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  • Adventure of Iron Pussy, The (film by Weerasethakul [2003])

    Apichatpong Weerasethakul: …jai tor ra nong (2003; The Adventure of Iron Pussy), a tongue-in-cheek Asian soap opera, the third in a series featuring a transvestite secret agent.

  • adventure playground (architecture)

    playground: …playground design is the “adventure” playground. Inspired by Scandinavian and British playground reformers, this design attempts to allow for a child-oriented perspective in play; children are, for instance, encouraged in these playgrounds to build their own appropriate play structures. This shift in philosophy can also be seen in the…

  • Adventure Racing

    The final competition of the 2012 Adventure Racing World Series (ARWS) climaxed on September 20 at the Raid in France world championships in Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France, when the winning Team Seagate, made up of three men and one woman from New Zealand, paddled their two two-person sea kayaks

  • adventure show (type of radio and television program)

    radio: Juvenile action and adventure series: The first radio shows for children were heard only on local stations, such as Uncle Wip, which was on Philadelphia’s WIP in 1921. The best-known host of this kind of show was Uncle Don Carney, who became a radio institution with his show…

  • Adventurer, The (British periodical)

    Samuel Johnson: From The Rambler to The Adventurer: With The Rambler (1750–52), a twice-weekly periodical, Johnson entered upon the most successful decade of his career. He wrote over 200 numbers, and stories abound of his finishing an essay while the printer’s boy waited at the door; in his last essay he…

  • Adventures du baron de Faeneste (work by Aubigné)

    Théodore-Agrippa d' Aubigné: …ranges more widely in the Adventures du baron de Faeneste (1617), in which the Gascon Faeneste represents attachment to outward appearances (le paraître) while honest squire Énay, embodying the principle of true being (l’être), tries to clear Faeneste’s mind of cant. The Histoire universelle deals with the period from 1553…

  • Adventures in Radioisotope Research (work by Hevesy)

    Georg Charles von Hevesy: …published works include the two-volume Adventures in Radioisotope Research (1962).

  • Adventures of a Younger Son (work by Trelawny)

    Edward John Trelawny: …midshipman in his semiautobiographical novel Adventures of a Younger Son (1831).

  • Adventures of Augie March, The (novel by Bellow)

    The Adventures of Augie March, novel by Saul Bellow, published in 1953. It is a picaresque story of a poor Jewish youth from Chicago, his progress, sometimes highly comic, through the world of the 20th century, and his attempts to make sense of it. The book won the National Book Award for fiction

  • Adventures of Baron Munchausen, The (film by Gilliam [1988])

    Terry Gilliam: Gilliam’s next film, The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1988), was plagued by so many budget problems and production setbacks that it inspired talk of a “Gilliam curse.” Nevertheless, it emerged as one of his most visually stunning works.

  • Adventures of Baron Munchausen, The (work by Raspe)

    Baron Münchhausen: …the basis for the collection The Adventures of Baron Munchausen.

  • Adventures of David Simple, The (novel by Fielding)

    English literature: Other novelists: …and gravely about friendship in The Adventures of David Simple (1744, with a sequel in 1753). Charlotte Lennox in The Female Quixote (1752) and Richard Graves in The Spiritual Quixote (1773) responded inventively to the influence of Miguel de Cervantes, also discernible in the

  • Adventures of Eovaai, Princess of Ijaveo, The (novel by Haywood)

    Eliza Haywood: …subsequently wrote the experimental novel The Adventures of Eovaai, Princess of Ijaveo (1736) and attacked Samuel Richardson’s landmark Pamela (1740) with her satirical novel Anti-Pamela (1741).

  • Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom, The (novel by Smollett)

    Tobias Smollett: The Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom (now, with The History and Adventures of an Atom, the least regarded of his novels) appeared in 1753. It sold poorly, and Smollett was forced into borrowing from friends and into further hack writing. In June 1753 he visited…

  • Adventures of Gil Blas of Santillane, The (work by Lesage)

    Alain-René Lesage: Lesage’s Histoire de Gil Blas de Santillane (1715–1735; The Adventures of Gil Blas of Santillane) is one of the earliest realistic novels. It concerns the education and adventures of an adaptable young valet as he progresses from one master to the next. In the service of…

  • Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan (work by Morier)

    James Justinian Morier: …whose fame depends on The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan (1824), a picaresque romance of Persian life that long influenced English ideas of Persia; its Persian translation (1905) led to the development of the modern Persian novel of social criticism. The first of a series of novels written by…

  • Adventures of Harry Richmond, The (novel by Meredith)

    George Meredith: Mature works.: With The Adventures of Harry Richmond (1871), however, Meredith returned to what was his forte—romantic comedy. Once more he wrote a close study of a father–son relationship, only this time the father is an impostor who out-Micawbers Dickens’ Mr. Micawber in his belief that something will…

  • Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (novel by Twain)

    Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, novel by Mark Twain, published in the United Kingdom in 1884 and in the United States in 1885. The book’s narrator is Huckleberry Finn, a youngster whose artless vernacular speech is admirably adapted to detailed and poetic descriptions of scenes, vivid

  • Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The (novel by Twain)

    Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, novel by Mark Twain, published in the United Kingdom in 1884 and in the United States in 1885. The book’s narrator is Huckleberry Finn, a youngster whose artless vernacular speech is admirably adapted to detailed and poetic descriptions of scenes, vivid

  • Adventures of Ideas (work by Whitehead)

    Western philosophy: Bergson, Dewey, and Whitehead: …Process and Reality (1929), and Adventures of Ideas (1933)—was directed.

  • Adventures of John Blake: Mystery of the Ghost Ship, The (graphic novel by Pullman)

    Philip Pullman: …he published the graphic novel The Adventures of John Blake: Mystery of the Ghost Ship, which featured illustrations by Fred Fordham. Pullman’s works were translated into many languages, and he was internationally one of the best-known writers for children at the turn of the 21st century.

  • Adventures of Lucky Pierre: Director’s Cut, The (novel by Coover)

    Robert Coover: …Wife (1996); Ghost Town (1998); The Adventures of Lucky Pierre: Director’s Cut (2002), the tale of an idolized pornographic-film actor who lives in a society of limitless sexual extravagance; and Noir (2010), Coover’s metafictional take on the hard-boiled detective story. His later novels included The Brunist Day of Wrath (2014),…

  • Adventures of Marco Polo, The (film by Mayo [1938])

    Archie Mayo: Films of the 1930s: Mayo’s first freelance project was The Adventures of Marco Polo (1938), a tongue-in-cheek account (scripted by Sherwood) of the Venetian adventurer (Gary Cooper). Next was Youth Takes a Fling (1938), a romantic comedy with a New York shopgirl (Andrea Leeds) pursuing a truck driver (McCrea). They Shall Have Music (1939),…

  • Adventures of Mark Twain, The (film by Rapper [1944])

    Irving Rapper: Heyday at Warner Brothers: The Adventures of Mark Twain (1944) was a rather plodding take on the great writer’s life; March played the title role, and Alexis Smith was cast as his wife, Olivia. Rapper next made The Corn Is Green (1945), an adaptation of a hit Broadway play…

  • Adventures of Master F. J. (work by Gascoigne)

    English literature: Prose styles, 1550–1600: The unique exception is Gascoigne’s Adventures of Master F.J. (1573), a tale of thwarted love set in an English great house, which is the first success in English imaginative prose. Gascoigne’s story has a surprising authenticity and almost psychological realism (it may be autobiographical), but even so it is heavily…

  • Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, The (radio and television program)

    radio: Situation comedy: …radio and television, as was The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, which starred former bandleader Ozzie Nelson, his real-life wife, Harriet Hilliard Nelson, and, eventually, their two sons, David and Ricky.

  • Adventures of Peregrine Pickle, In Which Are Included Memoirs of a Lady of Quality, The (novel by Smollett)

    Peregrine Pickle, picaresque novel by Tobias Smollett, published in four volumes in 1751 and modified for a second edition in 1758. This very long work concerning the adventures of the egotistical scoundrel Peregrine Pickle is a comic and savage portrayal of 18th-century society. Peregrine’s

  • Adventures of Prince Achmed, The (animated cartoon)

    animation: Animation in Europe: Her The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926) may have been the first animated feature; it required more than two years of patient work and earned her the nickname “The Mistress of Shadows,” as bestowed on her by Jean Renoir. Her other works include Dr. Dolittle and…

  • Adventures of Robin Hood, The (film by Curtiz and Keighley [1938])

    The Adventures of Robin Hood, American romantic adventure film, released in 1938, that is considered one of the great cinematic adventures and starred Errol Flynn in what became the defining role of his career. The film tells the tale of Robin Hood, with Flynn as the legendary bandit trying to aid

  • Adventures of Roderick Random, The (novel by Smollett)

    Roderick Random, picaresque novel by Tobias Smollett, published in 1748. Modeled after Alain-René Lesage’s Gil Blas, the novel consists of a series of episodes that give an account of the life and times of the Scottish rogue Roderick Random. At various times rich and then poor, the hero goes to

  • Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, The (film by Werker [1939])

    The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, American mystery-detective film, released in 1939, that was the second to feature the popular pairing of Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce as the classic Arthur Conan Doyle characters Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, respectively. It was ostensibly based on a play by

  • Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, The (collection by Conan Doyle)

    The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, a collection of 12 Sherlock Holmes tales, previously published in The Strand Magazine, written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and published in 1892. "To Sherlock Holmes she is always ’the woman.’" So begins "A Scandal in Bohemia," the first story in the collection.

  • Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves, The (novel by Smollett)

    Tobias Smollett: …his experiences for his novel The Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves (1762), which was serialized in The British Magazine, of which Smollett became editor in 1760.

  • Adventures of the Borrowers (work by Norton)

    children's literature: The creation of worlds: …four volumes (1952–61) about the Borrowers, with their brief pendant, Poor Stainless (1971), ask the reader to accept only a single impossibility, that in a quiet country house, under the grandfather clock, live the tiny Clock family: Pod, Homily, and their daughter Arrietty. All that follows from this premise is…

  • Adventures of the Ten Princes, The (work by Dandin)

    Dandin: …2005 by Isabelle Onians as What Ten Young Men Did, and the Kavyadarsha (“The Mirror of Poetry”).

  • Adventures of Tintin, The (film by Spielberg [2011])

    Steven Spielberg: 2000 and beyond: The Adventures of Tintin (2011) was an adaptation of the long-running comic strip created by the French artist Hergé. The character Tintin had long fascinated Spielberg, who had acquired film rights from Hergé’s widow in the early 1980s only to have them lapse when the…

  • Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The (novel by Twain)

    Aunt Polly: in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876).

  • Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The (film by Taurog [1938])

    Norman Taurog: Musical comedies and Boys Town: Selznick production of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1938). It is arguably the best screen version of the classic tale, with stunning cinematography by James Wong Howe and notable production designs by William Cameron Menzies; several other directors, including George Cukor and William A. Wellman, also worked on…

  • Adventurous Simplicissimus, The (novel by Grimmelshausen)

    Simplicissimus, novel by Hans Jacob Christoph von Grimmelshausen, the first part of which was published in 1669 as Der abentheurliche Simplicissimus Teutsch (“The Adventurous Simplicissimus Teutsch”). Considered one of the most significant works of German literature, it contains a satirical and

  • adverb (grammar)

    Romance languages: Morphology: …most common method of forming adverbs from adjectives (suffixing of Latin mente ‘mind’) has become in most languages a morphological process, although Spanish and Portuguese retain traces of the earlier stage in phrases such as severa e (y) cruelmente ‘severely and cruelly.’

  • adversary procedure (law)

    Adversary procedure, in law, one of the two methods of exposing evidence in court (the other being the inquisitorial procedure). The adversary procedure requires the opposing sides to bring out pertinent information and to present and cross-examine witnesses. This procedure is observed primarily in

  • adversary system (law)

    Adversary procedure, in law, one of the two methods of exposing evidence in court (the other being the inquisitorial procedure). The adversary procedure requires the opposing sides to bring out pertinent information and to present and cross-examine witnesses. This procedure is observed primarily in

  • adverse impact (law)

    Disparate impact, judicial theory developed in the United States that allows challenges to employment or educational practices that are nondiscriminatory on their face but have a disproportionately negative effect on members of legally protected groups. When the U.S. Supreme Court first recognized

  • adverse possession (law)

    Adverse possession, in Anglo-American property law, holding of property under some claim of right with the knowledge and against the will of one who has a superior ownership interest in the property. Its legal significance is traced back to the English common-law concept known as seisin, a

  • adverse selection (economics)

    Adverse selection, term used in economics and insurance to describe a market process in which buyers or sellers of a product or service are able to use their private knowledge of the risk factors involved in the transaction to maximize their outcomes, at the expense of the other parties to the

  • Adverse, Anthony (fictional character)

    Anthony Adverse, fictional character, hero of the historical novel Anthony Adverse (1933) by Hervey Allen. Adverse is an illegitimate but well-born child and the heir to his wealthy grandfather, under whom he

  • Adversus haereses (work by Irenaeus)

    Christianity: Aversion of heresy: the establishment of orthodoxy: Bishop Irenaeus of Lyon, in Against Heresies, ranked Marcion with the “gnostics” because at least one facet of Marcion’s error was his depreciation of the material creation. The gnostics invented complex cosmogonies in order to remove the true God from responsibility for the evils of matter, release from which was…

  • Adversus Hermogenem (treatise by Tertullian)

    Tertullian: Literary activities.: …evil god of the Jews), Adversus Hermogenem (“Against Hermogenes,” a Carthaginian painter who claimed that God created the world out of preexisting matter), Adversus Valentinianos (“Against Valentinus,” an Alexandrian Gnostic, or religious dualist), and De resurrectione carnis (“Concerning the Resurrection of the Flesh”). He also wrote the first Christian book…

  • Adversus Jovinianum (work by Saint Jerome)

    St. Jerome: Major literary works: …he wrote a polemical diatribe Adversus Jovinianum (393) that was frequently brilliant but needlessly crude, excessively influenced by the 2nd- and 3rd-century theologian Tertullian, whose writings were at times unnecessarily harsh toward marriage. Against the priest Vigilantius, Jerome dictated in one night a defense of monasticism, clerical celibacy, and certain…

  • Adversus Marcionem (treatise by Tertullian)

    Tertullian: Literary activities.: …theological problems against specific opponents: Adversus Marcionem (“Against Marcion,” an Anatolian heretic who believed that the world was created by the evil god of the Jews), Adversus Hermogenem (“Against Hermogenes,” a Carthaginian painter who claimed that God created the world out of preexisting matter), Adversus Valentinianos (“Against Valentinus,” an Alexandrian…

  • Adversus mathematicos (work by Sextus Empiricus)

    skepticism: Ancient skepticism: …his Outlines of Pyrrhonism and Adversus mathematicos, Sextus presented the tropes developed by previous Pyrrhonists. The 10 tropes attributed to Aenesidemus showed the difficulties encountered by attempts to ascertain the truth or reliability of judgments based on sense information, owing to the variability and differences of human and animal perceptions.…

  • Adversus nationes (work by Arnobius)

    patristic literature: Late 2nd to early 4th century: …by 300) sought in his Adversus nationes (“Against the Pagans”), like Tertullian and Cyprian before him, to free Christianity from the charge of having caused all the evils plaguing the empire, but ended up by launching a violent attack on the contemporary pagan cults. A surprising feature of this ill-constructed,…

  • Adversus Praxean (work by Tertullian)

    Monarchianism: …by Tertullian in the tract Adversus Praxean (c. 213), an important contribution to the doctrine of the Trinity.

  • advertisement (promotion)

    Advertisement, a public announcement—generally print, audio, or video—made to promote a commodity, service, or idea through various media, including billboards, direct mail, print magazines and newspapers, radio, television, and the World Wide Web. While advertising is used to a limited extent in

  • Advertisements for Myself (work by Mailer)

    Norman Mailer: …for attention with the book Advertisements for Myself, a collection of unfinished stories, parts of novels, essays, reviews, notebook entries, or ideas for fiction. The miscellany’s naked self-revelation won the admiration of a younger generation seeking alternative styles of life and art. Mailer’s subsequent novels, though not critical successes, were…

  • Advertisements from Parnassus in Two Centuries with the Politick Touch-stone (work by Boccalini)

    Traiano Boccalini: …Earl of Monmouth, and called Advertisements from Parnassus; in Two Centuries with the Politick Touch-stone (1656). This and other European translations influenced Miguel de Cervantes, Joseph Addison, and Jonathan Swift.

  • advertising (communication)

    Advertising, the techniques and practices used to bring products, services, opinions, or causes to public notice for the purpose of persuading the public to respond in a certain way toward what is advertised. Most advertising involves promoting a good that is for sale, but similar methods are used

  • advertising agency (business)

    marketing: Advertising agencies: Advertising agencies are responsible for initiating, managing, and implementing paid marketing communications. In addition, some agencies have diversified into other types of marketing communications, including public relations, sales promotion, interactive media, and direct marketing. Agencies typically consist of four departments: account management, a…

  • advertising campaign (communication)

    Advertising, the techniques and practices used to bring products, services, opinions, or causes to public notice for the purpose of persuading the public to respond in a certain way toward what is advertised. Most advertising involves promoting a good that is for sale, but similar methods are used

  • advertising coloration (biology)

    Advertising coloration, in animals, the use of biological coloration to make an organism unique and highly visible as compared with the background, thereby providing easily perceived information as to its location, identity, and movement. Such advertisement may serve the function of attracting

  • advertising fraud (crime)

    Advertising fraud, misleading representation of goods or services conveyed through false or fraudulent claims or statements that are promoted by a business or other advertising agent. A statement or representation in an advertisement may also be false or fraudulent when it constitutes a half-truth.

  • Advertising Standards Authority (British organization)

    consumer advocacy: Controls on advertising: …Internet is regulated by the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), an independent body. The ASA enforces an industry-written code on behalf of a statutory regulator, the Office of Communications (OFCOM). The ASA bans the use, for instance, of subliminal advertising (methods by which the listener or viewer might be influenced without…

  • advice (politics)

    American Association of Political Consultants: …organization founded in 1969 for political consultants, lobbyists, media producers, fund-raisers, and campaign workers at all levels of government. The American Association of Political Consultants (AAPC) is a multi-partisan organization. Headquarters are in McLean, Virginia.

  • Advice on Establishing a Library (work by Naudé)

    library: Library planning: …pour dresser une bibliothèque (1627; Advice on Establishing a Library). This work marked the transition to the age of modern library practice. One of its first fruits was the library of the diarist Samuel Pepys; in the last 14 years of his life Pepys devoted much time to the organization…

  • Advice to the Tories Who Have Taken the Oath (work by Berkeley)

    George Berkeley: Period of his major works: …his loyalty by publishing his Advice to the Tories Who Have Taken the Oaths. He was abroad again from 1716 to 1720 in Italy, acting as tutor to George Ashe, son of the bishop of Clogher (later of Derry); his four travel diaries give vivid pictures of sightseeing in Rome…

  • Advil (drug)

    Ibuprofen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of minor pain, fever, and inflammation. Like aspirin, ibuprofen works by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins, body chemicals that sensitize nerve endings. The drug may irritate the gastrointestinal tract. Marketed under

  • Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque (work by Naudé)

    library: Library planning: …pour dresser une bibliothèque (1627; Advice on Establishing a Library). This work marked the transition to the age of modern library practice. One of its first fruits was the library of the diarist Samuel Pepys; in the last 14 years of his life Pepys devoted much time to the organization…

  • Advise & Consent (film by Preminger [1962])

    Otto Preminger: Later films: Advise & Consent (1962) was a popular adaptation of the Allen Drury novel about political gamesmanship in Washington, D.C. The film, which centred on the Senate confirmation for a secretary of state nominee, boasted a fine cast that included Fonda, Charles Laughton, Lew Ayres, Burgess…

  • Advise and Consent (film by Preminger [1962])

    Otto Preminger: Later films: Advise & Consent (1962) was a popular adaptation of the Allen Drury novel about political gamesmanship in Washington, D.C. The film, which centred on the Senate confirmation for a secretary of state nominee, boasted a fine cast that included Fonda, Charles Laughton, Lew Ayres, Burgess…

  • advising (politics)

    American Association of Political Consultants: …organization founded in 1969 for political consultants, lobbyists, media producers, fund-raisers, and campaign workers at all levels of government. The American Association of Political Consultants (AAPC) is a multi-partisan organization. Headquarters are in McLean, Virginia.

  • Advisory Committee on Education in the Colonies (United Kingdom)

    education: Education in British colonies and former colonies: In 1925 an Advisory Committee on Education in the Colonies, created in 1924 and presided over by William Ormsby-Gore, published an important report. The ideas, principles, and methods formulated in this document covered the matters involved in defining a policy—namely, the encouragement and control of private educational institutions,…

  • Advisory Committee on Uranium (United States)

    nuclear weapon: Producing a controlled chain reaction: The president appointed an Advisory Committee on Uranium, which reported on November 1, 1939, that a chain reaction in uranium was possible, though unproved. Chain-reaction experiments with carbon and uranium were started in New York City at Columbia University, and in March 1940 it was confirmed that the isotope…

  • Advisory Neighborhood Commission (municipal commission, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Washington, D.C.: Government: …the District charter to establish Advisory Neighborhood Commissions (ANCs), and the first elections of the commissioners were held two years later. The ANCs, representing more than 100 neighbourhoods in eight wards, are made up of residents who advise and present recommendations on policies affecting their neighbourhood.

  • advisory opinion (law)

    Advisory opinion, in law, the opinion of a judge, a court, or a law official, such as an attorney general, upon a question of law raised by a public official or legislative body. Advisory opinions adjudicate nothing and are not binding, though courts sometimes cite them as evidence of the law.

  • advocacy network (social and political science)

    Advocacy network, organization consisting of independent groups that collaborate in the pursuit of political change. Advocacy networks are made up primarily of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) but may also include individuals or groups from the public or private sector, foundations, academia,

  • advocacy poll (public opinion)

    public opinion: Public opinion polling: …impact, a practice known as advocacy polling. (See below Nonscientific polling.)

  • advocate (law)

    Advocate, in law, a person who is professionally qualified to plead the cause of another in a court of law. As a technical term, advocate is used mainly in those legal systems that derived from the Roman law. In Scotland the word refers particularly to a member of the bar of Scotland, the Faculty

  • advocate general (Scottish law officer)

    Scotland: Justice: The advocate general for Scotland, who is the law officer of the United Kingdom responsible for Scottish matters, acts as an adviser to the British government and to the Scottish lord advocate and solicitor general.

  • Advocate of Moral Reform (American periodical)

    Advocate of Moral Reform, American periodical that, between 1835 and about 1845, campaigned to rescue women who were victims of moral and physical corruption and to reassert woman’s centrality to family life. First published in New York City in 1835, the Advocate of Moral Reform gained some 20,000

  • Advocates, Faculty of (Scottish law)

    Faculty of Advocates, the members of the bar of Scotland. Barristers are the comparable group in England. The faculty grew out of the Scots Act of 1532, which established the Court of Session in Scotland. The advocates had, and still have, the sole right of audience in the Court of Session and High

  • advocatus diaboli (Roman Catholicism)

    Devil’s advocate, in the Roman Catholic church, the promoter of the faith, who critically examines the life of and miracles attributed to an individual proposed for beatification or canonization. He is popularly called the devil’s advocate because his presentation of facts includes everything

  • Advokat (German law)

    advocate: …was abolished in 1879, the Advokat was the adviser rather than the pleader. The term has traditionally been applied to pleaders in courts of canon law, and thus in England those who practiced before the courts of civil and canon law were called advocates. In the United States the term…

  • advp (measurement system)

    Avoirdupois weight, traditional system of weight in the British Imperial System and the United States Customary System of weights and measures. The name derives ultimately from French avoir de pois (“goods of weight” or “property”). The avoirdupois pound contains 7,000 grains, or 256 drams of

  • Adwa (Ethiopia)

    Adwa, town, northern Ethiopia. Adwa lies on the east-west highway between Aksum and Adi Grat at its junction with the road north to Asmara (Asmera), in Eritrea. Adwa is a market centre (grains, honey, hides, coffee) for the Tigray people. The town is located 10 miles (16 km) west of an area of

  • Adwa, Battle of (Italy-Ethiopia [1896])

    Battle of Adwa, (March 1, 1896), military clash at Adwa, in north-central Ethiopia, between the Ethiopian army of Emperor Menilek II and Italian forces. The Ethiopian army’s victory checked Italy’s attempt to build an empire in Africa. The victory had further significance for being the first

  • Adwick le Street (England, United Kingdom)

    Adwick le Street, town, Doncaster metropolitan borough, metropolitan county of South Yorkshire, north-central England, historic county of Yorkshire, northern England. It lies about 4 miles (6 km) northwest of Doncaster. The town derives its name from the great north British Roman routeway, Ermine

  • ʿAdwiyyah (Sufi sect)

    Yazīdī: …Sufi order known as the ʿAdwiyyah. Although his own teachings were strictly orthodox, the beliefs of his followers soon blended with local traditions. A distinct Yazīdī community living in the environs of Mosul appears in historical sources as early as the middle of the 12th century.

  • Ady, Endre (Hungarian poet)

    Endre Ady, one of Hungary’s greatest lyric poets. Ady was born into an impoverished but noble family. On leaving school he studied law for a time, but in 1899 he published an insignificant volume of verse, Versek, and from 1900 until his death he worked as a journalist. In 1903 he published another

  • Adygea (republic, Russia)

    Adygeya, republic, southwestern Russia. It extends from the Kuban River south to the Caucasus foothills. Adygeya was established as an oblast (province) in 1922 for the Adyghian people, one of two major branches of the Circassians (Cherkess), who make up about one-fifth of its total population.

  • Adygeya (republic, Russia)

    Adygeya, republic, southwestern Russia. It extends from the Kuban River south to the Caucasus foothills. Adygeya was established as an oblast (province) in 1922 for the Adyghian people, one of two major branches of the Circassians (Cherkess), who make up about one-fifth of its total population.

  • Adyghian (people)

    Adygeya: …(province) in 1922 for the Adyghian people, one of two major branches of the Circassians (Cherkess), who make up about one-fifth of its total population. Apart from the foothills in the south, which are covered in deciduous forest, most of Adygeya is an undulating plain with rich soils that are…

  • Adyghian language

    Caucasian languages: Abkhazo-Adyghian languages: …consists of the Abkhaz, Abaza, Adyghian, Kabardian, and Ubykh languages. Adyghians and Kabardians are often considered members of a larger, Circassian group. Abkhaz, with about 90,000 speakers, is spoken in Abkhazia (the southern slopes of the western Greater Caucasus, Georgia). The other languages are spread over the northern slopes of…

  • adynaton (literature)

    Adynaton, a kind of hyperbole in which the exaggeration is so great that it refers to an impossibility, as in the following lines from Andrew Marvell’s “To His Coy

  • adyr (geology)

    Fergana Valley: …of low, barren hills, called adyr. The numerous rivers descending from the mountains cut through the adyr zone to irrigate an almost unbroken chain of fertile oases that surround an area of salt marshes and sand dunes in the lowest part of the valley. The climate is continental, with moderately…

  • Adývar, Halide Edib (Turkish author)

    Halide Edib Adıvar, novelist and pioneer in the emancipation of women in Turkey. Educated by private tutors and at the American College for Girls in Istanbul, she became actively engaged in Turkish literary, political, and social movements. She divorced her first husband in 1910 because she

  • adz (tool)

    Adz, hand tool for shaping wood. One of the earliest tools, it was widely distributed in Stone Age cultures in the form of a handheld stone chipped to form a blade. By Egyptian times it had acquired a wooden haft, or handle, with a copper or bronze blade set flat at the top of the haft to form a T.

  • Adžarija (autonomous republic, Georgia)

    Ajaria, autonomous republic in Georgia, in the southwestern corner of that country, adjacent to the Black Sea and the Turkish frontier. It is largely mountainous with the exception of a narrow coastal strip. Batumi is the capital and largest city. Area 1,112 square miles (2,880 square km). Pop.

  • adze (tool)

    Adz, hand tool for shaping wood. One of the earliest tools, it was widely distributed in Stone Age cultures in the form of a handheld stone chipped to form a blade. By Egyptian times it had acquired a wooden haft, or handle, with a copper or bronze blade set flat at the top of the haft to form a T.

  • Adzhar (people)

    Ajaria: Geography: …Georgians, Russians, Armenians, and the Ajars themselves, a Georgian population Islamicized under Turkish rule. Although the Ajars are not a nationality distinct from other Georgians, they do represent a distinctive cultural segment of the Georgian homeland. Of the total population, less than one-half is urban and two-thirds live in the…

  • Adzhariya (autonomous republic, Georgia)

    Ajaria, autonomous republic in Georgia, in the southwestern corner of that country, adjacent to the Black Sea and the Turkish frontier. It is largely mountainous with the exception of a narrow coastal strip. Batumi is the capital and largest city. Area 1,112 square miles (2,880 square km). Pop.

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