was perhaps best known for the semiautobiographical novels known as the Cazalet Chronicles—The Light Years (1990), Marking Time (1991), Confusion (1993),…

  • After Life (British television series)

    Ricky Gervais: …as a suicidal widower in After Life, which premiered on Netflix in 2019.

  • After London (novel by Jefferies)

    Richard Jefferies: …and the remarkable fantasy novel After London (1885), set in a future in which urban civilization has collapsed after an environmental crisis. In this late period also he wrote some moving essays in an introspective style, collected in The Life of the Fields (1884), The Open Air (1885), and Field…

  • After Many a Summer Dies the Swan (novel by Huxley)

    After Many a Summer Dies the Swan, a comedic novel written by Aldous Huxley. Published in 1939 under the title After Many a Summer, the novel was republished under its current title later in the same year. Written soon after Huxley left England and settled in California, the novel is Huxley’s

  • After Office Hours (film by Leonard [1935])

    Robert Z. Leonard: Dancing Lady to Ziegfeld Girl: In 1935 Leonard made After Office Hours, a lacklustre melodrama about a socialite-turned-reporter (Bennett) who is exploited by a wily newspaper editor (Gable). Escapade (1935), however, was more successful. The comedy, which was set in prewar Vienna, featured Luise Rainer, in her Hollywood debut, opposite William Powell. Next was…

  • After Prince Igor’s Battle with the Polovtsy (painting by Vasnetsov)

    Viktor Mikhaylovich Vasnetsov: …that reason paintings such as After Prince Igor’s Battle with the Polovtsy (1880), Ivan Tsarevich Riding the Gray Wolf (1889), and Alyonushka (1881) were extremely popular in Russia. They became, in a sense, surrogates for Russian history, and during the Soviet era many were reproduced in schoolbooks and on consumer…

  • After Such Knowledge (series of novels by Blish)

    James Blish: …a thematically connected series called After Such Knowledge—from a line in T.S. Eliot’s poem “Gerontion” (1920), “After such knowledge, what forgiveness?”—that examined the competition between religion and science. The other novels in the series included Doctor Mirabilis (1964), a historical novel about the 13th-century English philosopher and scientist Roger Bacon,…

  • After the Deluge (art exhibit by Walker)

    Kara Walker: …City featured her exhibition titled After the Deluge, which was inspired in part by the devastation wreaked the previous year by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. The exhibition juxtaposed pieces from the museum’s own collection—many of which depicted black figures or images demonstrating the terrific power of water—with some of…

  • After the Fall (play by Miller)

    After the Fall, a play in two acts by Arthur Miller, produced and published in 1964. The play presents retrospectively a series of encounters over a 25-year span between the protagonist, Quentin, a lawyer who is about 50 years old, and his intimate associates. His first wife, Louise, accuses him of

  • After the Gold Rush (album by Young)

    Neil Young: Harvest, Rust Never Sleeps, and Harvest Moon: On his next solo album, After the Gold Rush (1970), Young underlined his stance as a rock-and-roll shaman, a visionary who projected his psyche onto the world and thereby exorcised his own demons and those of his audience. Harvest (1972) continued the confessional vein, and its rare stylistic continuity made…

  • After the Guns Fall Silent: The Enduring Legacy of Landmines (work by Williams)

    Jody Williams: She was coauthor of After the Guns Fall Silent: The Enduring Legacy of Landmines (1995), which examines the socioeconomic impact of land-mine contamination in four countries, and coeditor of Banning Landmines: Disarmament, Citizen Diplomacy, and Human Security (2008). In 2007 she was appointed to lead a United Nations High-Level…

  • After the Hunt (painting by Harnett)

    William Harnett: …he painted his best-known work, After the Hunt (1885). He returned to the United States in 1886 and, except for another European trip in 1889, lived in New York City until his death. Among his favourite subjects were firearms (The Faithful Colt, 1890), books (Job Lot, Cheap, 1878), and musical…

  • After the Sunset (film by Ratner [2004])

    Salma Hayek: …with Banderas and Johnny Depp; After the Sunset (2004); Ask the Dust (2006), based on the novel by John Fante; and Cirque du Freak: The Vampire’s Assistant (2009).

  • After the Thin Man (film by Van Dyke [1936])

    After the Thin Man, American detective film, released in 1936, that was the second and perhaps most successful sequel in the Thin Man series. The films follow the adventures of retired detective Nick Charles and his wife, Nora. Nick (played by William Powell) and Nora (Myrna Loy) return to their

  • After the Wedding (film by Freundlich [2019])

    Julianne Moore: Movies of the early 21st century: …sum to an orphanage in After the Wedding (2019).

  • After Virtue (work by MacIntyre)

    Alasdair MacIntyre: After Virtue and later works: In the two decades following “Notes from the Moral Wilderness,” MacIntyre’s work consisted, in his words, in “heterogeneous, badly organized, sometimes fragmented and often frustrating and messy inquiries” in ethics, political philosophy, and social theory. But from this work emerged…

  • After War (work by Renn)

    Ludwig Renn: His Nachkrieg (1930; After War), a novel about the postwar Weimar Republic, mirrors Renn’s political beliefs. For his teaching at the Marxist school, he suffered two months’ detention. He was arrested by the Nazis on the night of the Reichstag fire, which was blamed on the communists, and…

  • afterbirth (biology)

    mammal: Implantation, gestation, and birth: …the fetal membranes as “afterbirth” (a condition called deciduate) or may be resorbed by the female (nondeciduate). Placentas have been classified on the basis of the relationship between maternal and embryonic tissues. In the simplest nondeciduate placental arrangement, the chorionic villi are in contact with uterine epithelium (the inner…

  • afterbrain (anatomy)

    nervous system: Encephalization: …with the cerebellum, constitutes the metencephalon. The caudal part of the hindbrain remains as the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon).

  • afterburner (mechanical engineering)

    Afterburner, second combustion chamber in a turbojet (q.v.) or turbofan engine, immediately in front of the engine’s exhaust nozzle. The injection and combustion of extra fuel in this chamber provide additional thrust for takeoff or supersonic flight. In most cases the afterburner can nearly

  • aftercastle (naval architecture)

    castle: The forecastle and aftercastle (or sterncastle) are at the bow and stern of the vessel. A top castle was perched on masts of some ships about the 13th century. The first known castles are shown amidships or astern on Roman ships, to afford vantage points in sea skirmishes.…

  • aftercooler (mechanics)

    diesel engine: Diesel combustion: Addition of a turbocharger and aftercooler can enhance the performance of a diesel engine in terms of both power and efficiency.

  • afterdamp (gas)

    mine gas: Afterdamp is the mixture of gases found in a mine after an explosion or fire.

  • aftereffect (psychology)

    movement perception: Movement aftereffect: When a parade is interrupted after some minutes, the pavement may seem to move in the opposite direction to the marchers who have passed. Phenomena similar to this movement aftereffect occur in other senses. For instance, after disembarking, a sailor feels the land to…

  • afterfeather (anatomy)

    bird: Feathers: …with a complex branch, the aftershaft, or afterfeather, that arises at the base of the vane. The aftershaft has the appearance of a second, smaller feather, growing from the base of the first. Down feathers have loose-webbed barbs, all rising from the tip of a very short shaft. Their function…

  • Afterglow (film by Rudolph [1997])

    Julie Christie: …world-weary retired screen actress in Afterglow (1997). Her subsequent films included Troy (2004), Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2004), and Finding Neverland (2004). Christie received a best actress Oscar nomination for her role as a woman with Alzheimer disease who forgets about her husband and falls in love…

  • afterimage (psychology)

    Afterimage, visual illusion in which retinal impressions persist after the removal of a stimulus, believed to be caused by the continued activation of the visual system. The afterimage may be positive, corresponding in colour or brightness to the original image, or negative, being less bright or

  • afterlife (religion)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Mythology of death and afterlife: The beliefs of the Aztec concerning the other world and life after death showed the same syncretism. The old paradise of the rain god Tlaloc, depicted in the Teotihuacán frescoes, opened its gardens to those who died by drowning, lightning, or as a result…

  • Aftermath (album by the Rolling Stones)

    the Rolling Stones: Formation and early music: …dominated their first all-original album, Aftermath (1966), which featured him on marimba, dulcimer, sitar, and assorted keyboards as well as on his customary guitar and harmonica. Thereafter, however, he declined in both creativity and influence, becoming a depressive, drug-sodden liability eventually fired by the band mere weeks before his death.

  • Afternoon Men (work by Powell)

    Anthony Powell: …which published his first novel, Afternoon Men (1931). The book was followed by four more novels on prewar society, including Venusburg (1932) and From a View to a Death (1933).

  • Afternoon of a Faun (ballet by Nijinsky)

    dance: Music: …in L’Après-midi d’un faune (1912; “Afternoon of a Faun”), used Claude Debussy’s music purely for atmosphere, permitting it to set the mood rather than influence the organization of movements.

  • afterpiece (theatre)

    Afterpiece, supplementary entertainment presented after full-length plays in 18th-century England. Afterpieces usually took the form of a short comedy, farce, or pantomime, and were intended to lighten the solemnity of Neoclassical drama and make the bill more attractive to audiences. Long theatre

  • afterripening (botany)

    Afterripening, complex enzymatic and biochemical process that certain plant embryos must undergo before they will germinate. It results at least in part from rapid and extensive water loss because of the conversion of soluble nutrients to their stored forms. This interruption of growth, or the l

  • aftershaft (anatomy)

    bird: Feathers: …with a complex branch, the aftershaft, or afterfeather, that arises at the base of the vane. The aftershaft has the appearance of a second, smaller feather, growing from the base of the first. Down feathers have loose-webbed barbs, all rising from the tip of a very short shaft. Their function…

  • aftershock (geology)

    Aftershock, any of several lower-magnitude earthquakes that follow the main shock of a larger earthquake. An aftershock results from the sudden change in stress occurring within and between rocks and the previous release of stress brought on by the principal earthquake. Aftershocks occur in rocks

  • Aftershocks (novel by Wilson)

    A.N. Wilson: …Winnie and Wolf (2007); and Aftershocks (2018).

  • Aftonbladet (Swedish newspaper)

    Sweden: The conservative era (1815–40): …the establishing of a newspaper, Aftonbladet, which, with Lars Johan Hierta as editor, became the leading journal of the liberal opposition. Simultaneously, the king’s one-man rule, which was exercised through his powerful favourite Magnus Brahe, became even more emphatic. The struggle against the growing liberal opposition, which reached its climax…

  • Aftonian Interglacial Stage (geology)

    Aftonian Interglacial Stage, major division of Pleistocene deposits and time (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) in North America. The Aftonian Interglacial, a time of relatively moderate climatic conditions, followed the Nebraskan Glacial Stage and preceded the Kansan Glacial Stage, both times of

  • aftosa (animal disease)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), a highly contagious viral disease affecting practically all cloven-footed domesticated mammals, including cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. Wild herbivores such as bison, deer, antelopes, reindeer, and giraffes are also susceptible. The horse is resistant to the

  • AFTS (Australian school)

    history of the motion picture: Australia: …a national film school (the Australian Film and Television School, later the Australian Film Television and Radio School, or AFTRS) to train directors and other creative personnel, and initiated a system of lucrative tax incentives to attract foreign investment capital to the new industry. The result was a creative explosion…

  • ʿAfula (Israel)

    ʿAfula, largest city of the Plain of Esdraelon, or Valley of Jezreel (Hebrew: ʿEmeq Yizreʿel), northern Israel. Named for the Arab village of Al-ʿAffūla formerly at that site, it is sometimes called ʿIr Yizreʿel (“City of Jezreel”). It was founded in 1925 on lands acquired by the American Zion

  • Afwerki, Isaias (president of Eritrea)

    Isaias Afwerki, Eritrean independence leader and president of Eritrea from 1993. When Isaias was born in 1946 in Asmara, the city was under the United Nations-mandated control of the United Kingdom. Eritrea itself was federated to Ethiopia in 1952 and was forcibly annexed 10 years later. This

  • Afyon (Turkey)

    Afyonkarahisar, city, western Turkey. It lies along the Akar River at an elevation of 3,392 feet (1,034 metres). In ancient times the town was known as Acroënus. It fell to the Seljuq Turks in the 13th century and was renamed Karahisar (“Black Fortress”) for the ancient fortress situated atop a

  • Afyon Karahisar (Turkey)

    Afyonkarahisar, city, western Turkey. It lies along the Akar River at an elevation of 3,392 feet (1,034 metres). In ancient times the town was known as Acroënus. It fell to the Seljuq Turks in the 13th century and was renamed Karahisar (“Black Fortress”) for the ancient fortress situated atop a

  • Afyonkarahisar (Turkey)

    Afyonkarahisar, city, western Turkey. It lies along the Akar River at an elevation of 3,392 feet (1,034 metres). In ancient times the town was known as Acroënus. It fell to the Seljuq Turks in the 13th century and was renamed Karahisar (“Black Fortress”) for the ancient fortress situated atop a

  • Afẓal al-Dīn Bādil Ibrāhīm ibn ʿAlī Khāqānī Shīrvānī (Persian poet)

    Khāqānī, Persian poet, whose importance rests mainly on his brilliant court poems, satires, and epigrams. His father was a carpenter and a Muslim and his mother was of Nestorian Christian origin. Brought up in poverty, he was fortunate to be educated by his learned uncle. As a young man he composed

  • Afẕal Khān (Bijāpur general)

    Shivaji: Early life and exploits: …an army of 20,000 under Afẕal Khan to defeat him, Shivaji, pretending to be intimidated, enticed the force deep into difficult mountain terrain and then killed Afẕal Khan at a meeting to which he had lured him by submissive appeals. Meanwhile, handpicked troops that had been previously positioned swooped down…

  • Afzwering, Akte van (Netherlands [1581])

    Netherlands: The Union of Utrecht: …followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration (Akte van Afzwering), by which the States General declared that Philip had forfeited his sovereignty over the provinces by his persistent tyranny. This was a declaration of independence for the whole of the Low Countries, but the military and political events of…

  • Ag (chemical element)

    Silver (Ag), chemical element, a white lustrous metal valued for its decorative beauty and electrical conductivity. Silver is located in Group 11 (Ib) and Period 5 of the periodic table, between copper (Period 4) and gold (Period 6), and its physical and chemical properties are intermediate between

  • AG (political party, Nigeria)

    Samuel Ladoke Akintola: …a legal adviser to the Action Group, the dominant Western Region party, and by 1954 was deputy leader under Obafemi Awolowo. He was simultaneously active in the federal government; he became minister of labour in 1952 and later held the portfolios of health, communications, and aviation.

  • Ag Alhabib, Ibrahim (Tuareg musician)

    Tinariwen: …however, was the Tuareg musician Ibrahim Ag Alhabib (b. c. 1960, near Tessalit, Mali). Ag Alhabib was born in the mountainous region of northeastern Mali about the time of the country’s independence and lived through the 1962–64 rebellion of the Tuareg people against a central government from which they felt…

  • AG catalog (astronomy)

    AG catalog, compilation of the positions of all stars brighter than the ninth magnitude, compiled by the Astronomische Gesellschaft of Germany. Friedrich W.A. Argelander, founder of the society, proposed the star catalog in 1867, after completing the Bonner Durchmusterung (“Bonn Survey”). The

  • Ag Hamani, Ahmed Mohamed (prime minister of Mali)
  • ağa (Turkish class)

    Aga, in Turkey, person of high rank or social position, especially during the era of the Ottoman Empire. Combined with the names of military units or administrative departments, it formed the official titles borne by the chief officers of the Janissaries and of the cavalry, by the principal m

  • Aga (former okrug, Russia)

    Agin Buryat, former autonomous okrug (district), southeastern Russia; in 2008 it merged with Chita oblast (region) to form Zabaykalye kray (territory). The Agin Buryat area is situated along the left bank of the lower Onon River, a headstream of the Amur. The district was formed in 1937 for an

  • aga (Turkish class)

    Aga, in Turkey, person of high rank or social position, especially during the era of the Ottoman Empire. Combined with the names of military units or administrative departments, it formed the official titles borne by the chief officers of the Janissaries and of the cavalry, by the principal m

  • Aga Khan (Muslim title)

    Aga Khan, in Shīʿite Islam, title of the imams of the Nizārī Ismāʿilī sect. The title was first granted in 1818 to Ḥasan ʿAlī Shah (1800–81) by the shah of Iran. As Aga Khan I, he later revolted against Iran (1838) and, defeated, fled to India. His eldest son, ʿAlī Shah (died 1885), was briefly Aga

  • Aga Khan I (Nizārī imam)

    Aga Khan I, imam, or spiritual leader, of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlīte sect of the Shīʿite Muslims. He claimed to be directly descended from ʿAlī, the son-in-law of the Prophet Muḥammad, and ʿAlī’s wife Fāṭimah, Muḥammad’s daughter, and also from the Fāṭimid caliphs of Egypt. He was the governor of the

  • Aga Khan II (Nizārī imam)

    Aga Khan II, eldest son of the Aga Khan I. In 1881 he succeeded his father as imam, or spiritual leader, of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlīte sect of Shīʿite Muslims, and, during his short imamate, sought to improve the conditions of the

  • Aga Khan III (Nizārī imam)

    Aga Khan III, only son of the Aga Khan II. He succeeded his father as imam (leader) of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlī sect in 1885. Under the care of his mother, who was born into the ruling house of Iran, he was given an education that was not only Islamic and Oriental but also Western. In addition to

  • Aga Khan IV (Nizārī imam)

    Aga Khan IV, elder son of Prince Aly Khan by his first wife, Joan Yarde-Buller, the daughter of the 3rd Baron Churston. Educated in Switzerland and at Harvard University, he was chosen as successor to the imamate of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlī sect by his grandfather, the Aga Khan III, whom he succeeded in

  • Agacher Strip (region, West Africa)

    Burkina Faso: Independence: …with Mali over the mineral-rich Agacher Strip erupted in a brief border war in December 1985. The dispute was settled in the International Court of Justice at The Hague a year later, to the satisfaction of both countries.

  • Aǧaçli (Turkey)

    Anazarbus, former city of the ancient province of Cilicia in Anatolia that was important in the Roman and Byzantine periods. It was located in what is now south-central Turkey. The original native settlement was refounded by the Romans in 19 bc, following a visit by Augustus. It rivaled Tarsus, the

  • Agade (ancient city, Iraq)

    Sargon: Life.: …that the capital city of Agade, which he built, has never been located and excavated. It was destroyed at the end of the dynasty that Sargon founded and was never again inhabited, at least under the name of Agade.

  • Agades (Niger)

    Agadez, town, central Niger, at the southern edge of the Aïr massif. Agadez is a market town at a crossroads, 460 miles (740 km) northeast of Niamey, the national capital. Once the seat of a Tuareg sultanate (dating from the 15th century), it was occupied by the French in the early1900s. In 1916–17

  • Agadez (Niger)

    Agadez, town, central Niger, at the southern edge of the Aïr massif. Agadez is a market town at a crossroads, 460 miles (740 km) northeast of Niamey, the national capital. Once the seat of a Tuareg sultanate (dating from the 15th century), it was occupied by the French in the early1900s. In 1916–17

  • Agadir (work by Khaïr-Eddine)

    Mohammed Khaïr-Eddine: …worked for the government in Agadir, helping to restore order after an earthquake there. This experience led to his novel Agadir (1967), in which the earthquake comes to represent the upheavals of contemporary Moroccan society.

  • Agadir (Morocco)

    Agadir, city, Atlantic port, southwestern Morocco. The city lies 6 miles (10 km) north of the mouth of the Sous valley. Possibly the site of the ancient Roman Portus Risadir, the city was occupied by the Portuguese from 1505 to 1541, when it fell to the Saʿdī sultanate. After the Moroccan Crisis of

  • Agadir Incident (European history)

    Agadir Incident, event involving a German attempt to challenge French rights in Morocco by sending the gunboat Panther to Agadir in July 1911. The action incited the Second Moroccan Crisis (see Moroccan

  • Agadja (king of Dahomey)

    Agaja, third ruler of the West African kingdom of Dahomey (1708–40), who was able to extend his kingdom southward to the coast and who consolidated and centralized it through important administrative reforms. The first part of Agaja’s reign was by far the more successful. From 1708 to 1727 he

  • Agaguk (work by Thériault)

    Yves Thériault: …genius after the publication of Agaguk (1958), a poignant tale about an Inuit (Eskimo) family faced with the white man’s code of law.

  • Āgahī, Muhammad (poet)

    Chagatai literature: …Shermuhammad Munis and his nephew Muhammad Āgahī. Between 1806 and 1825, Munis, a lyric poet, wrote the poems that constitute his divan, Munis-ul ʿushshäq (“The Most Companionable of the Lovers”). But he is best remembered as the author of Firdaus-ul iqbāl (“Paradise of Felicity”), a history of Khiva begun at…

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