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  • Aztec (people)

    Aztec, Nahuatl-speaking people who in the 15th and early 16th centuries ruled a large empire in what is now central and southern Mexico. The Aztecs are so called from Aztlán (“White Land”), an allusion to their origins, probably in northern Mexico. They were also called the Tenochca, from an

  • Aztec calendar (chronology)

    Aztec calendar, dating system based on the Mayan calendar and used in the Valley of Mexico before the destruction of the Aztec empire. Like the Mayan calendar, the Aztec calendar consisted of a ritual cycle of 260 days and a 365-day civil cycle. The ritual cycle, or tonalpohualli, contained two

  • aztec city (plant)

    Tiger-flower, any of about 12 species of the genus Tigridia, plants native from Mexico to Chile and once prized by the Aztecs for the chestnut flavour of bulblike structures (corms). They belong to the iris family (Iridaceae). The flowers, in a range of colours including orange-red, have three

  • Aztec language (Uto-Aztecan language)

    Nahuatl language, American Indian language of the Uto-Aztecan family, spoken in central and western Mexico. Nahuatl, the most important of the Uto-Aztecan languages, was the language of the Aztec and Toltec civilizations of Mexico. A large body of literature in Nahuatl, produced by the Aztecs,

  • Aztec religion

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Aztec religion: Perhaps the most highly elaborated aspect of Aztec culture was the religious system. The Aztec derived much of their religious ideology from the earlier cultures of Meso-America or from their contemporaries. This was particularly true during the final phase of their history, when…

  • Aztec Ruins National Monument (archaeological site, New Mexico, United States)

    Aztec Ruins National Monument, archaeological site in northwestern New Mexico, U.S. It is situated on the Animas River, in the city of Aztec, about 10 miles (16 km) south of the Colorado state line. The national monument was established in 1923 and designated a World Heritage site in 1987 (along

  • Aztec Stadium (stadium, Mexico City, Mexico)

    stadium: Modern stadiums: …Melbourne Cricket Ground, in Melbourne; Aztec Stadium, in Mexico City; Salt Lake Stadium, in Kolkata (Calcutta); and Michigan Stadium, in Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S. These figures of course denote how many people can be “accommodated”; the official “seating” capacities may be considerably lower.

  • Aztec tobacco (plant)

    Solanales: Tobacco: Another species, N. rustica, was the tobacco first taken to Europe by the Spanish in 1558; this tobacco continued to be used long after the milder Virginia tobacco (N. tabacum) was generally accepted. Tobacco is a robust, erect annual herb. Its leaves are prepared for use by…

  • Aztec-Tanoan hypothesis

    Aztec-Tanoan hypothesis, a proposed remote linguistic affiliation between the Uto-Aztecan and Kiowa-Tanoan language families of American Indian languages. The hypothesis was advanced in 1929 by American linguist Edward Sapir, who called it Aztec-Tanoan. (Linguists Benjamin L. Whorf and George L.

  • Azteca (ant genus)

    Rosales: Urticaceae: … and ants of the genus Azteca. The ants establish colonies within the hollow trunks and stems of the Cecropia plants. The ants consume glycogen (an energy source generally produced by animals) and proteinaceous substances made by these trees. This food is continually replaced as it is eaten. There are thin…

  • Azteco-Tanoan hypothesis

    Aztec-Tanoan hypothesis, a proposed remote linguistic affiliation between the Uto-Aztecan and Kiowa-Tanoan language families of American Indian languages. The hypothesis was advanced in 1929 by American linguist Edward Sapir, who called it Aztec-Tanoan. (Linguists Benjamin L. Whorf and George L.

  • Aztreonam (biochemistry)

    antibiotic: Aztreonam, bacitracin, and vancomycin: Aztreonam is a synthetic antibiotic that works by inhibiting cell wall synthesis, and it is naturally resistant to some β-lactamases. Aztreonam has a low incidence of toxicity, but it must be administered parenterally.

  • Azua (Dominican Republic)

    Azua, city, southern Dominican Republic. Founded in 1504 on the Caribbean coast, the original town was destroyed by an earthquake. The town was reestablished 3 miles (5 km) inland at its present site at the foot of the Ocoa Mountains. It is one of the leading cities in the region, trading mainly in

  • Azua de Compostela (Dominican Republic)

    Azua, city, southern Dominican Republic. Founded in 1504 on the Caribbean coast, the original town was destroyed by an earthquake. The town was reestablished 3 miles (5 km) inland at its present site at the foot of the Ocoa Mountains. It is one of the leading cities in the region, trading mainly in

  • Azuchi (Japan)

    Japanese art: Azuchi-Momoyama period: He selected Azuchi, a town on the eastern shore of Lake Biwa, a few miles to the east of Kyōto, as the site of his new government. It was there that a purportedly magnificent castle (now known only through records) was constructed between 1576 and 1579 and…

  • Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese history)

    Azuchi-Momoyama period, (1574–1600), in Japanese history, age of political unification under the daimyo Oda Nobunaga and his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who finally brought all provinces under the control of the central government. In contrast to the restraint of the preceding Muromachi, or A

  • Azuela, Mariano (Mexican writer)

    Mariano Azuela, Mexican writer whose 20 novels chronicle almost every aspect of the Mexican Revolution. Azuela received an M.D. degree in Guadalajara in 1899 and practiced medicine, first in his native town and after 1916 in Mexico City. His best-known work, Los de abajo (1916; The Under Dogs),

  • Azuero Peninsula (peninsula, Panama)

    Azuero Peninsula, physical region in southwestern Panama, protruding south into the Pacific Ocean between the Gulf of Panama to the east and the Gulf of Montijo to the west. It measures 60 miles (100 km) from east to west and 55 miles (90 km) from north to south. It attains a maximum elevation of

  • Azuero, Península de (peninsula, Panama)

    Azuero Peninsula, physical region in southwestern Panama, protruding south into the Pacific Ocean between the Gulf of Panama to the east and the Gulf of Montijo to the west. It measures 60 miles (100 km) from east to west and 55 miles (90 km) from north to south. It attains a maximum elevation of

  • azuki bean (plant)

    origins of agriculture: East Asia: The adzuki, or red, bean (Vigna angularis) may have become a crop first in Korea, where considerable quantities of beans larger than their wild counterpart have been found in association with 3,000-year-old soybeans. Both types of beans have been recovered from earlier sites in China, but…

  • Azul (work by Darío)

    Rubén Darío: Life and work: …published his first major work, Azul (“Blue”), a collection of short stories, descriptive sketches, and verse. This volume was soon recognized in Europe and Latin America as the herald of a new era in Spanish American literature. Darío had only recently become acquainted with French Parnassian poetry, and Azul represents…

  • Azul (work by Golijov)

    Azul, (Spanish: “Blue”) concerto for cello by Argentine composer Osvaldo Golijov that transforms the standard concerto structure and, in the words of one critic, “creates a sense of spiritual journey and quest.” Written for the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO), it premiered at the Tanglewood

  • Azul, Mount (mountain, Ecuador)

    Ecuador: Relief: …5,541 feet (1,689 metres) at Mount Azul, the archipelago’s highest point. The second largest island is Santa Cruz.

  • azulejo (art tile)

    Azulejo, (from Arabic al-zulayj, “little stone”), Spanish and later principally Portuguese tiles produced from the 14th century onward. At first the term was used to denote only North African mosaics, but it became the accepted word for an entirely decorated tile about 5 to 6 inches (13 to 15 cm)

  • Azulejo Museum (museum, Lisbon, Portugal)

    Lisbon: Cultural life: …rather unusual museums are the Azulejo Museum and the National Museum of Coaches. The former, located in the convent of Madre de Deus, boasts a large and varied collection of the painted tiles (azulejos) for which the Iberian Peninsula is famous. The National Museum of Coaches occupies a wing of…

  • azulene (chemistry)

    chemical compound: Ultraviolet and visible (UV-visible) spectroscopy: …example, the UV-visible spectrum of azulene, a molecule that contains five conjugated π bonds, shows a strong absorbance in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which correlates with its intense blue colour.

  • azuleso (art tile)

    Azulejo, (from Arabic al-zulayj, “little stone”), Spanish and later principally Portuguese tiles produced from the 14th century onward. At first the term was used to denote only North African mosaics, but it became the accepted word for an entirely decorated tile about 5 to 6 inches (13 to 15 cm)

  • Azuma asobi (Japanese dance suite)

    Japanese music: Shintō music: … from the Shintō tradition is Azuma asobi (The Entertainment of Eastern Japan), which can be seen as a courtly reflection of the agricultural base of Japan in its annual performances during the spring equinox and the summer solstice. The work is said to be an imitation of the dance of…

  • azurite (mineral)

    Azurite, basic copper carbonate [Cu3(OH)2(CO3)2]. It is ordinarily found with malachite in the oxidized zone of copper lodes. Notable deposits are at Tsumeb, Namib.; Chessy, France; and Bisbee, Ariz., U.S. Azurite was used as a blue pigment in ancient Eastern wall painting and, from the 15th to the

  • Azusa Street revival (Pentecostal movement)

    Pentecostalism: The origins of Pentecostalism: …expansion, however, resulted from the Azusa Street revival that began in 1906 at the Apostolic Faith Gospel Mission at 312 Azusa Street in Los Angeles. Its leader, William Seymour, a one-eyed Holiness church pastor and former member of the African Methodist Episcopal church, had been exposed to Parham’s teachings at…

  • azygous system (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: Superior vena cava and its tributaries: …form what is termed the azygous system, which serves as a connecting link between the superior and inferior vena cava. The terminal veins of this system are the azygous, hemiazygous, and accessory hemiazygous veins. At the level of the diaphragm, the right ascending lumbar vein continues upward as the azygous…

  • azygous vein (anatomy)

    vena cava: Superior vena cava.: A large vein, the azygos, which receives oxygen-poor blood from the chest wall and the bronchi, opens into the superior vena cava close to the point at which the latter passes through the pericardium, the sac that encloses the heart. The superior vena cava extends down about 7 cm…

  • ʿAzza (city, Gaza Strip)

    Gaza, city and principal urban centre of the Gaza Strip, southwestern Palestine. Formerly the administrative headquarters for the Israeli military forces that occupied the Gaza Strip, the city came under Palestinian control in 2005. Records exist indicating continuous habitation at the site for

  • ʿAzza al-Maylāʾ (Arab musician)

    Islamic arts: The beginning of Islam and the first four caliphs: …most famous female musicians was ʿAzza al-Maylāʾ, who excelled in al-ghināʾ al-raqīq, or “gentle song.” Her house was the most brilliant literary salon of Medina, and most of the famous musicians of the town came under her tutelage. Also famed were the female musician Jamīla, around whom clustered musicians, poets,…

  • ʿAzza, Reẓuʿat (territory, Middle East)

    Gaza Strip, territory occupying 140 square miles (363 square km) along the Mediterranean Sea just northeast of the Sinai Peninsula. The Gaza Strip is unusual in being a densely settled area not recognized as a de jure part of any extant country. The first accurate census, conducted in September

  • Azzam, Abdullah (Palestinian militant leader)

    Osama bin Laden: Early life: …Islamic revivalist Sayyid Quṭb, and Abdullah Azzam, a militant leader. His time at the university was key to his future role as leader of al-Qaeda, not only in influencing his radical views but also in providing him with the skill to market al-Qaeda.

  • Azzi-Hayasa (region of Anatolia)

    Mursilis II: …all), and the region of Azzi-Hayasa (east of the Kaska) also had to be reconquered by Mursilis in a number of campaigns. A prolific personal annalist, Mursilis also edited an account of his father’s exploits; his detailed descriptions of his own campaigns have yielded valuable information about Hittite military strategy.…

  • Azzo Adalberto (count of Canossa)

    Atto Adalbert, count of Canossa (located near Reggio nell’Emilia, Italy) and founder of the house of Attoni. Son of Siegfried, baron of Lucca, Atto joined the army of the bishop of Reggio, who rewarded him by giving him the fief of Canossa. In 951 Atto rescued Queen Adelaide, widow of King Lothar

  • Azzo dei Porci (Italian jurist)

    Azzone Dei Porci , a leader of the Bolognese school of jurists and one of the few to write systematic summaries (summae) rather than textual glosses of Roman law as codified under the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (6th century ad). His Summa codicis and Apparatus ad codicem together provided a

  • Azzo Soldanus (Italian jurist)

    Azzone Dei Porci , a leader of the Bolognese school of jurists and one of the few to write systematic summaries (summae) rather than textual glosses of Roman law as codified under the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (6th century ad). His Summa codicis and Apparatus ad codicem together provided a

  • Azzolino, Decio (Italian cardinal)

    Christina: …a strong friendship with Cardinal Decio Azzolino, a clever, charming, prudent man, leader of a group of cardinals active in church politics. It was generally believed in Rome that he was her lover, a view sustained by her letters, which were decoded in the 19th century. With him, she, too,…

  • Azzone dei Porci (Italian jurist)

    Azzone Dei Porci , a leader of the Bolognese school of jurists and one of the few to write systematic summaries (summae) rather than textual glosses of Roman law as codified under the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (6th century ad). His Summa codicis and Apparatus ad codicem together provided a

  • Azzone Soldanus (Italian jurist)

    Azzone Dei Porci , a leader of the Bolognese school of jurists and one of the few to write systematic summaries (summae) rather than textual glosses of Roman law as codified under the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (6th century ad). His Summa codicis and Apparatus ad codicem together provided a

  • Āz̄arbāyjān (region, Iran)

    Azerbaijan, geographic region that comprises the extreme northwestern portion of Iran. It is bounded on the north by the Aras River, which separates it from independent Azerbaijan and Armenia; on the east by the Iranian region of Gīlān and the Caspian Sea; on the south by the Iranian regions of

  • ʿĀʾishah (wife of Muḥammad)

    ʿĀʾishah, the third wife of the Prophet Muhammad (the founder of Islam), who played a role of some political importance after the Prophet’s death. All Muhammad’s marriages had political motivations, and in this case the intention seems to have been to cement ties with ʿĀʾishah’s father, Abū Bakr,

  • ʿĀʾishah bint Abī Bakr (wife of Muḥammad)

    ʿĀʾishah, the third wife of the Prophet Muhammad (the founder of Islam), who played a role of some political importance after the Prophet’s death. All Muhammad’s marriages had political motivations, and in this case the intention seems to have been to cement ties with ʿĀʾishah’s father, Abū Bakr,

  • Aʿshā, al- (Arab poet)

    Al-Aʿshā, (Arabic: “the Night-Blind”, ) pre-Islāmic poet whose qaṣīdah (“ode”) is included by the critic Abū ʿUbaydah (d. 825) in the celebrated Muʿallaqāt, a collection of seven pre-Islāmic qaṣīdahs, each of which was considered by its author to be his best; the contents of the collection vary

  • aʿyān (Islamic noble)

    ʿayn, (Arabic: “notable”, ) in Islāmic countries, an eminent person. Under the Ottoman regime (c. 1300–1923) the term at first denoted provincial or local notables, but in the 18th and early 19th century it was applied to a class of landlords who exercised political functions and were accorded

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