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  • Ader Éole (French aircraft)

    Ader Éole, monoplane designed, built, and first tested by the French aeronautical pioneer Clément Ader in 1890. For a table of pioneer aircraft, see history of flight. Ader began work on his first powered aircraft in 1882. Named Éole in honour of the Greek god of the winds (Aeolus), the machine was

  • Ader, Clément (French inventor)

    Clément Ader, self-taught French engineer, inventor, and aeronautical pioneer. Ader constructed a balloon at his own expense in 1870. By 1873 he had turned his attention to heavier-than-air flight, constructing a winged “bird” on which he is said to have made tethered flights. Ader resigned his

  • Áder, János (president of Hungary)

    Hungary: Economic and social change: The next month, however, János Áder, a cofounder of Fidesz, won the presidency in an election that was boycotted by the Socialists.

  • Adere (people)

    Hārer: The population includes the local Hareri (Adere), who speak a Semitic language and have a literature written in Arabic script, as well as the Amhara, Oromo, and Somalis. The Hārer Military Academy is situated in the town. A wildlife refuge is located to the south, and the ʿAlem Maya (Alemaya)…

  • Adere language

    Ethio-Semitic languages: …Ethiopia and central Eritrea; Argobba; Hareri; and Gurage. Although some scholars once considered the so-called Ethiopic languages to be a branch within Semitic, these languages are now referred to as Ethio-Semitic. They are generally grouped together with the dialects of the South Arabic language as Southern Peripheral Semitic or South…

  • Aderidae (insect family)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Aderidae (antlike leaf beetles) About 350 species; usually found in deadwood or vegetable refuse; example Aderus. Family Anthicidae (antlike flower beetles) Many occur in vegetable refuse; about 1,000 species; sometimes placed in Pedilidae; examples Anthicus, Notoxus.

  • Adernò (Italy)

    Adrano, town, eastern Sicily, Italy. It lies near the Simeto River on a lava plateau on the western slopes of Mount Etna, northwest of Catania city. It originated as the ancient town of Hadranon, founded about 400 bc by Dionysius I, tyrant of Syracuse, near a sanctuary dedicated to the Siculan god

  • Adès, Thomas (British composer, pianist, and conductor)

    Thomas Adès, British composer, pianist, and conductor whose diverse compositional oeuvre, ranging from solo pieces to operas, established him as one of the most-skilled classical music artists of his generation. Trained as a pianist at the Guildhall School in London, Adès later attended King’s

  • Adès, Thomas Joseph Edmund (British composer, pianist, and conductor)

    Thomas Adès, British composer, pianist, and conductor whose diverse compositional oeuvre, ranging from solo pieces to operas, established him as one of the most-skilled classical music artists of his generation. Trained as a pianist at the Guildhall School in London, Adès later attended King’s

  • Adesmoidea (mollusk)

    Piddock, any of the marine bivalve mollusks of the family Pholadidae (Adesmoidea). Worldwide in distribution, they are especially adapted for boring into rock, shells, peat, hard clay, or mud. Most species occur in the intertidal zone, a few in deeper water. One end of each of the two valves is

  • ADF (instrument)

    Radio direction finder, radio receiver and directional antenna system used to determine the direction of the source of a signal. It most often refers to a device used to check the position of a ship or aircraft, although it may also direct a craft’s course or be used for military or investigative p

  • ADF (Middle Eastern military force)

    Palestine: Palestinians and the civil war in Lebanon: …the creation of a 30,000-member Arab Deterrent Force (ADF), a cease-fire throughout the country, withdrawal of forces to positions held before April 1975, and implementation of a 1969 agreement limiting Palestinian guerrilla operations in Lebanon.

  • ADFGVX cipher

    cryptology: Product ciphers: …was a fractionation system, the ADFGVX cipher employed by the German army during World War I. This system used a 6 × 6 matrix to substitution-encrypt the 26 letters and 10 digits into pairs of the symbols A, D, F, G, V, and X. The resulting biliteral cipher was then…

  • ADH (enzyme)

    alcohol consumption: Absorption through the stomach and intestines: …lower levels of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which breaks down alcohol prior to absorption.

  • ADH (biochemistry)

    Vasopressin, hormone that plays a key role in maintaining osmolality (the concentration of dissolved particles, such as salts and glucose, in the serum) and therefore in maintaining the volume of water in the extracellular fluid (the fluid space that surrounds cells). This is necessary to protect

  • ADHA (American organization)

    American Dental Hygienists’ Association (ADHA), professional association for dental hygienists in the United States, founded in 1923 in Cleveland and headquartered in Chicago. The organization’s primary focus is to improve the public’s overall health by advocating for the art and science of dental

  • Adhaim (river, Iraq)

    Tigris-Euphrates river system: Hydrology: …the Great Zab, Little Zab, ʿUẓaym, and Diyālā rivers, all of which derive their water mainly from snowmelt in Turkish, Iranian, and Iraqi Kurdistan. The precipitous flow of its tributaries makes the Tigris more susceptible than the Euphrates to short-term flooding, and its short length brings its annual flood period…

  • Adham Khān (Mughal captain)

    India: The early years: …rapidly to Sarangpur to punish Adham Khan, the captain in charge of the expedition, for improper conduct. Second, he appointed Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad Atgah Khan as prime minister (November 1561). Third, at about the same time, he took possession of Chunar, which had always defied Humāyūn.

  • adhān (Islam)

    Adhān, (Arabic: “announcement”), the Muslim call to Friday public worship and to the five daily hours of prayer. It is proclaimed by the muezzin, a servant of the mosque chosen for good character, as he stands at the door or side of a small mosque or in the minaret of a large one. The adhān was

  • adharma (Jainism)

    ajiva: …which makes motion possible,” (3) adharma, “that which makes rest possible,” and (4) pudgala, “matter.” Pudgala consists of atoms; is eternal yet subject to change and development; is both gross (that which it is possible to see) and subtle (that which cannot be perceived by the senses). The invisible karma…

  • ADHD (pathology)

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a behavioral syndrome characterized by inattention and distractibility, restlessness, inability to sit still, and difficulty concentrating on one thing for any period of time. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) most commonly occurs in

  • Adhémar de Chabannes (Frankish historian)

    Adhémar De Chabannes, Frankish chronicler whose major work, Chronicon Aquitanicum et Francicum (“Chronicle of Aquitaine and France”), traces the history of Aquitaine and of the Franks from the times of the legendary king Pharamond. The first two books of Adhémar’s history are of little value

  • Adhémar of Monteil (French bishop and crusader)

    Adhémar of Monteil, French bishop, papal legate, and a leader of the First Crusade. Adhémar was bishop of Le Puy from 1077 and made a pilgrimage to the East in 1086–87. Responding to Pope Urban II’s call in November 1095 for a holy expedition to the East, he was appointed papal legate of the

  • Adhémar of Puy (French bishop and crusader)

    Adhémar of Monteil, French bishop, papal legate, and a leader of the First Crusade. Adhémar was bishop of Le Puy from 1077 and made a pilgrimage to the East in 1086–87. Responding to Pope Urban II’s call in November 1095 for a holy expedition to the East, he was appointed papal legate of the

  • Adherbal (Numidian leader)

    Jugurtha: …Micipsa’s two sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal, the first of whom Jugurtha assassinated. When Adherbal was attacked by Jugurtha, he fled to Rome for aid—Rome’s approval being required for any change in the government of Numidia. A senatorial commission divided Numidia, with Jugurtha taking the less-developed western half and Adherbal the…

  • adhering junction (biology)

    cell: Adhering junctions: Cells subject to abrasion or other mechanical stress, such as those of the surface epithelia of the skin, have junctions that adhere cells to one another and to the extracellular matrix. These adhering junctions are called desmosomes when occurring between cells and hemidesmosomes…

  • adhesion (physics)

    ice in lakes and rivers: Ice particles: …context for the particles to stick to one another, since under such conditions ice particles are inherently unstable and actively grow into the supercooled water. When they touch one another or some other surface that is cooled below the freezing point, they adhere by freezing. This behaviour causes serious problems…

  • adhesion contract (law)

    contract: Contracts of adhesion: Familiar examples of adhesion contracts are contracts for transportation or service concluded with public carriers and utilities and contracts of large corporations with their suppliers, dealers, and customers. In such circumstances a contract becomes a kind of private legislation, in the sense that the stronger party to a…

  • adhesion molecule (biochemistry)

    Gerald Maurice Edelman: …1975 he discovered substances called cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), which “glue” cells together to form tissues. Edelman found that, as the brain develops, CAMs bind neurons together to form the brain’s basic circuitry. His work led to the construction of a general theory of brain development and function called neuronal…

  • adhesive (chemistry)

    Adhesive, any substance that is capable of holding materials together in a functional manner by surface attachment that resists separation. “Adhesive” as a general term includes cement, mucilage, glue, and paste—terms that are often used interchangeably for any organic material that forms an

  • adhesive atelectasis (pathology)

    atelectasis: Adhesive atelectasis is seen in premature infants who are unable to spontaneously breathe and in some infants after only a few days of developing breathing difficulties; their lungs show areas in which the alveoli, or air sacs, are not expanded with air. These infants usually…

  • adhesive tissue tape

    therapeutics: Wound treatment: …together easily and without tension, tape is very useful. Although it is comfortable, easy to apply, and avoids the marks left by sutures, tape may come loose or be removed by the patient and is less successful if much wound edema occurs.

  • adhidaivata (Indian philosophy)

    Indian philosophy: Roles of sacred texts, mythology, and theism: …interpret difficult Vedic mythologies: the adhidaivata (pertaining to the deities), the aitihasika (pertaining to the tradition), the adhiyajna (pertaining to the sacrifices), and the adhyatmika (pertaining to the spirit). Such interpretations apparently prevailed in the Upanishads; the myths were turned into symbols, though some of them persisted as models and…

  • Adhikāranandin (Hindu mythology)

    Nandi, bull vahana (“mount”) of the Hindu god Shiva, identified as the god’s vehicle since the Kushan dynasty (c. 1st century ce). Most Shaivite temples have the figure of a humped white bull reclining on a raised platform and facing the entrance door of the shrine so that he may perpetually gaze

  • Adhikari, Man Mohan (prime minister of Nepal)

    Man Mohan Adhikari, Nepalese politician who dedicated most of his adult life to the fight against the monarchy and authoritarian rule; in 1994–95 he served as Nepal’s first communist prime minister for about nine months, during which he initiated a number of reforms, such as a

  • adhipati-pratyaya (Buddhist philosophy)

    pratyaya: …(4) the superior cause (adhipati-pratyaya), which refers to all causes, except those stated above, that are effective to produce a thing or not to hinder the existence of it. In the latter sense, every existence can be a cause of all existences except itself.

  • adhiyajna (Indian philosophy)

    Indian philosophy: Roles of sacred texts, mythology, and theism: … (pertaining to the tradition), the adhiyajna (pertaining to the sacrifices), and the adhyatmika (pertaining to the spirit). Such interpretations apparently prevailed in the Upanishads; the myths were turned into symbols, though some of them persisted as models and metaphors.

  • adhocracy (social science)

    Adhocracy, an organizational design whose structure is highly flexible, loosely coupled, and amenable to frequent change. Adhocracy arises out of the need of formal organizations to be able to recognize, understand, and solve problems in highly complex and turbulent environments. The concept is of

  • Adhruḥ, arbitration of (Islamic history [658–659])

    fitnah: … (657), which the arbitration at Adhruḥ (659) attempted to resolve, was disastrous: it split ʿAlī’s forces, some of his followers (Khawārij) refusing to acknowledge the validity of human arbitration in a case which they felt could be rightly decided only by God. ʿAlī’s position was also undermined when the arbitrators…

  • Adhur-Narses (Sāsānian prince)

    Hormizd II: …powerful nobles killed his son Adhur-Narses, who had assumed the throne, and imprisoned another son, Hormizdas. In 324 Hormizdas escaped to the court of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great.

  • adhyasa (Indian philosophy)

    Advaita: …innate habit of superimposition (adhyasa), by which a thou is ascribed to the I (I am tired; I am happy; I am perceiving). The habit stems from human ignorance (ajnana or avidya), which can be avoided only by the realization of the identity of brahman. Nevertheless, the empirical world…

  • adhyatmavidya (Indian philosophy)

    Indian philosophy: Roles of sacred texts, mythology, and theism: …systems that may be called adhyatmavidya, or sciences of spirituality, the sacred texts play a much greater role than they do in the logical systems (anvikshikividya). In the case of the former, Shankara, a leading Advaita Vedanta philosopher (c. 788–820 ce), perhaps best laid down the principles: reasoning should be…

  • adhyatmika (Indian philosophy)

    Indian philosophy: Roles of sacred texts, mythology, and theism: …to the sacrifices), and the adhyatmika (pertaining to the spirit). Such interpretations apparently prevailed in the Upanishads; the myths were turned into symbols, though some of them persisted as models and metaphors.

  • Adī (people)

    Arunachal Pradesh: People: The Adi, who constitute the largest tribal group in the state, live in the central region. The Mishmi inhabit the northeastern hills, and the Wancho, Nocte, and Tangsa are concentrated in the southeastern district of Tirap. Throughout the state, the tribal peoples generally share similar rural…

  • Adi Brahmo Samaj (Hinduism)

    Brahmo Samaj, (Sanskrit: “Society of Brahma”) theistic movement within Hinduism, founded in Calcutta [now Kolkata] in 1828 by Ram Mohun Roy. The Brahmo Samaj does not accept the authority of the Vedas, has no faith in avatars (incarnations), and does not insist on belief in karma (causal effects of

  • Adi Da (religious leader)

    Adidam: …who changed his name to Adi Da (Sanskrit: “One Who Gives from the Divine Source”) in 1994, it has undergone a number of name changes and considerable internal turmoil.

  • Adi Granth (Sikh sacred scripture)

    Adi Granth, (Punjabi: “First Book”) the sacred scripture of Sikhism, a religion of India. It is a collection of nearly 6,000 hymns of the Sikh Gurus (religious leaders) and various early and medieval saints of different religions and castes. The Adi Granth is the central object of worship in all

  • ʿAdī ibn Musāfir, Sheikh (Yazīdī leader)

    Yazīdī: In the early 12th century, Sheikh ʿAdī ibn Musāfir, a Sufi and a descendant of the Umayyads, settled in Lālish, north of Mosul, and began a Sufi order known as the ʿAdwiyyah. Although his own teachings were strictly orthodox, the beliefs of his followers soon blended with local traditions. A…

  • Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahibji (Sikh sacred scripture)

    Adi Granth, (Punjabi: “First Book”) the sacred scripture of Sikhism, a religion of India. It is a collection of nearly 6,000 hymns of the Sikh Gurus (religious leaders) and various early and medieval saints of different religions and castes. The Adi Granth is the central object of worship in all

  • Adi-Buddha (Buddhism)

    Adi-Buddha, among some sects of Mahayana Buddhism, the first, or self-existing, buddha (“enlightened one”), from whom are said to have evolved the five Dhyani-Buddhas. Though the concept of an Adi-Buddha was never generally popular, a few groups, particularly in Nepal, Tibet, and Java, elevated the

  • adiabatic change (physics)

    Adiabatic process, in thermodynamics, change occurring within a system as a result of transfer of energy to or from the system in the form of work only; i.e., no heat is transferred. A rapid expansion or contraction of a gas is very nearly adiabatic. Any process that occurs within a container that

  • adiabatic compressibility (physics)

    fluid mechanics: Basic properties of fluids: …isothermal compressibility, βT, or the adiabatic compressibility, βS, according to circumstance. When an element of fluid is compressed, the work done on it tends to heat it up. If the heat has time to drain away to the surroundings and the temperature of the fluid remains essentially unchanged throughout, then…

  • adiabatic demagnetization (physics)

    Adiabatic demagnetization, process by which the removal of a magnetic field from certain materials serves to lower their temperature. This procedure, proposed by chemists Peter Debye (1926) and William Francis Giauque (independently, 1927), provides a means for cooling an already cold material (at

  • adiabatic expansion (physics)

    fog: …cooling of the air by adiabatic expansion; mixing two humid airstreams having different temperatures; and direct cooling of the air by radiation.

  • adiabatic flow (physics)

    fluid mechanics: Basic properties of fluids: …flow is said to be adiabatic, and βS is needed instead. (The S refers to entropy, which remains constant in an adiabatic process provided that it takes place slowly enough to be treated as “reversible” in the thermodynamic sense.) For gases that obey equation (118), it is evident that p…

  • adiabatic lapse rate (physics)

    atmosphere: Convection: This rate is called the adiabatic lapse rate (the rate of temperature change occurring within a rising or descending air parcel). In the ocean, the temperature increase with depth that results in free convection is dependent on the temperature, salinity, and depth of the water. For example, if the surface…

  • adiabatic nuclear demagnetization (physics)

    adiabatic demagnetization: …by an analogous means called adiabatic nuclear demagnetization. This process relies on ordering (aligning) nuclear dipoles (arising from nuclear spins), which are at least 1,000 times smaller than those of atoms. With this process, temperatures of the ordered nuclei as low as 16 microdegrees (0.000016 degree) absolute have been reached.

  • adiabatic process (physics)

    Adiabatic process, in thermodynamics, change occurring within a system as a result of transfer of energy to or from the system in the form of work only; i.e., no heat is transferred. A rapid expansion or contraction of a gas is very nearly adiabatic. Any process that occurs within a container that

  • adiabatic temperature increase (geophysics)

    seawater: Temperature distribution: This water experiences an adiabatic temperature rise as it sinks. Such a temperature rise does not make the water column unstable, because the increased temperature is caused by compression, which increases the density of the water. For example, surface seawater of 2 °C (35.6 °F) sinking to a depth…

  • Adiabene (ancient kingdom, Iraq)

    Adiabene, petty kingdom that was a vassal state of the Parthian empire (247 bc–ad 224) in northern Mesopotamia (now Iraq). Its capital was Arba-ilu (Arbela; modern Irbīl). In the 1st century ad its royal family embraced Judaism; the queen mother Helena (d. ad 50), famous for her generosity to the

  • Adiantoid (plant clade)

    Pteridaceae: Adiantoid clade: The Adiantoid clade contains 6–12 genera and some 300 species. Members of Adiantum (about 250 species), often called maidenhair ferns, are characterized by sporangia positioned on the underside of small flaps of tissue along the leaflet margins. Northern maidenhair (A. pedatum) is found…

  • Adiantum (plant genus)

    plant: Annotated classification: Polystichum, Adiantum, and Cyathea. Class Equisetopsida (horsetails, scouring rushes) Vascular plants; sporophyte differentiated into stem, leaf, and root; stems ribbed and jointed, monopodial; minute leaves whorled at the nodes; vascular tissue organized into bundles; sole living genus with

  • Adiantum pedatum (plant)

    fern: Tissues: An example is the common maidenhair fern (Adiantum pedatum), the blade of which, between veins, is mainly made up of only two layers, the upper and the lower epidermis, in which most photosynthesis occurs.

  • adiaphorism (Christian theology)

    Adiaphorism, (from Greek adiaphora, “indifferent”), in Christian theology, the opinion that certain doctrines or practices in morals or religion are matters of indifference because they are neither commanded nor forbidden in the Bible. Two adiaphorist controversies occurred in Germany after the

  • Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi (Nigerian author)

    Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Nigerian author whose work drew extensively on the Biafran war in Nigeria during the late 1960s. Early in life Adichie, the fifth of six children, moved with her parents to Nsukka, Nigeria. A voracious reader from a young age, she found Things Fall Apart by novelist and

  • Adidam (religious movement)

    Adidam, a small religious movement grounded in the Hindu tradition. Founded in 1972 in California by Franklin Jones (born 1939), who changed his name to Adi Da (Sanskrit: “One Who Gives from the Divine Source”) in 1994, it has undergone a number of name changes and considerable internal turmoil.

  • Adidas AG (German company)

    Adidas AG, German manufacturer of athletic shoes and apparel and sporting goods. In the early 21st century it was the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe and the second-largest (after Nike) in the world. Adidas products are traditionally marked with a three-stripe trademark, which remains an

  • Adiego Lajara, Ignacio (Spanish scholar)

    Anatolian languages: Carian: …approach was successfully continued by Ignacio Adiego Lajara and fully confirmed by the discovery of a Carian-Greek bilingual in Kaunos in 1996 and 1997. Much remains uncertain, but the grammatical features thus attested confirm that Carian is related to Hittite and Luwian and is part of the Anatolian group.

  • Adieu au langage (film by Godard [2014])

    Jean-Luc Godard: Later work and awards: …and Adieu au langage (2014; Goodbye to Language), a fragmented narrative about a man, a woman, and a dog, filmed in 3-D. Le Livre d’image (2018; The Image Book) is a cinematic essay, featuring a montage of film clips, photographs, and wartime footage, with Godard providing commentary.

  • Adigal, Ilango, Prince (Tamil author)

    Silappathikaram: …the 5th–6th century ad by Prince Ilanko Adikal (Ilango Adigal). Its plot is derived from a well-known story.

  • Adige River (river, Italy)

    Adige River, longest stream of Italy after the Po River. The Adige rises in the north from two Alpine mountain lakes below Resia Pass and flows rapidly through the Venosta Valley south and east past Merano and Bolzano. Having received the waters of the Isarco River at Bolzano, the Adige turns south

  • Adige, Fiume (river, Italy)

    Adige River, longest stream of Italy after the Po River. The Adige rises in the north from two Alpine mountain lakes below Resia Pass and flows rapidly through the Venosta Valley south and east past Merano and Bolzano. Having received the waters of the Isarco River at Bolzano, the Adige turns south

  • Adikal, Ilanko, Prince (Tamil author)

    Silappathikaram: …the 5th–6th century ad by Prince Ilanko Adikal (Ilango Adigal). Its plot is derived from a well-known story.

  • ʿĀdil Shāhī dynasty (Indian dynasty)

    ʿĀdil Shāhī dynasty, (1489–1686), ruling family of the kingdom of Bijapur, India, one of the two principal successor states to the Muslim sultanate of Bahmanī in the Deccan. The dynasty strongly resisted the Mughal advance southward in the 17th century until it was extinguished by the Indian

  • ʿĀdil, al-Malik al- (Ayyūbid sultan)

    Ayyūbid dynasty: …relaxed under the reigns of al-ʿĀdil and al-Kāmil, Saladin’s brother and nephew, and in 1229 Jerusalem was ceded to the Christians. Although Ayyūbid factionalism had been quieted, al-Kāmil’s death in 1238 revived old family disputes, further weakening the dynasty. The Ayyūbid decline in Egypt was completed with the Mamlūk accession…

  • Adilabad (India)

    Adilabad, city, northern Telangana state, southern India, lying 160 miles (260 km) north of Hyderabad. The city is situated on a well-forested plateau some 2,000 feet (600 metres) high between the Godavari (south) and Penganga (north) rivers. It is an agricultural trade centre, connected with

  • ʿĀdiliyyah Madrasah, Al- (building, Damascus, Syria)

    Islamic arts: Architecture in Iraq, Syria, and Anatolia: …Syrian madrasahs in Damascus, like Al-ʿĀdiliyyah, Al-Ẓāhiriyyah, or the works of Nureddin, tended also to follow a comparatively standardized plan: an elaborate facade led into a domed hallway and then into a court with at least one eyvān. Most of those madrasahs were small and were fitted into a preexisting…

  • Adinandra (plant genus)

    Pentaphylacaceae: …to the western Pacific and Adinandra (75 species) is Indo-Malesian. The genus Freziera (some 57 species) is entirely American. The leaves in this group are often toothed and may remain rolled up as they elongate, so the lower surface of the blade has longitudinal markings. The flowers also occur in…

  • Ādinātha (Jaina saint)

    Rishabhanatha, (Sanskrit: “Lord Bull”) the first of the 24 Tirthankaras (“Ford-Makers,” i.e., saviours) of Jainism, a religion of India. His name comes from the series of 14 auspicious dreams that his mother had, in which a bull (rishabha) appeared, before his birth. He is also known as Adinatha

  • adion (chemistry)

    electrochemical reaction: Electrocrystallization: …of adsorbed ion, called an adion, which, however, has already undergone partial discharge.

  • Adios (American racehorse)

    harness racing: The decline and rise of harness racing.: …in the 1930s, the pacers Adios in the 1940s and his son Adios Butler in the 1950s, the pacer Bret Hanover and the trotter Nevele Pride in the 1960s, and the pacer Niatross retired to stud in 1981. The French trotting mare Une de Mai was at one time one…

  • Adios Butler (American racehorse)

    harness racing: The decline and rise of harness racing.: …the 1940s and his son Adios Butler in the 1950s, the pacer Bret Hanover and the trotter Nevele Pride in the 1960s, and the pacer Niatross retired to stud in 1981. The French trotting mare Une de Mai was at one time one of the leading money winning horses in…

  • adipic acid (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Polycarboxylic acids: Because adipic (six carbons) and longer-chain dicarboxylic acids would give rings of seven or more members, heating of these acids does not generally lead to cyclic anhydrides, though this conversion sometimes can be accomplished by using special techniques. Upon heating, phthalic acid readily yields phthalic anhydride…

  • adipocyte (biology)

    Adipose cell, connective-tissue cell specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of fat. There are two types of adipose cells: white adipose cells contain large fat droplets, only a small amount of cytoplasm, and flattened, noncentrally located nuclei; and brown adipose cells contain fat

  • adipose cell (biology)

    Adipose cell, connective-tissue cell specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of fat. There are two types of adipose cells: white adipose cells contain large fat droplets, only a small amount of cytoplasm, and flattened, noncentrally located nuclei; and brown adipose cells contain fat

  • adipose fin (animal appendage)

    ostariophysan: Fin spines and adipose fin: An adipose fin consists of a small to elongated fleshy or fatty structure without fin ray supports, located dorsally between the rayed dorsal fin and caudal (tail) fin. It is present in most ostariophysan fishes.

  • adipose tissue (anatomy)

    Adipose tissue, connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells (adipose cells, or adipocytes), specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of fat, within a structural network of fibres. It is found mainly under the skin but also in deposits between the muscles, in the intestines and in

  • adiposogenital dystrophy (medical disorder)

    Fröhlich’s syndrome, rare childhood metabolic disorder characterized by obesity, growth retardation, and retarded development of the genital organs. It is usually associated with tumours of the hypothalamus, causing increased appetite and depressed secretion of gonadotropin. The disease is named f

  • adipsia (pathology)

    Adipsia, rare disorder characterized by the lack of thirst even in the presence of dehydration. In adipsia the brain’s thirst centre, located in the hypothalamus, is damaged. People with adipsia have little or no sensation of thirst when they become dehydrated. These people must be instructed, even

  • Adipurana (work by Pampa)

    Pampa: Pampa’s great work was the Adipurana (“First [or Original] Scriptures”), in which Jain teaching and tenets are expounded. Another epic of his creation is the Pampa-Bharata (c. 950; Bharata is both the ancient name for India and the name of a famous king), in which Pampa likened his royal master…

  • Adirondack Anorthosite (rock formation, Canada)

    anorthosite: …(1,040 square miles), and the Adirondack Anorthosite is exposed over an area of about 3,900 square km (1,560 square miles). The Bushveld Complex underlies an area of about 50,000 square km (20,000 square miles); and the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe, another layered complex, has been traced for more than 480…

  • Adirondack Forest Preserve (park, New York, United States)

    Adirondack Mountains: The state-owned Adirondack Forest Preserve now comprises some 3,900 square miles (10,100 square km) within the park and is a popular tourist area. The majority of the land in Adirondack Park, however, is privately owned and used for lumbering, agriculture, and recreation. The mining of iron ore,…

  • Adirondack furniture (art)

    Rustic style, in decorative arts, any ruralizing influence; more precisely, a type of furniture made of wood or metal, the main components of which are carved and fretted to resemble the branches of trees. Stemming from the idealization of nature and the “simple life” that occurred in the mid-18th

  • Adirondack Mountains (mountains, New York, United States)

    Adirondack Mountains, mountains in northeastern New York state, U.S. They extend southward from the St. Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain to the Mohawk River valley. The mountains are only sparsely settled, and much of the area exists in a primitive natural state, protected by state law.

  • Adirondack Park (park, New York, United States)

    Essex: …Mountains, is entirely occupied by Adirondack Park (1892), which is one of the largest parks in the United States and the nation’s first forest preserve. Mount Marcy, in the central part of the county, is the highest point in the state (5,344 feet [1,629 metres]); surrounding peaks include Haystack, Skylight,…

  • Adirondacks (mountains, New York, United States)

    Adirondack Mountains, mountains in northeastern New York state, U.S. They extend southward from the St. Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain to the Mohawk River valley. The mountains are only sparsely settled, and much of the area exists in a primitive natural state, protected by state law.

  • Adis Abeba (national capital, Ethiopia)

    Addis Ababa, capital and largest city of Ethiopia. It is located on a well-watered plateau surrounded by hills and mountains, in the geographic centre of the country. Only since the late 19th century has Addis Ababa been the capital of the Ethiopian state. Its immediate predecessor, Entoto, was

  • Adisa, Gamba (American poet and author)

    Audre Lorde, American poet, essayist, and autobiographer known for her passionate writings on lesbian feminism and racial issues. The daughter of Grenadan parents, Lorde attended Hunter College and received a B.A. in 1959 and a master’s degree in library science in 1961. She married in 1962 and

  • Adishi Gospels (Georgian manuscript)
  • adit (mining)

    Adit, a horizontal or near-horizontal passage driven from the Earth’s surface into the side of a ridge or mountain for the purpose of working, ventilating, or removing water from a mine. Where either a vertical shaft or an adit can be used to reach a mineral deposit, the generally lower cost of

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