• 0-9
  • a
  • b
  • c
  • d
  • e
  • f
  • g
  • h
  • i
  • j
  • k
  • l
  • m
  • n
  • o
  • p
  • q
  • r
  • s
  • t
  • u
  • v
  • w
  • x
  • y
  • z
  • Ade, George (American playwright)

    George Ade, American playwright and humorist whose Fables in Slang summarized the kind of wisdom accumulated by the country boy in the city. Graduated from Purdue University, Ade was on the staff of the Chicago Record newspaper from 1890 to 1900. The characters he introduced in his widely acclaimed

  • Ade, King Sunny (Nigerian musician)

    King Sunny Ade, Nigerian popular musician in the vanguard of the development and international popularization of juju music—a fusion of traditional Yoruba vocal forms and percussion with Western rock and roll. “King” Sunny Ade enjoyed noble status not only through birth into the Yoruba royalty of

  • ADEA (United States [1967])

    Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents: …a 1974 amendment to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 that abrogated the general immunity of states under the Eleventh Amendment to lawsuits by individuals to permit such actions against states and state agencies that violated the statute. The original ADEA was a federal law that protected…

  • Adéagbo, Georges (Beninese artist)

    African art: African art in the 20th century and beyond: The installations of Benin artist Georges Adéagbo, such as From Colonialization to Independence (1999), which employs traditional art forms and elements of visual culture to depict the decolonization process; the striking images of Ethiopian Gebre Kristos Desta, a leading painter, poet, and teacher who studied clerical literature and the religious…

  • Adebimpe, Babatunde Omoroga (American singer)

    TV on the Radio: The lineup consisted of vocalist Tunde Adebimpe (byname of Babatunde Omoroga Adebimpe; b. Feb. 25, 1975, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.), multi-instrumentalist David Andrew Sitek (b. Sept. 6, 1972, Maryland), vocalist-guitarist Kyp Malone (in full David Kyp Joel Malone; b. Feb. 27, 1973, Pennsylvania), drummer Jaleel Bunton (in full Jaleel Marcus…

  • Adebimpe, Tunde (American singer)

    TV on the Radio: The lineup consisted of vocalist Tunde Adebimpe (byname of Babatunde Omoroga Adebimpe; b. Feb. 25, 1975, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.), multi-instrumentalist David Andrew Sitek (b. Sept. 6, 1972, Maryland), vocalist-guitarist Kyp Malone (in full David Kyp Joel Malone; b. Feb. 27, 1973, Pennsylvania), drummer Jaleel Bunton (in full Jaleel Marcus…

  • Adel und Untergang (work by Weinheber)

    Josef Weinheber: …but he achieved fame with Adel und Untergang (1932, enlarged 1934; “Nobleness and Extinction”), a sonnet sequence using the repeated, interlocking lines of terza rima. Späte Krone (1936; “Belated Crown”) indicated his feelings about his late success; in it he used his key imagery of night and dark forces.

  • Adela (daughter of William I the Conqueror)

    Adela, daughter of William I the Conqueror of England and mother of Stephen, king of England, whose right to the throne derived through her. Adela was married to Stephen, count of Meaux and Brie, in 1080 at Breteuil. Upon the death of his father in 1090, her husband succeeded to the countships of B

  • Adelaer (Norwegian naval officer)

    Adelaer, Norwegian-born seaman and naval officer, distinguished in both Venetian and Danish naval history. He entered the Dutch navy in 1639 as an adelborst (“cadet”) and served under Martin van Tromp but in 1642 moved into Venetian service, where he was known as Curzio Suffrido Adelborst. He soon

  • Adelaide (poem by Matthisson)

    Friedrich von Matthisson: His poem “Adelaide” was set to music as a song by Beethoven. A complete, eight-volume edition of his works, Schriften, was published in 1825–29.

  • Adelaide (South Australia, Australia)

    Adelaide, city and capital of the state of South Australia. Situated at the base of the Mount Lofty Ranges, 9 miles (14 km) inland from the centre of the eastern shore of the Gulf St. Vincent, it has a Mediterranean climate with hot summers (February mean temperature 74 °F [23 °C]), mild winters

  • Adélaïde du Guesclin (play by Voltaire)

    Voltaire: Life with Mme du Châtelet: After Adélaïde du Guesclin (1734), a play about a national tragedy, he brought Alzire to the stage in 1736 with great success. The action of Alzire—in Lima, Peru, at the time of the Spanish conquest—brings out the moral superiority of a humanitarian civilization over methods of…

  • Adelaide Festival Centre (building, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia)

    South Australia: The arts: The Adelaide Festival Centre, opened in 1973, provides venues for a variety of activities, from drama and rock concerts to grand opera. Rundle Mall, the main shopping street, is used by individual and small-group street entertainers, as well as for open-air community arts activities.

  • Adelaide Festival of Arts (festival, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia)

    Adelaide Festival of Arts, late-summer international festival showcasing visual, performing, literary, and media arts, held every two years in Adelaide, S.Aus., Austl. The first Adelaide Festival of Arts was held in 1960 as a result of the passionate and pioneering efforts of newspaper executive

  • Adelaide Geosyncline (geology)

    Australia: The Western Plateau: …occupy the site of the Adelaide downwarp in the Earth’s surface. The sediments were folded and faulted, principally in the early Paleozoic (about 540 million years ago), though recurrently since. The Flinders Ranges are a much-eroded fold mountain belt characterized by ridge and valley forms in which sandstone ridges and…

  • Adelaide of Burgundy, St. (empress of Italy)

    St. Adelaide, ; feast day December 16), consort of the Western emperor Otto I and, later, regent for her grandson Otto III. One of the most influential women of 10th-century Europe, she helped strengthen the German church while subordinating it to imperial power. The daughter of Rudolf II (died

  • Adelaide Range (mountain range, Australia)

    Australia: The Precambrian: The Adelaidean succession crops out in the region of South Australia between Adelaide and the Flinders Ranges and contains an almost complete sedimentary record of the late Proterozoic. The early Adelaidean Callanna and Burra groups are confined to troughs faulted down into basement. A sheet of…

  • Adelaide River (river, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Adelaide River, river in northwestern Northern Territory, Australia, rising in the hills west of Brock’s Creek and flowing (with marked summer increases in volume) for 110 miles (180 km) northeastward to Adam Bay, an inlet of the Timor Sea on Clarence Strait. From its mouth, 32 miles (50 km)

  • Adelaide Symphony Orchestra (orchestra, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia)

    South Australia: The arts: The Adelaide Symphony Orchestra gives regular concerts, especially in the refurbished 19th-century Adelaide Town Hall. The Adelaide Festival Centre, opened in 1973, provides venues for a variety of activities, from drama and rock concerts to grand opera. Rundle Mall, the main shopping street, is used by…

  • Adélaïde, Sainte (empress of Italy)

    St. Adelaide, ; feast day December 16), consort of the Western emperor Otto I and, later, regent for her grandson Otto III. One of the most influential women of 10th-century Europe, she helped strengthen the German church while subordinating it to imperial power. The daughter of Rudolf II (died

  • Adelaide, Santa (empress of Italy)

    St. Adelaide, ; feast day December 16), consort of the Western emperor Otto I and, later, regent for her grandson Otto III. One of the most influential women of 10th-century Europe, she helped strengthen the German church while subordinating it to imperial power. The daughter of Rudolf II (died

  • Adelaide, St. (empress of Italy)

    St. Adelaide, ; feast day December 16), consort of the Western emperor Otto I and, later, regent for her grandson Otto III. One of the most influential women of 10th-century Europe, she helped strengthen the German church while subordinating it to imperial power. The daughter of Rudolf II (died

  • Adelaide, University of (university, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia)

    Adelaide: Notable city landmarks include the University of Adelaide (founded 1874), Parliament and Government houses, the Natural History Museum, the Adelaide Zoo, and two cathedrals—St. Peter’s (Anglican) and St. Francis Xavier’s (Roman Catholic). The city is also home to Flinders University (1966) and the University of South Australia (1991). The biennial…

  • Adelaidean Province (geological region, Australia)

    Australia: The Precambrian: …development of the late Proterozoic Adelaidean province, the other Precambrian succession to be described here, was within a sialic basement. The Adelaidean succession crops out in the region of South Australia between Adelaide and the Flinders Ranges and contains an almost complete sedimentary record of the late Proterozoic. The early…

  • adelantado (Spanish governor)

    Adelantado , (Spanish: “one who goes before”), representative of the kings of Castile (Spain) who in the early European Middle Ages headed military expeditions and, from the reign of Ferdinand III (1217–52) until the 16th century, held judicial and administrative powers over specific districts.

  • adelantado fronterizo (Spanish governor)

    adelantado: …the frontiers, becoming known as frontier adelantados (adelantados fronterizos), and figured prominently in the military conquest of the Americas. In the 16th century the office was replaced by that of alcalde (magistrate).

  • adelantado mayor (Spanish governor)

    Spain: Castilian institutions, society, and culture: …responsibilities, including the posts of adelantado mayor (governor) in Castile, Murcia, and Andalusia. In order to retain their favour, the Trastámara kings granted them vast territorial lordships as well as lordships over some of the principal municipalities. This was a serious loss for the monarchy, as the cities and towns…

  • adelantado menor (Spanish governor)

    adelantado: Lesser adelantados (adelantados menores) held similar powers, but they were often stationed along the frontiers, becoming known as frontier adelantados (adelantados fronterizos), and figured prominently in the military conquest of the Americas. In the 16th century the office was replaced by that of alcalde (magistrate).…

  • Adelard of Bath (English philosopher)

    Adelard Of Bath, English Scholastic philosopher and early interpreter of Arabic scientific knowledge. Adelard translated into Latin an Arabic version of Euclid’s Elements, which for centuries served as the chief geometry textbook in the West. He studied and taught in France and traveled in Italy,

  • Adelbert (archbishop of Bremen)

    Adalbert, German archbishop, the most brilliant of the medieval prince bishops of Bremen, and a leading member of the royal administration. The youngest son of Frederick, Count of Goseck (on the Saale River), Adalbert attended the cathedral school at Halberstadt, becoming subsequently subdeacon

  • Adelborst, Curzio Suffrido (Norwegian naval officer)

    Adelaer, Norwegian-born seaman and naval officer, distinguished in both Venetian and Danish naval history. He entered the Dutch navy in 1639 as an adelborst (“cadet”) and served under Martin van Tromp but in 1642 moved into Venetian service, where he was known as Curzio Suffrido Adelborst. He soon

  • Adelchi (work by Manzoni)

    Alessandro Manzoni: …between Venice and Milan; and Adelchi (performed 1822), a richly poetic drama about Charlemagne’s overthrow of the Lombard kingdom and conquest of Italy. Another ode, written on the death of Napoleon in 1821, “Il cinque maggio” (1822; “The Napoleonic Ode”), was considered by Goethe, one of the first to translate…

  • Adéle (daughter of William I the Conqueror)

    Adela, daughter of William I the Conqueror of England and mother of Stephen, king of England, whose right to the throne derived through her. Adela was married to Stephen, count of Meaux and Brie, in 1080 at Breteuil. Upon the death of his father in 1090, her husband succeeded to the countships of B

  • Adele (British singer-songwriter)

    Adele, English pop singer and songwriter whose soulful, emotive voice and traditionally crafted songs made her one of the most broadly popular performers of her generation. Adkins was raised by a young single mother in various working-class neighbourhoods of London. As a child, she enjoyed singing

  • Adele Bloch-Bauer I (painting by Klimt)

    Gustav Klimt: …as Fritza Riedler (1906) and Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907). In these works he treats the human figure without shadow and heightens the lush sensuality of skin by surrounding it with areas of flat, highly ornamental, brilliantly composed areas of decoration.

  • Adeler (Norwegian naval officer)

    Adelaer, Norwegian-born seaman and naval officer, distinguished in both Venetian and Danish naval history. He entered the Dutch navy in 1639 as an adelborst (“cadet”) and served under Martin van Tromp but in 1642 moved into Venetian service, where he was known as Curzio Suffrido Adelborst. He soon

  • Adelfi (Italian secret society)

    Italy: The rebellions of 1831 and their aftermath: Among these were the Adelfi, a secret society of the followers of Filippo Buonarroti. Ultimately, the task of organizing new cadres of democratic and republican opponents of the restoration governments fell to Giuseppe Mazzini, scion of a bourgeois and Jacobin family of Genoa. Exiled in 1830 at the age…

  • Adelges abietis (insect)

    aphid: Types of aphids: The eastern spruce gall adelgid (Adelges abietis) produces pineapple-shaped galls 1 to 2.5 cm (0.4 to 1 inch) long composed of many cells, each containing about 12 aphid nymphs. The galls open in midsummer, releasing mature aphids that infect the same or another spruce. New galls…

  • Adelges cooleyi (insect)

    aphid: Types of aphids: The cooley spruce gall adelgid (Adelges cooleyi) causes formation of conelike galls about 7 cm (3 inches) long on the tips of spruce twigs. In midsummer when the galls open, adults migrate to Douglas firs to lay eggs. However, the life cycle may proceed on either…

  • Adelheid die Heilige (empress of Italy)

    St. Adelaide, ; feast day December 16), consort of the Western emperor Otto I and, later, regent for her grandson Otto III. One of the most influential women of 10th-century Europe, she helped strengthen the German church while subordinating it to imperial power. The daughter of Rudolf II (died

  • Adélie Coast (region, Antarctica)

    Adélie Coast, part of the coast of Wilkes Land in eastern Antarctica, extending from Clarie Coast (west) to George V Coast (east). The region is an ice-covered plateau rising from the Indian Ocean and occupying an area of about 150,000 square miles (390,000 square km). It was discovered in 1840 by

  • Adélie Land (region, Antarctica)

    Adélie Coast, part of the coast of Wilkes Land in eastern Antarctica, extending from Clarie Coast (west) to George V Coast (east). The region is an ice-covered plateau rising from the Indian Ocean and occupying an area of about 150,000 square miles (390,000 square km). It was discovered in 1840 by

  • Adélie penguin (bird)

    Adélie penguin, (Pygoscelis adeliae), species of penguin (order Sphenisciformes) characterized by black and white plumage and a small ring of white feathers surrounding each eye. During the warmer months Adélie penguins are found primarily in several breeding colonies along rocky, ice-free coasts

  • Adeline Mowbray (work by Opie)

    Amelia Opie: …wrote 13 works of prose—including Adeline Mowbray, 3 vol. (1804), based on the life of Wollstonecraft, and Valentine’s Eve, 3 vol. (1816)—and five books of verse. She became a Quaker in 1825, working with philanthropist Elizabeth Fry and supporting the antislavery movement. This decision came at some cost to Opie,…

  • adelomorphous cell (biology)

    gastric gland: …of three major cell types: zymogenic, parietal, and mucous neck cells. At the base of the gland are the zymogenic (chief) cells, which are thought to produce the enzymes pepsin and rennin. (Pepsin digests proteins, and rennin curdles milk.) Parietal, or oxyntic, cells occur throughout the length of the gland…

  • Adelonda di Frigia (work by Della Valle)

    Federico Della Valle: …outlook also underlies his tragicomedy Adelonda di Frigia (1595; “Adelonda of Phrygia”), in which the heroine’s ideals are contrasted with a barbarous reality.

  • Adelphi (play by Terence)

    comedy: Old and New Comedy in ancient Greece: …an indulgent parent (in the Adelphi of Terence). But the satiric quality of these plays is bland by comparison with the trenchant ridicule of Old Comedy. The emphasis in New Comic plotting is on the conduct of a love intrigue; the love element per se is often of the slightest,…

  • Adelphi (development, London, United Kingdom)

    Robert Adam: The Adam style: …to be known as the Adelphi (it was almost totally destroyed in 1936). They invested a large sum on embanking the site and building several terraces of houses (1768–72) in which the Adam interior style of slim pilasters supporting a shallow frieze and cornice—the middle and uppermost sections of an…

  • Adelphi University (university, Garden City, New York, United States)

    Adelphi University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Garden City, New York, U.S. Adelphi is a liberal arts college serving Long Island, with branch campuses in Manhattan and Huntington. It offers a range of bachelor’s and master’s degree programs in business, nursing, social

  • adelphic polyandry (marriage custom)

    polyandry: …brothers, the institution is called adelphic, or fraternal, polyandry. Polygyny, the marriage of a man and two or more women at the same time, includes an analogous sororal form.

  • Adelsberg (Slovenia)

    Postojna, city, western Slovenia, on the Pivka River northeast of Trieste (Italy). Long a local market centre, it is on the rail line and road from Trieste to Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Its prime importance is as a tourist centre for its Postojna Cave, an internationally famous cave system

  • Adelson, Sheldon (American businessman and political contributor)

    Sheldon Adelson, American hotel-casino owner, newspaper publisher, and political contributor who earned an immense fortune from casinos in Las Vegas and Macau, enabling him to support favoured political causes on a large scale in the United States and Israel. Adelson was born into modest

  • Adelson, Sheldon Gary (American businessman and political contributor)

    Sheldon Adelson, American hotel-casino owner, newspaper publisher, and political contributor who earned an immense fortune from casinos in Las Vegas and Macau, enabling him to support favoured political causes on a large scale in the United States and Israel. Adelson was born into modest

  • Adelung, Johann Christoph (German scholar)

    Johann Christoph Adelung, one of the most influential German-language scholars before Jacob Grimm. His grammars, dictionary, and works on style helped to standardize the language. He engaged in private research from 1761 to 1787, when he became principal librarian to the elector of Saxony at

  • Adémar of Monteil (French bishop and crusader)

    Adhémar of Monteil, French bishop, papal legate, and a leader of the First Crusade. Adhémar was bishop of Le Puy from 1077 and made a pilgrimage to the East in 1086–87. Responding to Pope Urban II’s call in November 1095 for a holy expedition to the East, he was appointed papal legate of the

  • Adémar of Puy (French bishop and crusader)

    Adhémar of Monteil, French bishop, papal legate, and a leader of the First Crusade. Adhémar was bishop of Le Puy from 1077 and made a pilgrimage to the East in 1086–87. Responding to Pope Urban II’s call in November 1095 for a holy expedition to the East, he was appointed papal legate of the

  • ademi (sacred songs)

    Native American religions: Forms of religious authority: …that the sacred songs (ademi) were taught to shamans at the beginning of time by sadashe (masters of animals and prototypes of the contemporary animal species), who cut down the tree of life, survived the subsequent flood, cleared the first garden, and celebrated the first new harvest festival. In…

  • Ademola, Sir Adetokunbo Adegboyega (Nigerian jurist)

    Sir Adetokunbo Adegboyega Ademola, Nigerian lawyer and judge who was the first indigenous chief justice of the Nigerian Supreme Court (1958–72) and a cofounder of the Nigerian Law School. Ademola was the son of Sir Ladapo Ademola II, who from 1920 to 1962 was the alake (king) of the Egba people in

  • Ademola, Sir Ladapo II (Nigerian ruler)

    Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti: …imposed by the local ruler, Sir Ladapo Ademola II. From 1947 the organization led large demonstrations against Ademola’s government, which led to his temporary abdication in 1949. The broader goals of the AWU included greater educational opportunities for women and girls, the enforcement of sanitary regulations, and the provision of…

  • Aden (Yemen)

    Aden, city of Yemen. It is situated along the north coast of the Gulf of Aden and lies on a peninsula enclosing the eastern side of Al-Tawāhī Harbour. The peninsula enclosing the western side of the harbour is called Little Aden. Aden has its earliest recorded mention in the Old Testament book of

  • Aden, Gulf of (gulf, Arabian Sea)

    Gulf of Aden, deepwater basin that forms a natural sea link between the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea. Named for the seaport of Aden, in southern Yemen, the gulf is situated between the coasts of Arabia and the Horn of Africa. To the west, it narrows into the Gulf of Tadjoura; its eastern geographic

  • Aden, University of (university, Aden, Yemen)

    Yemen: Education: The University of Aden (1975) offers a similar array of specialties. These two senior institutions of higher learning have spawned universities and colleges throughout Yemen, and there are now several small colleges as well as vocational and polytechnic institutes in the larger urban centres that provide…

  • Aden-Abyan Islamic Army (militant organization)

    Aden-Abyan Islamic Army, Yemen-based Islamist militant group that has been implicated in several acts of terrorism since the late 1990s. It is most recognized for its involvement in the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole. Aden-Abyan was formed sometime in the mid-1990s as a loose guerrilla network of a

  • Adena culture (North American Indian culture)

    Adena culture, culture of various communities of ancient North American Indians, about 500 bc–ad 100, centred in what is now southern Ohio. Groups in Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia, and possibly Pennsylvania bear similarities and are roughly grouped with the Adena culture. (The term Adena derives

  • Adena Serpent Mound (earthwork, Ohio, United States)

    Native American art: Midwest and Great Plains: The Serpent Mound in Ohio is an example of this custom. Truncated pyramids served as large bases for wooden temples, now long vanished but still in use when Spanish explorers first entered the region. Monks Mound, dominating the Cahokia Mounds, near Collinsville, Ill., is the largest…

  • Adenauer, Konrad (chancellor of West Germany)

    Konrad Adenauer, first chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany; 1949–63), presiding over its reconstruction after World War II. A Christian Democrat and firmly anticommunist, he supported the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and worked to reconcile Germany with its

  • Adenet le Roi (French poet and musician)

    Adenet Le Roi, poet and musician, interesting for the detailed documentary evidence of his career as a household minstrel. He received his training in the court of Henry III, duke of Brabant, at Leuven; after his patron’s death in 1261, his fortunes wavered, owing to dynastic rivalries and the

  • Adenia (plant genus)

    Malpighiales: Passifloraceae: Adenia (about 100 species), which is native to tropical Africa and Asia, makes up most of the remaining species in the family. A. volkensii, of tropical Africa, is poisonous to humans, although other species of the genus are used medicinally. Distillations of the root of…

  • adenine (chemical compound)

    Adenine, organic compound belonging to the purine family, occurring free in tea or combined in many substances of biological importance, including the nucleic acids, which govern hereditary characteristics of all cells. Partial decomposition of ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acids yields

  • Adenium multiflorum (plant)

    Apocynaceae: Major genera and species: The impala lily (Adenium multiflorum) is an ornamental shrub with star-shaped flowers and large underground tubers.

  • Adeniyi, Sunday (Nigerian musician)

    King Sunny Ade, Nigerian popular musician in the vanguard of the development and international popularization of juju music—a fusion of traditional Yoruba vocal forms and percussion with Western rock and roll. “King” Sunny Ade enjoyed noble status not only through birth into the Yoruba royalty of

  • adenocarcinoma (tumour)

    breast cancer: Types of breast cancer: …glandular, both cancers are called adenocarcinomas. The most common type of tumour, called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is a single, hard, barely movable lump. This type of tumour accounts for about 70 percent of all cases. Fewer than 15 percent of all cases are lobular carcinomas.

  • adenochrome (biology)

    coloration: Adenochrome: Adenochrome is a nonproteinaceous pigment that occurs as garnet-red inclusions at high concentrations in the glandular, branchial heart tissues of Octopus bimaculatus. The compound contains small amounts of ferric iron and some nitrogen and gives a positive reaction for pyrroles. It is believed to…

  • adenohypophysis (anatomy)

    hormone: Hormones of the pituitary gland: The other is the adenohypophysis, which develops as an upgrowth from the buccal cavity (mouth region) and usually includes two glandular portions, the pars distalis and the pars intermedia, which secrete a number of hormones. The hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis are protein or polypeptide in nature and vary…

  • adenoiditis (disease)

    childhood disease and disorder: Respiratory disorders: Enlargement of the adenoids (lymphoid tissue in the nasal part of the pharynx) as a result of recurrent infection can result in mouth breathing and a so-called adenoidal facial appearance, the most conspicuous feature of which is the constantly open mouth. By blocking the eustachian tube, it can…

  • adenoids (human anatomy)

    Adenoids, a mass of lymphatic tissue, similar to the (palatine) tonsils, that is attached to the back wall of the nasal pharynx (i.e., the upper part of the throat opening into the nasal cavity proper). An individual fold of such nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue is called an adenoid. The surface

  • adenoma (tumour)

    cancer: Nomenclature of malignant tumours: Just as adenoma designates a benign tumour of epithelial origin that takes on a glandlike structure, so adenocarcinoma designates a malignant epithelial tumour with a similar growth pattern. Usually the term is followed by the organ of origin—for instance, adenocarcinoma of the lung.

  • Adenophora (plant)

    Campanulaceae: Adenophora, the ladybell genus, is similar to Campanula except for a cuplike disk at the base of the style, which covers the ovary (the basal part of the pistil). It includes 60 species native to cool parts of Europe and Asia and mostly flowering with blue, bell-shaped…

  • adenosine deaminase deficiency (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Purine and pyrimidine disorders: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency results in the accumulation of 2′-deoxyadenosine in the circulating white blood cells (lymphocytes). This, in turn, causes a decreased number of lymphocytes and a drastically increased susceptibility to infection (severe combined immunodeficiency, SCID). Bone marrow transplantation may be curative, and gene…

  • adenosine diphosphate (coenzyme)

    heterocyclic compound: Five- and six-membered rings with two or more heteroatoms: Adenosine monophosphate, diphosphate, and triphosphate (AMP, ADP, and ATP, respectively) are important participants in energy processes in the living cell. Each of the compounds is composed of the nucleotide base adenine linked to the sugar ribose, which in turn is linked to a linear “tail” of one,…

  • adenosine monophosphate (coenzyme)

    heterocyclic compound: Five- and six-membered rings with two or more heteroatoms: Adenosine monophosphate, diphosphate, and triphosphate (AMP, ADP, and ATP, respectively) are important participants in energy processes in the living cell. Each of the compounds is composed of the nucleotide base adenine linked to the sugar ribose, which in turn is linked to a linear “tail”…

  • adenosine phosphate (coenzyme)

    heterocyclic compound: Five- and six-membered rings with two or more heteroatoms: Adenosine monophosphate, diphosphate, and triphosphate (AMP, ADP, and ATP, respectively) are important participants in energy processes in the living cell. Each of the compounds is composed of the nucleotide base adenine linked to the sugar ribose, which in turn is linked to a linear “tail”…

  • adenosine phosphosulfate (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Thiols: …process is the formation of adenosine phosphosulfate (APS), since direct reduction of sulfate itself is extremely difficult. The ―OSO2O1− group of APS is reduced to a sulfite ion (SO32−) or a protein-bound sulfite, which is then further reduced to hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a direct precursor of cysteine and other natural…

  • adenosine triphosphatase (enzyme)

    cell: The sodium-potassium pump: An enzyme called sodium-potassium-activated ATPase has been shown to be the sodium-potassium pump, the protein that transports the ions across the cell membrane while splitting ATP. Widely distributed in the animal kingdom and always associated with the cell membrane, this ATPase is found at high concentration in cells that…

  • adenosine triphosphate (coenzyme)

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), energy-carrying molecule found in the cells of all living things. ATP captures chemical energy obtained from the breakdown of food molecules and releases it to fuel other cellular processes. Cells require chemical energy for three general types of tasks: to drive

  • Adenota kob (mammal subspecies)

    kob: …are three distinct subspecies: the western kob (Kobus kob kob), the Uganda kob (K. kob thomasi), and the white-eared kob (K. kob leucotis) of eastern South Sudan.

  • Adenoviridae (virus)

    Adenovirus, any virus belonging to the family Adenoviridae. This group of viruses was discovered in the 1950s and includes 6 genera and 47 species (formerly referred to as serotypes) that cause sore throat and fever in humans, hepatitis in dogs, and several diseases in fowl, mice, cattle, pigs,

  • adenovirus (virus)

    Adenovirus, any virus belonging to the family Adenoviridae. This group of viruses was discovered in the 1950s and includes 6 genera and 47 species (formerly referred to as serotypes) that cause sore throat and fever in humans, hepatitis in dogs, and several diseases in fowl, mice, cattle, pigs,

  • adenovirus infection

    Adenovirus infection, any of a group of illnesses caused by infection with an adenovirus. There are more than 50 different serotypes of adenovirus, though not all of them cause illness in humans. Illnesses that arise from adenovirus infection include respiratory disease, conjunctivitis,

  • adenyl cyclase (enzyme)

    allosteric control: The enzyme adenyl cyclase, itself activated by the hormone adrenaline (epinephrine), which is released when a mammal requires energy, catalyzes a reaction that results in the formation of the compound cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Cyclic AMP, in turn, activates enzymes that metabolize carbohydrates for energy production.…

  • adenyl phosphoric acid (chemistry)

    Gustav Georg Embden: …discovered the important metabolic compound adenyl phosphoric acid, which is more commonly known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In all his work he emphasized the relationships between his results and general cellular processes.

  • adenylate cyclase (enzyme)

    allosteric control: The enzyme adenyl cyclase, itself activated by the hormone adrenaline (epinephrine), which is released when a mammal requires energy, catalyzes a reaction that results in the formation of the compound cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Cyclic AMP, in turn, activates enzymes that metabolize carbohydrates for energy production.…

  • adenylic acid (chemistry)

    Gustav Georg Embden: …discovered the important metabolic compound adenyl phosphoric acid, which is more commonly known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In all his work he emphasized the relationships between his results and general cellular processes.

  • adenylyl cyclase (enzyme)

    allosteric control: The enzyme adenyl cyclase, itself activated by the hormone adrenaline (epinephrine), which is released when a mammal requires energy, catalyzes a reaction that results in the formation of the compound cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Cyclic AMP, in turn, activates enzymes that metabolize carbohydrates for energy production.…

  • Adeodatus (son of Augustine)

    St. Augustine: Life overview: …family property, raising the son, Adeodatus, left him by his long-term lover (her name is unknown) taken from the lower classes, and continuing his literary pastimes. The death of that son while still an adolescent left Augustine with no obligation to hand on the family property, and so he disposed…

  • Adeodatus I (pope)

    Saint Deusdedit, feast day November 8; pope from 615 to 618. His pontificate is chiefly noteworthy for an unsuccessful resumption of the Byzantine war against the Lombards in Italy and for a reversal of the policy of popes Gregory I and Boniface IV, who favoured monks over the secular clergy.

  • Adeodatus II (pope)

    Adeodatus II, pope (672–676) who was the first pontiff to date events in terms of his reign, which began with his election on April 11, 672. Adeodatus played no known role in the political events of the day or in the liquidation of monothelitism (a heresy teaching that Christ had only one will),

  • Adephaga (insect suborder)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Suborder Adephaga Larval structure primitive; legs specialized for predatory life; hind coxae of legs immovably fixed to metasternum; distinct notopleural suture between notum and pleural sclerites; wing with base of Rs (radial sector) vein distinct. Family Amphizoidae (trout-stream beetles) About 5 species (Amphizoa) in

  • Adequate Intake (diet)

    human nutrition: Dietary Reference Intakes: …scientific evidence, another parameter, the Adequate Intake (AI), is given, based on estimates of intake levels of healthy populations. Lastly, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of a daily nutrient intake that will most likely present no risk of adverse health effects in almost all individuals…

  • Ader Avion III (French aircraft)

    Ader Avion III, monoplane designed, built, and first tested by the French aeronautical pioneer Clément Ader in 1897. For a table of pioneer aircraft, see history of flight. In 1892 the French Ministry of War commissioned Ader to begin work on a new airplane, a tractor monoplane powered by twin

  • Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
    Subscribe Today!