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  • Aditi (Hindu deity)

    Aditi, (Sanskrit: “The Boundless”) in the Vedic phase of Hindu mythology, the personification of the infinite and mother of a group of celestial deities, the Adityas. As a primeval goddess, she is referred to as the mother of many gods, including Vishnu in his dwarf incarnation and, in a later

  • Adityas (Vedic gods)

    Aditi: …group of celestial deities, the Adityas. As a primeval goddess, she is referred to as the mother of many gods, including Vishnu in his dwarf incarnation and, in a later reappearance, Krishna. She supports the sky, sustains all existence, and nourishes the earth. It is in the latter sense that…

  • Adıvar, Halide Edib (Turkish author)

    Halide Edib Adıvar, novelist and pioneer in the emancipation of women in Turkey. Educated by private tutors and at the American College for Girls in Istanbul, she became actively engaged in Turkish literary, political, and social movements. She divorced her first husband in 1910 because she

  • Adivar, Halide Edip (Turkish author)

    Halide Edib Adıvar, novelist and pioneer in the emancipation of women in Turkey. Educated by private tutors and at the American College for Girls in Istanbul, she became actively engaged in Turkish literary, political, and social movements. She divorced her first husband in 1910 because she

  • Adivasi (people)

    Adivasi, (Hindi: “Original Inhabitants”) any of various ethnic groups considered to be the original inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent. The term is used primarily in India and Bangladesh. In the constitution of India, promulgated in 1950, most of these groups were listed—or scheduled—as targets

  • Adıyaman (Turkey)

    Adıyaman, city located in a valley of southeastern Turkey. Founded in the 8th century by the Umayyad Arabs near the site of ancient Perre, Ḥiṣn Manṣūr was later fortified by Caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd and became the chief town of the area, replacing Perre. Ruled successively by the Byzantines, the

  • Adıyaman (province, Turkey)

    Adıyaman: …Turkish republic, it was renamed Adıyaman in 1926. The ruins of Perre are just to the north.

  • Adja (people)

    Benin: Ethnic groups: …other southern groups are various Adja peoples, including the Aizo, the Holi, and the Mina.

  • Adjara (autonomous republic, Georgia)

    Ajaria, autonomous republic in Georgia, in the southwestern corner of that country, adjacent to the Black Sea and the Turkish frontier. It is largely mountainous with the exception of a narrow coastal strip. Batumi is the capital and largest city. Area 1,112 square miles (2,880 square km). Pop.

  • Adjaye Africa Architecture: A Photographic Survey of Metropolitan Architecture (work by Adjaye)

    David Adjaye: …published as a seven-volume set, Adjaye Africa Architecture: A Photographic Survey of Metropolitan Architecture (2011; also published as African Metropolitan Architecture). He also authored or coauthored several other publications, including David Adjaye: Houses: Recycling, Reconfiguring, Rebuilding (2005), David Adjaye: Making Public Buildings: Specificity, Customization, Imbrication (2006), David Adjaye: A House…

  • Adjaye, David (architect)

    David Adjaye, British-based architect of Ghanaian descent who won international acclaim for his diverse designs and innovative use of materials and light. Adjaye was born to Ghanaian parents in Tanzania, where his father, a diplomat, was stationed at the time. Because of his father’s career, Adjaye

  • adjective (grammar)

    Albanian language: Grammar: ’ Adjectives—except numerals and certain quantifying expressions—and dependent nouns follow the noun they modify, and they are remarkable in requiring a particle preceding them that agrees with the noun. Thus, in një burrë i madh, meaning ‘a big man,’ burrë ‘man’ is modified by madh ‘big,’…

  • adjective law

    Procedural law, the law governing the machinery of the courts and the methods by which both the state and the individual (the latter including groups, whether incorporated or not) enforce their rights in the several courts. Procedural law prescribes the means of enforcing rights or providing

  • adjoint (French government)

    Marseille: Government: …a local government of 27 adjoints, each with responsibility for a particular facet of government, such as town planning, culture, finance, employment, or transport, and by delegate councillors who assist the adjoints or undertake more detailed responsibilities.

  • adjoint functor (mathematics)

    foundations of mathematics: Isomorphic structures: …in foundations and elsewhere are adjoint functors (F,G). These are pairs of functors between two categories 𝒜 and ℬ, which go in opposite directions such that a one-to-one correspondence exists between the set of arrows F(A) → B in ℬ and the set of arrows A → G(B) in 𝒜—that…

  • adjournment (chess)

    chess: Standard controls: …events a game was usually adjourned after the first five-hour session of play and resumed at a later time. Critics said this gave a player an unfair chance to consult colleagues, seconds, or, after 1980, even computers.

  • adjudication (law)

    bankruptcy: Assets subject to liquidation proceedings: …the bankrupt subsequent to his adjudication or conveyed away by him prior to that date.

  • adjunct (grammar)

    English language: Origins and basic characteristics: …employ a plural noun as adjunct (modifier), as in wages board and sports editor; or even a conjunctional group, as in prices and incomes policy and parks and gardens committee. Any word class may alter its function in this way: the ins and outs (prepositions becoming nouns), no buts (conjunction…

  • adjustable square (tool)

    hand tool: Plumb line, level, and square: The adjustable, or bevel, square was used for angles other than 90 degrees beginning in the 17th century. In the earliest examples, the thin blade moved stiffly because it was riveted into a slot in the thick blade. Later models of the 19th century, however, were…

  • adjustable wrench (tool)

    wrench: The adjustable pipe, or Stillson, wrench is used to hold or turn pipes or circular bars. This wrench has serrated jaws, one of which is pivoted on the handle to create a strong gripping action on the work.

  • adjustable-rate mortgage (finance)

    United States: The George W. Bush administration: …mortgages, most of which were adjustable-rate mortgages (ARM) at low, so-called teaser, interest rates that ballooned after a few years. The rates for many of those ARMs jumped at the same time that overbuilding undercut the housing market; foreclosures mounted, and investment banks that under recent deregulation had been allowed…

  • Adjuster, The (film by Egoyan [1991])

    Atom Egoyan: The premise for The Adjuster (1991) took shape as Egoyan studied the insurance agent who came to assess the damage to his family’s business when it was destroyed by fire. Egoyan followed those films with Calendar (1993), in which he starred as a Canadian photographer taking snapshots of…

  • adjustment (psychology)

    Adjustment, in psychology, the behavioral process by which humans and other animals maintain an equilibrium among their various needs or between their needs and the obstacles of their environments. A sequence of adjustment begins when a need is felt and ends when it is satisfied. Hungry people, for

  • adjustment (contract law)

    contract: Performance: The task of adjustment is relatively easy in cases in which both parties made a mistake or in which one party laboured under a mistaken assumption that was, or plainly should have been, known to the other. The problem of mistake becomes more intractable when the error is…

  • Adjustment Bureau, The (film by Nolfi [2011])

    Matt Damon: The Departed, Invictus, and True Grit: …he starred in the thriller The Adjustment Bureau, based on a story by Philip K. Dick; Contagion, Soderbergh’s thriller about a deadly virus; and We Bought a Zoo, adapted from a memoir about a family who moves to a wildlife park. Damon then wrote with costar John Krasinski the drama…

  • adjustment mechanism (economics)

    international payment and exchange: The function of gold: …gold standard provided an automatic adjustment mechanism, that is, a mechanism that prevented any country from running large and persistent deficits or surpluses. It worked in the following manner. A country running a deficit would see its currency depreciate to the gold-export point. Arbitrage would then result in a gold…

  • adjustor cell (anatomy)

    nervous system: Nervous systems: …to an adjustor, called an interneuron. (All neurons are capable of conducting an impulse, which is a brief change in the electrical charge on the cell membrane. Such an impulse can be transmitted, without loss in strength, many times along an axon until the message, or input, reaches another neuron,…

  • adjutant (military officer)

    Adjutant, an officer who assists the commander of a military unit. In British and Commonwealth armed forces the adjutant is the principal administrative staff officer of the commander of a battalion, battle group, regiment, squadron, or military post. In the United States Army a human resources

  • adjutant (military official)

    Aide-de-camp, (French: “camp assistant”), an officer on the personal staff of a general, admiral, or other high-ranking commander who acts as his confidential secretary in routine matters. On Napoleon’s staff such officers were frequently of high military qualifications and acted both as his “eyes”

  • adjutant bird (bird)

    stork: The adjutant stork (Leptoptilos dubius), or adjutant bird, of India and southeastern Asia, and the lesser adjutant (L. javanicus) are typical scavengers with naked pink skin on the head and neck.

  • adjutant general (military official)

    Adjutant general, an army or air force official, originally the chief assistant or staff officer to a general in command but later a senior staff officer with solely administrative responsibilities. In Britain the second military member of the army council was historically styled adjutant general

  • adjutant stork (bird)

    stork: The adjutant stork (Leptoptilos dubius), or adjutant bird, of India and southeastern Asia, and the lesser adjutant (L. javanicus) are typical scavengers with naked pink skin on the head and neck.

  • Adjutantenritte und andere Gedichte (work by Liliencron)

    Detlev, baron von Liliencron: …Liliencron published his first book, Adjutantenritte und andere Gedichte (“Rides of the Adjutant and Other Poems”). The poems in this collection broke with established literary conventions; it has been called a landmark in the development of Naturalism in Germany.

  • adjuvant (medicine)

    Adjuvant, substance that enhances the effect of a particular medical treatment. Administration of one drug may enhance the effect of another. In anesthesia, for example, sedative drugs are customarily given before an operation to reduce the quantity of anesthetic drug needed. In immunology an

  • adjuvant chemotherapy (pathology)

    therapeutics: Chemotherapy: Adjuvant chemotherapy is the use of drugs to eradicate or suppress residual disease after surgery or irradiation has been used to treat the tumour. This is necessary because distant micrometastases often occur beyond the primary tumour site. Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the rate of recurrence of…

  • Adkins v. Children’s Hospital (law case)

    Adkins v. Children’s Hospital, (1923), U.S. Supreme Court case in which the court invalidated a board established by Congress to set minimum wages for women workers in the District of Columbia. Congress in 1918 had authorized the Wage Board to ascertain and fix adequate wages for women employees in

  • Adkins, Adele Laurie Blue (British singer-songwriter)

    Adele, English pop singer and songwriter whose soulful, emotive voice and traditionally crafted songs made her one of the most broadly popular performers of her generation. Adkins was raised by a young single mother in various working-class neighbourhoods of London. As a child, she enjoyed singing

  • Adkins, Terry (American conceptual artist, sculptor, and musician)

    Terry Roger Adkins, American conceptual artist, sculptor, and musician (born May 9, 1953, Washington, D.C.—died Feb. 8, 2014, Brooklyn, N.Y.), created sculptures that were “as ephemeral and transient as music” and fashioned mixed-media artworks that relied on visual as well as sonic activation. He

  • Adkins, Terry Roger (American conceptual artist, sculptor, and musician)

    Terry Roger Adkins, American conceptual artist, sculptor, and musician (born May 9, 1953, Washington, D.C.—died Feb. 8, 2014, Brooklyn, N.Y.), created sculptures that were “as ephemeral and transient as music” and fashioned mixed-media artworks that relied on visual as well as sonic activation. He

  • ʿadl (Islam)
  • Adleman, Leonard M. (American computer scientist)

    Leonard M. Adleman, American computer scientist and cowinner, with American computer scientist Ronald L. Rivest and Israeli cryptographer Adi Shamir, of the 2002 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science, for their “ingenious contribution for making public-key cryptography useful in

  • Adler v. Board of Education of the City of New York (law case)

    Sherman Minton: …program in the case of Joint Anti-fascist Refugee Committee v. McGrath, which validated the federal government’s requirement (1947) that federal employees pledge loyalty to the U.S. government and the establishment of loyalty boards to investigate potential disloyalty. The following year he wrote the opinion of the court in Adler v.…

  • Adler, Steve (American musician)

    Guns N' Roses: April 8, 1962, Lafayette, Indiana), Steve Adler (b. January 22, 1965, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.), Matt Sorum (b. November 19, 1960, Long Beach, California, U.S.), Dizzy Reed (original name Darren Reed; b. June 18, 1963, Hinsdale, Illinois, U.S.), and Gilby Clarke (b. August 17, 1962, Cleveland, Ohio).

  • Adler, Alfred (Austrian psychiatrist)

    Alfred Adler, psychiatrist whose influential system of individual psychology introduced the term inferiority feeling, later widely and often inaccurately called inferiority complex. He developed a flexible, supportive psychotherapy to direct those emotionally disabled by inferiority feelings toward

  • Adler, Buddy (American producer)

    Anastasia: Production notes and credits:

  • Adler, Cyrus (American scholar)

    Cyrus Adler, scholar, educator, editor, and Conservative Jewish leader who had great influence on American Jewish life in his time. Adler received his Ph.D. in Semitics in 1887 from Johns Hopkins University, where he later taught Semitic languages. In 1892 he founded the American Jewish Historical

  • Adler, Dankmar (American architect)

    Dankmar Adler, architect and engineer whose partnership with Louis Sullivan was perhaps the most famous and influential in American architecture. Adler immigrated to the United States in 1854 and settled in Detroit, where he began his study of architecture in 1857. Later he moved to Chicago, where

  • Adler, Felix (American educator)

    Felix Adler, American educator and founder of the Ethical Movement. The son of a rabbi, Adler immigrated to the United States with his family in 1856 and graduated from Columbia College in 1870. After study at the Universities of Berlin and Heidelberg, he became professor of Hebrew and Oriental

  • Adler, Friedrich (Austrian politician)

    Karl, count von Stürgkh: …shot by the left-wing socialist Friedrich Adler in October 1916 during World War I.

  • Adler, Guido (Austrian musicologist)

    Guido Adler, Austrian musicologist and teacher who was one of the founders of modern musicology. Adler’s family moved to Vienna in 1864, and four years later he began to study music theory and composition with Anton Bruckner at the Vienna Conservatory. Intending to pursue a career in law, Adler

  • Adler, Jacob P. (American actor)

    Sara Adler: …she divorced Heine and married Jacob Adler, the leading tragic actor on the American Yiddish stage. Jacob Adler, together with playwright Jacob Gordin, was undertaking to revitalize the Yiddish theatre, then overburdened by outmoded stock material, with modern drama reflecting the urban milieu of Jews in the United States. Sara…

  • Adler, Kurt (Austrian American conductor [born 1907])

    Kurt Adler, Austrian American chorus master and opera conductor who was known for his three-decade-long tenure (1943–73) at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. In addition to conducting more than 20 different operas and preparing the Met’s chorus for 30 years, Adler edited many volumes of

  • Adler, Kurt Herbert (Austrian American conductor [born 1905])

    Kurt Herbert Adler, Austrian-born American conductor and administrator who transformed the San Francisco Opera into one of the nation’s leading opera companies. Adler was educated in Vienna at the Academy of Music, the Conservatory, and the University of Vienna. In the decade following his debut as

  • Adler, Larry (American musician)

    Larry Adler, American harmonica player generally considered to be responsible for the elevation of the mouth organ to concert status in the world of classical music. Adler’s family was not particularly musical, but their observance of Orthodox Judaism provided access to religious music. By age 10

  • Adler, Laszlo James (Australian businessman)

    Lawrence James Adler, Hungarian-born Australian businessman, founder of the Fire and All Risks Insurance Co. (later renamed FAI Insurance, Ltd.) and one of the 10 richest men in the country. Adler, whose father died in a Nazi concentration camp during World War II, fled his Hungarian homeland in

  • Adler, Lawrence Cecil (American musician)

    Larry Adler, American harmonica player generally considered to be responsible for the elevation of the mouth organ to concert status in the world of classical music. Adler’s family was not particularly musical, but their observance of Orthodox Judaism provided access to religious music. By age 10

  • Adler, Lawrence James (Australian businessman)

    Lawrence James Adler, Hungarian-born Australian businessman, founder of the Fire and All Risks Insurance Co. (later renamed FAI Insurance, Ltd.) and one of the 10 richest men in the country. Adler, whose father died in a Nazi concentration camp during World War II, fled his Hungarian homeland in

  • Adler, Lou (American record producer)

    Lou Adler: Although he lacked the signature sound of Phil Spector or Brian Wilson, Lou Adler was an important catalyst for the new folk-rock sound of California. After working with Herb Alpert as a songwriter, producer, and artist manager at Keen and Dore Records in the late…

  • Adler, Mortimer J. (American philosopher and educator)

    Mortimer J. Adler, American philosopher, educator, editor, and advocate of adult and general education by study of the great writings of the Western world. While still in public school, Adler was taken on as a copyboy by the New York Sun, where he stayed for two years doing a variety of editorial

  • Adler, Mortimer Jerome (American philosopher and educator)

    Mortimer J. Adler, American philosopher, educator, editor, and advocate of adult and general education by study of the great writings of the Western world. While still in public school, Adler was taken on as a copyboy by the New York Sun, where he stayed for two years doing a variety of editorial

  • Adler, Nathan Marcus (British rabbi and educator)

    Nathan Marcus Adler, chief rabbi of the British Empire, who founded Jews’ College and the United Synagogue. Adler became chief rabbi of Oldenburg in 1829 and of Hanover in 1830. On Oct. 13, 1844, he was elected chief rabbi in London. There he originated and carried out his scheme for a Jewish

  • Adler, Oskar (German astrologer)

    Arnold Schoenberg: Early life: …with Austrian musician and physician Oskar Adler (later the famed astrologer and author of The Testament of Astrology) was a decisive one. Adler encouraged him to learn the cello so that a group of friends could play string quartets. Schoenberg promptly began composing quartets, although he had to wait for…

  • Adler, Renata (American author and critic)

    Renata Adler, Italian-born American journalist, experimental novelist, and film critic best known for her analytic essays and reviews for The New Yorker magazine and for her 1986 book that investigates the news media. Adler was educated at Bryn Mawr (Pennsylvania) College, the Sorbonne, and Harvard

  • Adler, Richard (American composer and lyricist)

    Richard Adler, American composer and lyricist (born Aug. 3, 1921, New York, N.Y.—died June 21, 2012, Southampton, Long Island, N.Y.), achieved Broadway stardom with his songwriting partner, Jerry Ross, with the Tony Award-winning musicals The Pajama Game (1954) and Damn Yankees (1955), which

  • Adler, Robert (American physicist)

    Robert Adler, Austrian-born American physicist (born Dec. 4, 1913 , Vienna, Austria—died Feb. 15, 2007 , Boise, Idaho), as head of the research division of Zenith Radio Corp. (now Zenith Electronics), invented the first practical wireless remote control device for the television set. Adler’s

  • Adler, Sara (Russian-American actress)

    Sara Adler, Russian-born American actress, one of the most celebrated figures in the American Yiddish theatre. Sara Levitzky was born of a well-to-do Jewish family. She studied singing at the Odessa Conservatory for a time and then joined a Yiddish theatre troupe managed by Maurice Heine, whom she

  • Adler, Shulamit (Israeli politician)

    Shulamit Aloni, (Shulamit Adler), Israeli politician (born December 1927, Tel Aviv, British Palestine [now in Israel]—died Jan. 24, 2014, Kfar Shmaryahu, near Tel Aviv), devoted her life to secular liberal causes, opposing both the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory and the political power

  • Adler, Stella (American actress)

    Stella Adler, American actress, teacher, and founder of the Stella Adler Conservatory of Acting in New York City (1949), where she tutored performers in “the method” technique of acting (see Stanislavsky method). Adler was the daughter of classical Yiddish stage tragedians Jacob and Sara Adler, who

  • Adler, Victor (Austrian politician)

    Victor Adler, Austrian Social Democrat, founder of a party representing all the nationalities of Austria-Hungary. Born into a wealthy Jewish family, Adler studied medicine at the University of Vienna, receiving his degree in 1881. While there, he became a member of Georg von Schönerer’s German

  • Adlergebirge (mountains, Czech Republic)

    Orlice Mountains, mountain range, a subgroup of the Sudeten mountains in northeastern Bohemia, Czech Republic, forming part of the frontier with Poland for a distance of 25 miles (40 km). The mountains are, for the most part, made up of crystalline rocks, like most of the northern highland rim of

  • Adlersparre, Georg, Greve (Swedish politician)

    Georg, Count Adlersparre, political and social reformer who was a leader of the 1809 coup d’état that overthrew Sweden’s absolutist king Gustav IV. Holding the rank of lieutenant colonel in the army, Adlersparre led a faction of officers that, with another group, the “men of 1809,” deposed Gustav

  • ʿAdlī Yakan (Egyptian statesman)

    Egypt: The interwar period: …instead to the Liberal Constitutionalist ʿAdlī Yakan, while Zaghlūl held the presidency of the Chamber of Deputies until his death in 1927. Once again, tension developed between the parliament and the king, and in April 1927 ʿAdlī resigned, to be succeeded by another Liberal Constitutionalist, ʿAbd al-Khāliq Tharwat (Sarwat) Pasha,…

  • Adlī Yegen (Egyptian statesman)

    Egypt: The interwar period: …instead to the Liberal Constitutionalist ʿAdlī Yakan, while Zaghlūl held the presidency of the Chamber of Deputies until his death in 1927. Once again, tension developed between the parliament and the king, and in April 1927 ʿAdlī resigned, to be succeeded by another Liberal Constitutionalist, ʿAbd al-Khāliq Tharwat (Sarwat) Pasha,…

  • ADLP (political party, Australia)

    Australian Democratic Labor Party, (ADLP), right-wing political party in Australia founded in 1956–57 by Roman Catholic and other defectors from the Australian Labor Party. Militantly anticommunist, the ADLP supported Western and other anticommunist powers in Oceania and Southeast Asia and strongly

  • ADLs

    Activities of daily living (ADLs), any task that commonly is completed by most persons, that is performed habitually or repeatedly at regular intervals, and that often serves as a prerequisite for other activities. Examples of ADLs include dressing, eating, attending to hygiene, toileting, and

  • Adlumia fungosa (plant)

    fumitory: The related climbing fumitory (Adlumia fungosa), also known as Allegheny vine or mountain fringe, is a sprawling herbaceous biennial that coils its long leafstalks around supports. It reaches 3.5 metres (11.5 feet) in height and has clusters of white or pinkish tubular flowers borne among delicately cut…

  • ADM (chemical compound)

    molybdenum processing: Chemically pure molybdic oxide: …suitable for the manufacture of ammonium molybdate (ADM) and sodium molybdate, which are starting materials for all sorts of molybdenum chemicals. These compounds are obtained by reacting chemically pure MoO3 with aqueous ammonia or sodium hydroxide. Ammonium molybdate, in the form of white crystals, assays 81 to 83 percent MoO3,…

  • ADM (American company)

    Patricia A. Woertz: …of the agricultural processing corporation Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM) from 2006 to 2014.

  • ADMA-OPCO (Emirian company)

    United Arab Emirates: Resources and power: …held by an ADNOC subsidiary, Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company (ADMA-OPCO), which is partially owned by British, French, and Japanese interests. One of the main offshore fields is located in Umm al-Shāʾif. Al-Bunduq offshore field is shared with neighbouring Qatar but is operated by ADMA-OPCO. A Japanese consortium operates an…

  • Admetus (Greek mythology)

    Admetus, in Greek legend, son of Pheres, king of Pherae in Thessaly. Having sued for the hand of Alcestis, the most beautiful of the daughters of Pelias, king of Iolcos in Thessaly, Admetus was first required to harness a lion and a boar to a chariot. Apollo, who, for having killed the Cyclopes,

  • Admical (French organization)

    Henri Loyrette: …served as president (2013–15) of Admical, a nonprofit organization involved in corporate philanthropy.

  • administered price (economics)

    Administered price, price determined by an individual producer or seller and not purely by market forces. Administered prices are common in industries with few competitors and those in which costs tend to be rigid and more or less uniform. They are considered undesirable when they cause prices to

  • administration

    business organization: Types of business associations: …essential feature, a system of management, varies greatly. In a simple form of business association the members who provide the assets are entitled to participate in the management unless otherwise agreed. In the more complex form of association, such as the company or corporation of the Anglo-American common-law countries, members…

  • administration (law)

    Administration, in law, the management of an estate by a person, other than the legal owner, appointed or supervised by a court. The term is most often used to describe the management of a decedent’s estate by an administrator or executor, a ward’s estate by a guardian, the estate of a person

  • Administration of Justice Act (United Kingdom [1964])

    Middlesex: Under the Administration of Justice Act (1964) the Middlesex area of London was deemed a county for purposes of law. The name Middlesex continues to be used for postal districts and in the names of many county institutions and organizations.

  • Administration of Justice Act (Great Britain [1774])

    Administration of Justice Act, British act (1774) that had the stated purpose of ensuring a fair trial for British officials who were charged with capital offenses while upholding the law or quelling protests in Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was one of several punitive measures, known as the

  • Administration, Directorate of (United States government)

    Central Intelligence Agency: Organization and responsibilities: The Directorate of Administration is responsible for the CIA’s finances and personnel matters. It also contains the Office of Security, which is responsible for the security of personnel, facilities, and information as well as for uncovering spies within the CIA.

  • administrative act

    Administrative law, the legal framework within which public administration is carried out. It derives from the need to create and develop a system of public administration under law, a concept that may be compared with the much older notion of justice under law. Since administration involves the

  • Administrative Behavior (book by Simon)

    bureaucracy: Trends in bureaucratic organization: The classic work Administrative Behavior, originally published in 1947 from the doctoral dissertation of the American social scientist Herbert Simon, dissected the vintage bureaucratic paradigm and concluded that it was frequently inconsistent with psychological and social realities. Workers on production lines, for example, often generated their own norms…

  • administrative budget

    government budget: Administrative budget: The traditional administrative budget contains the executive’s recommendations concerning the raising of what Magna Carta referred to as “scutage or aid” and the disposal of it for purposes of government. This kind of budget is designed to control expenditure; accordingly, it emphasizes the…

  • administrative city (sociology)

    urban culture: The administrative city: Like ritual cities, administrative cities were the habitations of the state rulers. Their major cultural role was to serve as the locus of state administration. State offices and officers had an urban location, from which they exercised a political control and economic exploitation…

  • administrative county (division of government)

    county: United Kingdom: The act also created new administrative counties, which sometimes had different boundaries than the historic counties after which they were usually named, and created about 60 county boroughs, cities that were given county powers to better provide local government services.

  • administrative court (law)

    administrative law: Modification of the common-law system: …of a large number of administrative tribunals to determine disputes between a government department and a citizen. The jurisdiction of these tribunals is of a specialized and narrowly circumscribed character and relates to such functions as social insurance and social assistance, the National Health Service, rent control, assessment of property…

  • administrative law

    Administrative law, the legal framework within which public administration is carried out. It derives from the need to create and develop a system of public administration under law, a concept that may be compared with the much older notion of justice under law. Since administration involves the

  • Administrative Procedure Act (United States [1946])

    Administrative Procedure Act (APA), U.S. law, enacted in 1946, that stipulates the ways in which federal agencies may make and enforce regulations. The APA was the product of concern about the rapid increase in the number of powerful federal agencies in the first half of the 20th century,

  • Administrative Staff College (British college)

    employee training: In Great Britain the Administrative Staff College (now Henley Management College) was set up at Henley-on-Thames in 1945 to offer short courses in problems of advanced management. It employs a novel technique of training by group initiative, drawing its inspiration from the professional experience of the participants. It has…

  • administrative tribunal (law)

    administrative law: Modification of the common-law system: …of a large number of administrative tribunals to determine disputes between a government department and a citizen. The jurisdiction of these tribunals is of a specialized and narrowly circumscribed character and relates to such functions as social insurance and social assistance, the National Health Service, rent control, assessment of property…

  • Admirable Discourses (work by Palissy)

    Bernard Palissy: …published as Discours admirables (1580; Admirable Discourses), became extremely popular, revealing him as a writer and scientist, a creator of modern agronomy, and a pioneer of the experimental method, with scientific views generally more advanced than those of his contemporaries. After seeing a white glazed cup, probably Chinese porcelain, he…

  • admiral (naval officer)

    Admiral, the title and rank of a senior naval officer, often referred to as a flag officer, who commands a fleet or group of ships of a navy or who holds an important naval post on shore. The term is sometimes also applied to the commander of a fleet of merchant vessels or fishing ships. The title

  • admiral (butterfly)

    Admiral, (subfamily Limentidinae), any of several butterfly species in the family Nymphalidae (order Lepidoptera) that are fast-flying and much prized by collectors for their coloration, which consists of black wings with white bands and reddish brown markings. The migratory red admiral (Vanessa

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