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  • Aethelred Unraed (king of England)

    Ethelred the Unready, king of the English from 978 to 1013 and from 1014 to 1016. He was an ineffectual ruler who failed to prevent the Danes from overrunning England. The epithet “unready” is derived from unraed, meaning “bad counsel” or “no counsel,” and puns on his name, which means “noble

  • Aethelstan (king of Denmark)

    Guthrum, leader of a major Danish invasion of Anglo-Saxon England who waged war against the West Saxon king Alfred the Great (reigned 871–899) and later made himself king of East Anglia (reigned 880–890). Guthrum went to England in the great Danish invasion of 865, and in mid-January 878 he

  • Aethelstan (king of England)

    Athelstan, first West Saxon king to have effective rule over the whole of England. On the death of his father, Edward the Elder, in 924, Athelstan was elected king of Wessex and Mercia, where he had been brought up by his aunt, Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians. Crowned king of the whole country at

  • Aethelweard (English chronicler)

    Aethelweard, English chronicler and likely ealderman of the western provinces (probably the whole of Wessex), a descendant of King Alfred’s brother Aethelred. He wrote, in elaborate and peculiar Latin, a chronicle for his continental kinswoman, Matilda, abbess of Essen. In the printed version of

  • Aethelwold (Anglo-Saxon bishop)

    English literature: Late 10th- and 11th-century prose: Aethelwold, bishop of Winchester and one of the leaders of the reform, translated the Rule of St. Benedict. But the greatest and most prolific writer of this period was his pupil Aelfric, a monk at Cerne and later abbot of Eynsham, whose works include three…

  • Aethelwulf (Anglo-Saxon king)

    Aethelwulf, Anglo-Saxon king in England, the father of King Alfred the Great. As ruler of the West Saxons from 839 to 856, he allied his kingdom of Wessex with Mercia and thereby withstood invasions by Danish Vikings. The son of the great West Saxon king Egbert (ruled 802–839), Aethelwulf ascended

  • Aether (Greek mythology)

    Chaos: Nyx begat Aether, the bright upper air, and Day. Nyx later begat the dark and dreadful aspects of the universe (e.g., Dreams, Death, War, and Famine). This concept tied in with the other early notion that saw in Chaos the darkness of the underworld.

  • aether (theoretical substance)

    Ether, in physics, a theoretical universal substance believed during the 19th century to act as the medium for transmission of electromagnetic waves (e.g., light and X-rays), much as sound waves are transmitted by elastic media such as air. The ether was assumed to be weightless, transparent,

  • Aetherius Society (international organization)

    new religious movement: Scientific NRMs: UFO groups and Scientology: …by Gabriel Green, and the Aetherius Society, organized by George King, maintained that space aliens held the key to the salvation both of the planet as a whole and of every individual on Earth.

  • Aethia pusilla (bird)

    auklet: …of the family is the least auklet (Aethia pusilla), about 15 cm (6 inches) long. It winters far north in rough waters. The plainest and grayest species is Cassin’s auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), a common resident from the Aleutians to Baja California.

  • Aethionema (plant)

    Stonecress, (genus Aethionema), genus of about 65 species of mostly sprawling low herbs of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Most species are native to chalky, dry soil areas of the Mediterranean region, with a few species in eastern Asia. A number of stonecresses are grown as rock garden or

  • Aethionema cordifolium (plant)

    stonecress: Lebanon stonecress (A. cordifolium) has rose-pink flowers on 10- to 25-cm (4- to 10-inch) plants. Fragrant Persian stonecress (A. schistosum) rarely reaches more than 30 cm in height and is cultivated for its fragrant pink flowers.

  • Aethionema grandiflorum (plant)

    stonecress: Persian stonecress (Aethionema grandiflorum) is a perennial with rosy-lavender flowers and grows to over 30 cm (1 foot). Lebanon stonecress (A. cordifolium) has rose-pink flowers on 10- to 25-cm (4- to 10-inch) plants. Fragrant Persian stonecress (A. schistosum) rarely reaches more than 30 cm in…

  • Aethionema schistosum (plant)

    stonecress: Fragrant Persian stonecress (A. schistosum) rarely reaches more than 30 cm in height and is cultivated for its fragrant pink flowers.

  • Aethiopica (work by Heliodorus of Emesa)

    Heliodorus of Emesa: …Greek writer, author of the Aethiopica, the longest and most readable of the extant ancient Greek novels.

  • Aethiopis (work by Arctinus)

    Achilles: The poet Arctinus in his Aethiopis took up the story of the Iliad and related that Achilles, having slain the Ethiopian king Memnon and the Amazon Penthesilea, was himself slain in battle by Priam’s son Paris, whose arrow was guided by Apollo.

  • Aethra (Greek mythology)

    Aethra, in Greek mythology, daughter of King Pittheus of Troezen and mother of Theseus. Thinking to help fulfill the prophecy of the Oracle at Delphi regarding how the childlessness of King Aegeus of Athens would end, Pittheus (whose prospects for a son-in-law had recently vanished) plied Aegeus

  • Aetiocetidae (fossil whale family)

    cetacean: Annotated taxonomy: †Family Aetiocetidae 1 genus, possibly 2. Upper Oligocene. Toothed but with symmetrical skull and other typical mysticete features. North America. †Family Mammolodontidae 1 genus. Upper Oligocene? Lower Miocene? Australia. †Family Kekenodontidae 2 genera. Upper Oligocene. Europe and New Zealand.

  • aetiology (pathology)

    human disease: Classifications of diseases: The etiologic classification of disease is based on the cause, when known. This classification is particularly important and useful in the consideration of biotic disease. On this basis disease might be classified as staphylococcal or rickettsial or fungal, to cite only a few instances. It is…

  • Aëtius (Syrian bishop)

    Aëtius, Syrian bishop and heretic who, during the theological controversies over the Christian Trinity, founded the extreme Arian sect of the Anomoeans (q.v.). His name became a byword for radical heresy. Originating probably near Antioch, Aëtius studied there under Arian masters while supporting

  • Aetius, Flavius (Roman general)

    Flavius Aetius, Roman general and statesman who was the dominating influence over Valentinian III (emperor 425–455). The son of a magister equitum (“master of the cavalry”), Aetius in his youth spent some time as a hostage with the Visigothic leader Alaric, and later with the Huns, thus acquiring

  • Aetna (volcano, Italy)

    Mount Etna, active volcano on the east coast of Sicily. The name comes from the Greek Aitne, from aithō, “I burn.” Mount Etna is the highest active volcano in Europe, its topmost elevation being about 10,900 feet (3,320 metres). Like other active volcanoes, it varies in height, increasing from

  • Aetobatus narinari (fish)

    stingray: …the spotted duckbilled ray (Aetobatus narinari), a large Atlantic and Pacific species that can cause deep wounds with its tail spines, and the bat stingray (Myliobatis californicus), a Pacific form noted for its depredations on the shellfish of San Francisco Bay.

  • Aetolia (district, Greece)

    Aetolia, district of ancient Greece, located directly north of the Gulf of Corinth and bounded by Epirus (north), Locris (east), and Acarnania (west). In modern Greece, Aetolia is linked with Acarnania in the department of Aitolía kai Akarnanía. Aetolia, particularly its cities Pleuron and C

  • Aetolian League (state, ancient Greece)

    Aetolian League, federal state or “sympolity” of Aetolia, in ancient Greece. Probably based on a looser tribal community, it was well-enough organized to conduct negotiations with Athens in 367 bc. It became by c. 340 one of the leading military powers in Greece. Having successfully resisted

  • AEU (British union)

    Amalgamated Engineering and Electrical Union: …through the merger of the Amalgamated Engineering Union (AEU) with the Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunication and Plumbing Union (EETPU).

  • Aextoxicaceae (plant family)

    Berberidopsidales: …of two families (Berberidopsidaceae and Aextoxicaceae) containing a total of four species, found only in Chile and Australia. It is one of the basal orders among the core eudicots (a major clade, or plants with a common genetic lineage).

  • Aextoxicum punctatum (plant)

    Berberidopsidales: …one genus with one species, Aextoxicum punctatum, a rare evergreen tree from Chile. The plant is covered by scales, and the leaves are more or less opposite. The flowers are rather inconspicuous but quite distinctive. Male and female flowers are borne on different plants. The bud is enclosed by bracteoles,…

  • Af climate (meteorology)

    Wet equatorial climate, major climate type of the Köppen classification characterized by consistently high temperatures (around 30 °C [86 °F]), with plentiful precipitation (150–1,000 cm [59–394 inches]), heavy cloud cover, and high humidity, with very little annual temperature variation. Wet

  • AF of L (labour organization)

    American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations: …by the merger of the AFL (founded 1886), which originally organized workers in craft unions, and the CIO (founded 1935), which organized workers by industries.

  • Afakani language

    Ijoid languages: …approximately two million speakers, and Defaka (Afakani), a solitary language spoken by very few. All these languages are found in the relatively narrow coastal Niger River delta region of Nigeria. The Ijo language cluster includes the languages of the Eastern Ijo, namely Kalabari, Okrika, and Ibani; the Brass Ijo, including…

  • Afanasev, Aleksandr Nikolayevich (Russian historian and scholar)

    Aleksandr Nikolayevich Afanasev, historian and scholar of Russian folklore known for his compilation of Russian folktales. Afanasev studied law at Moscow University. His early work included a study of Russian satirical journals of the late 18th century (1859) and commentaries on contemporary

  • Afanassjewa, Tatiana A. (Russian mathematician)

    Paul Ehrenfest: …and his wife, Russian mathematician Tatiana A. Afanassjewa, renounced their religions (Judaism and Christianity, respectively) because such interconfessional marriages were not allowed in Austro-Hungary. Having seriously complicated their chances to find regular academic positions, the couple moved to St. Petersburg, Russia, where they subsisted on temporary teaching incomes between 1907…

  • Afanasyev, Viktor Grigoryevich (Russian journalist)

    Viktor Grigoryevich Afanasyev, Russian journalist (born Nov. 18, 1922, Aktamysh, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic—died April 10, 1994, Moscow, Russia), as deputy editor (1968-74) and editor in chief (1976-89) of the daily newspaper Pravda and editor in chief (1974-76) o

  • Afanasyevskaya culture

    Central Asian arts: Neolithic and Metal Age cultures: …yet often overlapping cultures: the Afanasyevskaya, Andronovo, and Karasuk, so called after the villages near which each culture was identified.

  • āfāqī (people)

    India: Bahmanī consolidation of the Deccan: The new settlers (āfāqīs) also had a political effect, as they soon began competing successfully for important positions within the political hierarchy. The original rebels from the Delhi sultanate and their descendants, who came to be called dakhnīs (i.e., Deccanis—from the Deccan), thought of themselves as the old…

  • Afar (people)

    Afar, a people of the Horn of Africa who speak Afar (also known as ’Afar Af), a language of the Eastern Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. They live in northeastern Ethiopia, southeastern Eritrea, and Djibouti, where, with the Issas, they are the dominant people. It is thought

  • ’Afar Af

    Afar: …Horn of Africa who speak Afar (also known as ’Afar Af), a language of the Eastern Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. They live in northeastern Ethiopia, southeastern Eritrea, and Djibouti, where, with the Issas, they are the dominant people. It is thought that the Afar were the first…

  • Afar Depression (area, Africa)

    continental landform: Tectonic geomorphology: The Afar Triangle at the foot of the Red Sea is shaped by newly formed faults that cut unweathered basaltic lava flows on a newly emergent seafloor in an almost totally tectonic landscape. In the Appalachians, south of the glaciated knobs, an ancient mountain system sheathed…

  • Afar Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (political party, Djibouti)

    Djibouti: Multiparty politics and civil war: …and in late 1991 the Afar Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie; FRUD) took up arms against the Issa-dominated government; the conflict quickly developed into civil war. By mid-1992 FRUD forces occupied some two-thirds of the country, although…

  • Afar language

    Afar: …Horn of Africa who speak Afar (also known as ’Afar Af), a language of the Eastern Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. They live in northeastern Ethiopia, southeastern Eritrea, and Djibouti, where, with the Issas, they are the dominant people. It is thought that the Afar were the first…

  • Afar Triangle (area, Africa)

    continental landform: Tectonic geomorphology: The Afar Triangle at the foot of the Red Sea is shaped by newly formed faults that cut unweathered basaltic lava flows on a newly emergent seafloor in an almost totally tectonic landscape. In the Appalachians, south of the glaciated knobs, an ancient mountain system sheathed…

  • Afars and Issas, French Territory of the

    Djibouti, small strategically located country on the northeast coast of the Horn of Africa. It is situated on the Bab el Mandeb Strait, which lies to the east and separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden. Formerly known as French Somaliland (1896–1967) and the French Territory of the Afars and

  • AFBF (American organization)

    American Farm Bureau Federation (AFBF), largest farmers’ organization in the United States. The AFBF, founded in 1919, is an independent nongovernmental federation of farm bureaus from all 50 states and Puerto Rico. The AFBF was an outgrowth of the county farm bureau movement, which started shortly

  • AFC (mining)

    coal mining: Haulage: …mechanized longwall systems is an armoured face conveyor (AFC). In addition to carrying coal from the face, the AFC serves as the guide for the longwall shearer, which rides on it (see above, Mining methods: Longwall mining).

  • AFC (geology)

    igneous rock: Assimilation: …combined process, referred to as AFC for assimilation–fractional crystallization, has been proposed as the mechanism by which andesites are produced from basalts.

  • AFC (Australian government organization)

    Australia: Film: …AFDC was replaced by the Australian Film Commission (AFC) in 1975, and a more culturally refined Australian film style emerged. Period films such as Peter Weir’s Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975), Gillian Armstrong’s My Brilliant Career (1980), and Bruce Beresford’s Breaker Morant (1980) were well received by critics and audiences…

  • AFC Ajax (Dutch football club)

    Ajax, Dutch professional football (soccer) club formed in 1900 in Amsterdam. Ajax is the Netherlands’ most successful club and is best known for producing a series of entertaining attacking teams. Ajax was promoted to the top Dutch league, the Eredivisie, for the first time in 1911. Under the

  • AFC Asian Cup (football)

    Asian Cup, Asian football (soccer) competition that takes place every four years and is that continent’s premier football tournament. The Asian Cup is governed by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) and was first held in 1956, with South Korea winning the inaugural title. The first Asian Cup

  • AfD (political party, Germany)

    fascism: Later developments: …in 2017, the far-right party Alternative for Germany (Alternative für Deutschland; AfD), which had adopted an overtly anti-Islamic platform, won nearly 13 percent of the presidential vote in national elections, and by the following year it was the second most popular political party in Germany, after the Christian Democrats.

  • Afḍal, al- (Fāṭimid caliph)

    Fāṭimid Dynasty: The end of the Fāṭimid state: Badr’s son and successor al-Afḍal in effect renounced the claims of the Egyptian Fāṭimid dynasty to the universal caliphate.

  • AFDC (Australian government organization)

    Australia: Film: Formed in 1970, the Australian Film Development Corporation (AFDC) was a government-funded agency charged with helping the film industry create commercial films for audiences at home and abroad. The success of Stork (1971) gave birth to a rash of “ocker” comedies, a genre that centred on boorish male characters…

  • Afemai (people)

    African dance: Masquerade dancers: …Ikpelweme ancestral masqueraders of the Afemai people of Bendel State, Nigeria, wear richly coloured, close-fitting costumes with face masks and elaborate headpieces of embroidered cloth, which allow for a dance that accelerates into a climax of rapid, abrupt movement. The Nago and Akakayi ancestral masqueraders of the Gwari wear close-fitting…

  • Afer, Publius Terentius (Roman dramatist)

    Terence, after Plautus the greatest Roman comic dramatist, the author of six verse comedies that were long regarded as models of pure Latin. Terence’s plays form the basis of the modern comedy of manners. Terence was taken to Rome as a slave by Terentius Lucanus, an otherwise unknown Roman senator

  • Afewerki, Isaias (president of Eritrea)

    Isaias Afwerki, Eritrean independence leader and president of Eritrea from 1993. When Isaias was born in 1946 in Asmara, the city was under the United Nations-mandated control of the United Kingdom. Eritrea itself was federated to Ethiopia in 1952 and was forcibly annexed 10 years later. This

  • Affair in Trinidad (film by Sherman [1952])

    Vincent Sherman: Women’s pictures: …Lone Star as well as Affair in Trinidad, the latter marking Rita Hayworth’s return to the screen after she retired to marry Prince Aly Khan; Glenn Ford costarred.

  • affair of honour

    Duel, a combat between persons, armed with lethal weapons, which is held according to prearranged rules to settle a quarrel or a point of honour. It is an alternative to having recourse to the usual process of justice. The judicial duel, or trial by battle, was the earliest form of dueling. Caesar

  • Affair to Remember, An (film by McCarey [1957])

    Leo McCarey: Last films: …McCarey pulled himself together for An Affair to Remember (1957), a remake of Love Affair that is better-remembered than its predecessor, though some would argue that it is not as good. Grant and Deborah Kerr starred, and McCarey cowrote the lyrics to the Oscar-nominated title tune. Rally ’Round the Flag,…

  • Affair, The (American television series)

    Anna Paquin: …season of the TV series The Affair.

  • Affaire Dreyfus, L’  (film by Méliès)

    history of the motion picture: Méliès and Porter: …such as L’Affaire Dreyfus (The Dreyfus Affair, 1899), his first, which followed the logic of linear temporality to establish causal sequences and tell simple stories. By 1902 he had produced the influential 30-scene narrative Le Voyage dans la lune (A Trip to the Moon). Adapted from a novel by…

  • Affaire Lemoine, L’  (work by Proust)

    Marcel Proust: Life and works: …Proust’s favourite French authors—called “L’Affaire Lemoine” (published in Le Figaro), through which he endeavoured to purge his style of extraneous influences. Then, realizing the need to establish the philosophical basis that his novel had hitherto lacked, he wrote the essay “Contre Sainte-Beuve” (published 1954), attacking the French critic’s view…

  • Affandi (Javanese artist)
  • Affected Young Ladies, The (work by Molière)

    Molière: Early life and beginnings in theatre: …play, Les Précieuses ridicules (The Affected Young Ladies), prefigured what was to come. It centres on two provincial young women who are exposed by valets masquerading as masters in scenes that contrast, on the one hand, the women’s desire for elegance coupled with a lack of common sense and,…

  • affection (psychology)
  • affections, doctrine of the (music)

    Doctrine of the affections, theory of musical aesthetics, widely accepted by late Baroque theorists and composers, that embraced the proposition that music is capable of arousing a variety of specific emotions within the listener. At the centre of the doctrine was the belief that, by making use of

  • affective disorder (psychology)

    Affective disorder, mental disorder characterized by dramatic changes or extremes of mood. Affective disorders may include manic (elevated, expansive, or irritable mood with hyperactivity, pressured speech, and inflated self-esteem) or depressive (dejected mood with disinterest in life, sleep

  • affective fallacy (literary criticism)

    Affective fallacy, according to the followers of New Criticism, the misconception that arises from judging a poem by the emotional effect that it produces in the reader. The concept of affective fallacy is a direct attack on impressionistic criticism, which argues that the reader’s response to a

  • affective memory (psychology)

    Théodule-Armand Ribot: …years Ribot became interested in affective and emotional factors in psychology.

  • affective valence (psychology)

    emotion: The variety and complexity of emotions: …of an emotion its “affective valence.”) But the complexity of emotions renders such oppositions suspect. Although love and hate, for example, are often conceived of as polar opposites, it is worth noting (as the plots of so many novels and dramas have made clear) that they frequently coexist not…

  • affector (nerve cell)

    stereotyped response: Reflex: …senses the stimulus, and the affector, the nerve cell that directly activates the muscle. These are a theoretical minimum rather than an observed functional arrangement of cells in the body of an animal (see instinct: Varieties of instinctive behaviour).

  • affects, doctrine of (music)

    Doctrine of the affections, theory of musical aesthetics, widely accepted by late Baroque theorists and composers, that embraced the proposition that music is capable of arousing a variety of specific emotions within the listener. At the centre of the doctrine was the belief that, by making use of

  • Affektenlehre (music)

    Doctrine of the affections, theory of musical aesthetics, widely accepted by late Baroque theorists and composers, that embraced the proposition that music is capable of arousing a variety of specific emotions within the listener. At the centre of the doctrine was the belief that, by making use of

  • Affenkapelle ware (porcelain)

    Affenkapelle ware, (German: “Monkey Orchestra”), a series of figures created by the Meissen porcelain factory in Saxony (now in Germany) about 1747 and imitated later. Believed to be a parody of the Dresden Court Orchestra, the set was modeled by the German sculptors Johann Joachim Kändler and

  • affenpinscher (breed of dog)

    Affenpinscher, breed of toy dog known since the 17th century. It is thought to have originated in Germany, where it was bred to be a ratter—to kill rats, mice, and other small vermin. Like other terriers, it is lively and playful. The affenpinscher stands 9.5 to 11.5 inches (24 to 29 cm) tall and

  • Affentheurliche und ungeheurliche Geschichtsschrift (work by Fischart)

    Johann Fischart: Fischart’s principal work is the Affentheurliche und ungeheurliche Geschichtsschrift (1575)—renamed Geschichtklitterung in later editions (1582, 1590)—a greatly expanded prose version of François Rabelais’s Gargantua. Also noteworthy is his Das glückhafft Schiff von Zürich (1576; “The Ship of Good Fortune from Zurich”), one of the most carefully constructed 16th-century narrative poems,…

  • afferent arteriole (blood vessel)

    renal system: Arteries and arterioles: …off short branches called the afferent arterioles, which carry blood to the glomeruli where they divide into four to eight loops of capillaries in each glomerulus.

  • afferent impulse (biology)

    nervous system: Nervous systems: This incoming excitation, or afferent impulse, then passes along an extension, or axon, of the receptor to an adjustor, called an interneuron. (All neurons are capable of conducting an impulse, which is a brief change in the electrical charge on the cell membrane. Such an impulse can be transmitted,…

  • afferent nerve (anatomy)

    human sexual activity: Nervous system factors: …to the spinal cord (afferent nerves), transmitting sensory stimuli and those that come from the cord (efferent nerves) transmitting impulses to activate muscles, and (2) the autonomic system, the primary function of which is the regulation and maintenance of the body processes necessary to life, such as heart rate,…

  • afferent nerve fibre (anatomy)

    nerve: …divided into two categories, namely, sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). The fibres of these categories and their subdivisions constitute the functional components of the nerves. The combinations of such components vary in the individual cranial nerves; in the spinal nerves they are more uniform.

  • affidavit (law)

    Affidavit, a written statement of fact made voluntarily, confirmed by the oath or affirmation of the party making it, and signed before a notary or other officer empowered to administer such oaths. Affidavits generally name the place of execution and certify that the person making it states certain

  • Affiliated Computer Services (American company)

    Xerox: …oversaw Xerox’s 2010 acquisition of Affiliated Computer Services (ACS), which was involved in outsourcing business services. The transaction reflected a growing trend among technology companies to focus on services over products. However, this move, as well as others, failed to reverse Xerox’s losses. In 2017 it spun off ACS and…

  • affination (food processing)

    sugar: Affination and melting: Affination is the mingling of raw sugar with a warm, heavy syrup, which removes the molasses coating from the sugar crystal. The syrup and crystals are separated in a spinning centrifugal basket, and the crystals are further “washed” by a water spray.…

  • affination (metallurgy)

    silver processing: …silver and gold is called affination. Both these processes are used on a commercial scale for separating silver and gold.

  • affine (kinship)

    Australian Aboriginal peoples: Kinship, marriage, and the family: Affines (relatives by marriage) were often classified with consanguineal (blood) relatives, and certain terms indicated potential spouses or affines. Relationships between actual brothers and sisters were often restricted and involved some form of avoidance. The most outstanding avoidance relationship was between a man and his…

  • affinity (dyes)

    dye: Dye retention: …such interactions is termed its substantivity. Dyes can be classified by their substantivity, which depends, in part, on the nature of the substituents in the dye molecule.

  • affinity (chemistry)

    drug: Receptors: The term affinity describes the tendency of a drug to bind to a receptor; efficacy (sometimes called intrinsic activity) describes the ability of the drug-receptor complex to produce a physiological response. Together, the affinity and the efficacy of a drug determine its potency.

  • affinity (kinship)

    Australian Aboriginal peoples: Kinship, marriage, and the family: Affines (relatives by marriage) were often classified with consanguineal (blood) relatives, and certain terms indicated potential spouses or affines. Relationships between actual brothers and sisters were often restricted and involved some form of avoidance. The most outstanding avoidance relationship was between a man and his…

  • affinity chromatography (chemistry)

    chromatography: Subsequent developments: A technique exhibiting great selectivity, affinity chromatography, was first described by Pedro Cuatrecasas and his coworkers in 1968. In these separations, a biomolecule such as an enzyme binds to a substrate attached to the solid phase while other components are eluted. The retained molecule can subsequently be eluted by changing…

  • affinity number (chemistry)

    Amedeo Avogadro: Molecular hypothesis of combining gases: …he termed the element’s “affinity number.” Between 1843 and his retirement in 1850, Avogadro wrote four memoirs on atomic volumes and designated affinity numbers for the elements using atomic volumes according to a method “independent of all chemical considerations”—a claim that held little appeal for chemists.

  • affirmation (logic)

    history of logic: Categorical forms: …equivalently “No β is an α.” Particular affirmative: “Some β is an α.” Particular negative: “Some β is not an α.” Indefinite affirmative: “β is an α.” Indefinite negative: “β is not an α.” Singular affirmative: “x is an α,” where “x” refers to only

  • affirmation (law)

    Affirmation, in law, a promise by a witness concerning testimony allowed in place of an oath to those who cannot, because of conscience, swear an oath. For example, members of the Society of Friends (Quakers), Jehovah’s Witnesses, and other persons who have objections against taking an oath are

  • affirmation of the consequent (logic)

    applied logic: Formal fallacies: …B; not-A; therefore, not-B”) and affirming the consequent (“If A, then B; B; therefore, A”). The invalid nature of these fallacies is illustrated in the following examples:

  • affirmative action

    Affirmative action, in the United States, an active effort to improve employment or educational opportunities for members of minority groups and for women. Affirmative action began as a government remedy to the effects of long-standing discrimination against such groups and has consisted of

  • affirmative covenant (property law)

    servitude: They include affirmative covenants, which require the landowner to make payments, provide services, or render some other performance, and negative covenants, which require the landowner to refrain from doing something. Negative covenants that restrict the uses of a parcel of the land are called restrictive covenants. Typical…

  • affirmative defense (law)

    procedural law: Finding the verdict: …law regards these as “affirmative defenses” and requires the defendant to provide at least some evidence that they were a factor.

  • affirmative easement (law)

    property law: Easements and profits: …one’s neighbours (known as an affirmative easement). Exceptionally, it is the right to prevent a landowner from doing something on his land that he would otherwise be privileged to do (known as a negative easement). Examples of affirmative easements include rights-of-way, the privilege of using land for pasture, the privilege…

  • affirmative proposition (logic)

    history of logic: Categorical forms: …equivalently “No β is an α.” Particular affirmative: “Some β is an α.” Particular negative: “Some β is not an α.” Indefinite affirmative: “β is an α.” Indefinite negative: “β is not an α.” Singular affirmative: “x is an α,” where “x” refers to only

  • Affirmed (American racehorse)

    Affirmed, (foaled 1975), American racehorse (Thoroughbred) who in 1978 became the 11th winner of the Triple Crown of American horse racing—the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes. Affirmed was retired at the end of 1979 after winning 22 of his 29 career races and earning

  • affirming the consequent (logic)

    thought: Deduction: In one such fallacy, “affirming the consequent,” the categorical proposition affirms the consequent of the conditional, and the conclusion affirms the antecedent, as in the example:

  • affix (grammar)

    Affix, a grammatical element that is combined with a word, stem, or phrase to produce derived or inflected forms. There are three main types of affixes: prefixes, infixes, and suffixes. A prefix occurs at the beginning of a word or stem (sub-mit, pre-determine, un-willing); a suffix at the end

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