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  • avventura d’un povero cristiano, L’  (work by Silone)

    Ignazio Silone: …d’un povero cristiano (published 1968; The Story of a Humble Christian, 1970), depicts the life of the 13th-century pope Celestine V, focussing on the conflict between the demands of the institutional church and his own spirituality.

  • avventura, L’  (film by Antonioni)

    Michelangelo Antonioni: Life: …his first big international success, L’avventura, in 1960; his first film in colour, Il deserto rosso (Red Desert), in 1964; his first full-length English-language film, Blow-Up, in 1966; and his first American film, Zabriskie Point, in 1970. He was responsible for shaping the career of the actress Monica Vitti, whose…

  • Aw climate (meteorology)

    Tropical wet-dry climate, major climate type of the Köppen classification characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, with most of the precipitation occurring in the high-sun (“summer”) season. The dry season is longer than in tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral (Am) climates and becomes

  • Awa no Naruto (strait, Japan)

    Naruto: …as a base for viewing Naruto Strait, popularly known as the Awa no Naruto (“Roaring Gateway of Awa”), which is filled with rushing water and whirlpools at each ebb and flow of the tide. Ōnaruto Bridge spans the strait, connecting Naruto with Awaji Island and ultimately providing a road link…

  • awabi (marine snail)

    Abalone, any of several marine snails, constituting the genus Haliotis and family Haliotidae in the subclass Prosobranchia (class Gastropoda), in which the shell has a row of holes on its outer surface. Abalones are found in warm seas worldwide. The dishlike shell is perforated near one edge by a

  • AWACS (aircraft and military technology)

    AWACS, a mobile, long-range radar surveillance and control centre for air defense. The system, as developed by the U.S. Air Force, is mounted in a specially modified Boeing 707 aircraft. Its main radar antenna is mounted on a turntable housed in a circular rotodome 9 m (30 feet) in diameter, e

  • Awadh (India)

    Ayodhya, town, south-central Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies on the Ghaghara River just east of Faizabad. An ancient town, Ayodhya is regarded as one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, revered because of its association in the great Indian epic poem Ramayana with the birth of

  • Awadh (historic region, India)

    Awadh, historic region of northern India, now constituting the northeastern portion of Uttar Pradesh state. Awadh is situated in the heavily populated heart of the Indo-Gangetic Plain and is known for its rich alluvial soils. It received its name from Ayodhya, the capital of the ancient kingdom of

  • Awadhesh Pratap Singh University (university, Rewa, India)

    Rewa: …city is the seat of Awadhesh Pratap Singh University (established 1968), with several affiliated colleges, including a medical school, in the town. The surrounding region is watered by the Tons River and its tributaries. Rice, wheat, oilseeds, millet, and corn (maize) are the major crops in the area. A significant…

  • Awaji Island (island, Japan)

    Awaji Island, island, southern Hyōgo ken (prefecture), Japan. The island lies at the eastern end of the Inland Sea, between west-central Honshu and eastern Shikoku. The narrow straits of Akashi (north) and Tomogashima (Kitan; southeast) separate it from the city of Kōbe and the Kii Peninsula,

  • Awaji-shima (island, Japan)

    Awaji Island, island, southern Hyōgo ken (prefecture), Japan. The island lies at the eastern end of the Inland Sea, between west-central Honshu and eastern Shikoku. The narrow straits of Akashi (north) and Tomogashima (Kitan; southeast) separate it from the city of Kōbe and the Kii Peninsula,

  • Awake (album by Groban)

    Josh Groban: …classical violinist Joshua Bell; and Awake (2006), which included collaborations with the South African group Ladysmith Black Mambazo and jazz pianist Herbie Hancock. In 2007 Groban’s Noël, a collection of Christmas songs, became the top-selling album of the year in the United States. While continuing to adhere to a traditional…

  • Awake for Mourning (novel by Kops)

    Bernard Kops: Kops’s novels included Awake for Mourning (1958), The Dissent of Dominick Shapiro (1966), and The Odyssey of Samuel Glass (2012). He also wrote the autobiographies The World Is a Wedding (1963) and Shalom Bomb (2000) as well as several radio and television plays. Barricades in West Hampstead (1988)…

  • Awake! (publication)

    Jehovah's Witness: Beliefs: …Watchtower, and its companion magazine, Awake!. Work is carried out throughout the world by more than eight million Witnesses.

  • Awakener, the (Indian religious leader)

    Meher Baba, spiritual master in western India with a sizable following both in that country and abroad. Beginning on July 10, 1925, he observed silence for the last 44 years of his life, communicating with his disciples at first through an alphabet board but increasingly with gestures. He observed

  • Awakening (religion)

    ecstasy: …purification (of the will); (3) illumination (of the mind); and (4) unification (of one’s being or will with the divine). Other methods are: dancing (as used by the Mawlawiyyah, or whirling dervishes, a Muslim Sufi sect); the use of sedatives and stimulants (as utilized in some Hellenistic mystery religions); and…

  • Awakening Councils (United States-backed Sunni militia in Iraq)

    al-Qaeda in Iraq: …form militias known as “Awakening Councils” to expel al-Qaeda in Iraq from their territories. Many of those groups had previously participated in the insurgency but were alienated by al-Qaeda in Iraq’s often brutal treatment of civilians, as well as its efforts to replace local tribal power structures with an…

  • Awakening Land, The (trilogy by Richter)

    The Town: …in a single volume as The Awakening Land in 1966.

  • Awakening of Faith, The (Buddhist text)

    Mahayana-shraddhotpada-shastra, (Sanskrit: “Treatise on the Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana”) relatively brief but influential exposition of the fundamentals of Mahayana Buddhism. Though the work is said to be that of the Sanskrit poet Ashvaghosha, there are no extant Sanskrit copies of the text

  • Awakening of Spring, The (work by Wedekind)

    Frank Wedekind: …his tragedy Frühlings Erwachen (The Awakening of Spring, also published as Spring Awakening) created a scandal. Successfully produced by Max Reinhardt in 1905, the play is a series of brief scenes, some poetic and tender, others harsh and frank, dealing with the awakening of sexuality in three adolescents. In…

  • Awakening, The (novel by Chopin)

    The Awakening, novel by Kate Chopin, published in 1899. Originally titled A Solitary Soul, the novel depicts a young mother’s struggle to achieve sexual and personal emancipation in the oppressive environment of the postbellum American South. When it was first published, it was widely condemned for

  • Awakening, The (album by Etheridge)

    Melissa Etheridge: …the release of her album The Awakening (2007), an audio autobiography of her career in music, Etheridge staged a concert tour in 2008 that was similarly designed to tell the story of her life through a progression of highly personal songs. That same year she released the holiday-themed A New…

  • Awakenings (film by Marshall [1990])

    Penny Marshall: Her next film, Awakenings (1990), was based on a book of the same name by Oliver Sacks. Her later films included A League of Their Own (1992), Renaissance Man (1994), and The Preacher’s Wife (1996).

  • Awakenings (work by Sacks)

    Oliver Sacks: …effects in his 1973 book Awakenings, which was made into a motion picture in 1990.

  • ʿAwālī (Bahrain)

    ʿAwālī, municipality in the state and emirate of Bahrain, on central Bahrain island, in the Persian Gulf. Founded in the 1930s by the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO), it is situated just north of Bahrain’s oil fields and southwest of the country’s oil refinery, one of the largest in the world.

  • Awali Tunnel (tunnel, Lebanon)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Basic tunneling system: At the Awali Tunnel in Lebanon in 1960, for example, a huge flow of water and sand filled over 2 miles of the bore and more than doubled construction time to eight years for its 10-mile length.

  • Awami League (political party, Bangladesh)

    flag of Bangladesh: …its founding in 1949, the Awami League was the expression of Bengali nationalism in the territory then known as East Pakistan. Following elections in December 1970, which the league won, the military ruler of Pakistan canceled the National Assembly. Opposition to this by the Awami League led to the creation…

  • Awan (ancient city, Middle East)

    Awan, ancient city and region of the land of Elam, prominent throughout early Mesopotamian history and especially in the second half of the 3rd millennium bc. Although it was probably situated near Susa, in southwestern Iran, Awan’s exact location is unknown. A coalition of four rulers of

  • Awan dynasty (Elamite rulers)

    ancient Iran: The Old Elamite period: …rulers were succeeded by the Awan (Shūstar) dynasty. The 11th king of this line entered into treaty relations with the great Naram-Sin of Akkad (reigned c. 254–c. 2218 bc). Yet a new ruling house soon appeared, the Simash dynasty (Simash may have been in the mountains of southern Lorestān). The…

  • Awan, Elinor Claire (American political scientist)

    Elinor Ostrom, American political scientist who, with Oliver E. Williamson, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences “for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons” (either natural or constructed resource systems that people have in common). She was the first woman to

  • Awangarda Krakowska (Polish literary movement)

    Awangarda Krakowska, (Polish: “Vanguard of Kraków”) avant-garde literary movement in Poland, launched in Kraków in 1922 and centring around a local periodical, Zwrotnica (1922–27; “Switch”). Tadeusz Peiper, the first poet in Poland to advance a poetics opposed to that of the Skamander group of

  • award (social honour)
  • awareness (psychology)

    Gestalt therapy: …to teach people to become aware of significant sensations within themselves and their environment so that they respond fully and reasonably to situations. The focus is on the “here and now” rather than on past experiences, although, once clients have become aware of the present, they can confront past conflicts…

  • Awash River (river, Ethiopia)

    Awash River, river in eastern Ethiopia. It rises on a steep northern escarpment of the Eastern (Great) Rift Valley and is fed by Lakes Shala, Abiyata, Langano, and Ziway. Cotton is grown in the fertile Awash River valley, and dams (notably the Koka Dam, 1960) supply hydroelectric power. Herds of

  • Away (work by Urquhart)

    Canadian literature: Fiction: …Ontario in The Whirlpool (1986); Away (1993), a lyrical saga, recounts in retrospect the life of a woman who emigrated from Ireland to Canada in the 1840s, and A Map of Glass (2005) depicts a reclusive heroine seeking answers to her lover’s disappearance. Traces of history also haunt Anne Michaels’s…

  • Away from Her (film by Polley [2006])

    Sarah Polley: She then wrote and directed Away from Her (2006), her adaptation of Alice Munro’s short story “The Bear Went over the Mountain,” for which she earned an Academy Award nomination for best adapted screenplay. Starring Gordon Pinsent and Julie Christie as a married couple coping with Alzheimer’s disease and a…

  • away swinger (cricket)

    cricket: Bowling: …the batsman), and the “away swinger,” or “outswinger,” which swerves from leg to off (away from the batsman). A “googly” (coined by cricketer B.J.T. Bosanquet on the 1903–04 MCC tour) is a ball bowled with fingerspin that breaks unexpectedly in the opposite direction from that anticipated by the batsman…

  • Away We Go (film by Mendes [2009])

    Sam Mendes: …Mendes directed the screen comedy Away We Go, which follows an expectant couple who undertake a road trip in order to find the place to start their family. For the Bridge Project (2009–12), a series of collaboratively produced plays that were performed in multiple international cities, he served as artistic…

  • Awdaghost (historical town, Africa)

    Audaghost, (fl. 9th–11th century), former Berber town in the southwest Sahara, northwest of Timbuktu. Audaghost was an important terminus of the medieval trans-Saharan trade route. The town was primarily a centre where North African traders could buy gold from the kings of ancient Ghana. A

  • ʿAwdah, Salmān al- (Saudi Arabian cleric)

    Saudi Arabia: The Islamist opposition: …spokesmen were two charismatic preachers, Salmān al-ʿAwdah and Safār al-Ḥawālī. Their main grievance was that the regime failed to act according to what the opposition defined as proper Islamic norms in foreign and domestic affairs. Criticism of the government was not allowed in Saudi Arabia, but in September 1992 a…

  • awdl (Welsh literature)

    Awdl, in Welsh verse, a long ode written in cynghanedd (a complex system of alliteration and internal rhyme) and in one or more of the 24 strict bardic metres, though only 4 bardic metres are commonly used. The awdl was, by the 15th century, the vehicle for many outstanding Welsh poems. It remains

  • awdlau (Welsh literature)

    Awdl, in Welsh verse, a long ode written in cynghanedd (a complex system of alliteration and internal rhyme) and in one or more of the 24 strict bardic metres, though only 4 bardic metres are commonly used. The awdl was, by the 15th century, the vehicle for many outstanding Welsh poems. It remains

  • Awdry, Wilbert Vere (British author)

    Wilbert Vere Awdry, British clergyman and author who created the enormously popular children’s series Thomas the Tank Engine; between 1945 and 1972 he wrote 26 stories about the mischievous locomotive, selling more than 50 million books and spawning some 500 products, including videos, toys, and

  • Awe, Loch (lake, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Loch Awe, longest lake in Scotland, measuring 24 miles (39 km) from northeast to southwest, situated in Argyll and Bute council area, historic county of Argyllshire, at 117 feet (36 metres) above sea level. At the lake’s northern end the scenery is rugged and grand, dominated by Ben Cruachan, with

  • Awemba (people)

    Bemba, Bantu-speaking people inhabiting the northeastern plateau of Zambia and neighbouring areas of Congo (Kinshasa) and Zimbabwe. The Bantu language of the Bemba has become the lingua franca of Zambia. The people practice shifting cultivation, pollarding the forest trees and planting the staple,

  • Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk, as Exhibited in a Narrative of Her Sufferings During a Residence of Five Years as a Novice, and Two Years as a Black Nun, in the Hotel Dieu Nunnery at Montreal (work by Monk)

    Maria Monk: …form early in 1836 as Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk, as Exhibited in a Narrative of Her Sufferings During a Residence of Five Years as a Novice, and Two Years as a Black Nun, in the Hotel Dieu Nunnery at Montreal.

  • Awful Truth, The (film by McCarey [1937])

    The Awful Truth, American screwball comedy film, released in 1937, that is widely considered a classic of the genre. In this adaptation of a play of the same name by Arthur Richman, Cary Grant and Irene Dunne portrayed Jerry and Lucy Warriner, a married couple who agree to a divorce when each

  • Awḥad al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad (Persian poet)

    Anvarī, poet considered one of the greatest panegyrists of Persian literature. He wrote with great technical skill, erudition, and a strong satirical wit. Anvarī was not only well versed in Persian and Arabic literature but was skilled in such other fields as geometry, astronomy, and astrology. His

  • Awḥad al-Dīn ʿAlī ibn Maḥmūd (Persian poet)

    Anvarī, poet considered one of the greatest panegyrists of Persian literature. He wrote with great technical skill, erudition, and a strong satirical wit. Anvarī was not only well versed in Persian and Arabic literature but was skilled in such other fields as geometry, astronomy, and astrology. His

  • Awil-Marduk (king of Babylonia)

    history of Mesopotamia: The last kings of Babylonia: Awil-Marduk (called Evil-Merodach in the Hebrew Bible; 561–560), the son of Nebuchadrezzar, was unable to win the support of the priests of Marduk. His reign did not last long, and he was soon eliminated. His brother-in-law and successor, Nergal-shar-uṣur (called Neriglissar in classical sources; 559–556),…

  • awīlum (social class)

    history of Mesopotamia: Babylonian law: Awīlum were the citizens who owned land in their own right and depended neither on the palace nor on the temple. As the Soviet scholar Igor M. Diakonov has pointed out, the distinction cannot have been very sharply drawn, because the classes awīlum and muškēnum…

  • Awka (Nigeria)

    Awka, town and capital of Anambra state, southern Nigeria. The town lies along roads leading from Owerri, Umuahia, Onitsha, and Enugu. Formerly covered with tropical forest, the area around Awka now mostly consists of wooded grassland. South of the town on the slopes of the Awka-Orlu Uplands are

  • Awkward Age, The (work by James)

    The Awkward Age, novel by Henry James, published in 1899. Written mostly in dialogue with limited narrative explanation, The Awkward Age is the story of Nanda Brookenham, a young society woman whose attempts at marriage are foiled by various members of her mother’s social circle. Nanda’s

  • awl (tool)

    hand tool: Drilling and boring tools: …may be drilled or bored; awls, gimlets, and augers also produce holes. An awl is the simplest hole maker, for, like a needle, it simply pushes material to one side without removing it. Drills, gimlets, and augers, however, have cutting edges that detach material to leave a hole. A drilled…

  • Awlād ḥāratinā (novel by Mahfouz)

    Naguib Mahfouz: His novel Awlād ḥāratinā (1959; Children of the Alley) was banned in Egypt for a time because of its controversial treatment of religion and its use of characters based on Muhammad, Moses, and other figures. Islamic militants, partly because of their outrage over the work, later called for his death,…

  • Awlaki, Anwar al- (American radical cleric)

    Anwar al-Awlaki, American Islamic preacher and al-Qaeda terrorist killed by a controversial U.S. drone attack. One of the United States’ most-wanted terrorists, Awlaki was directly linked to multiple terrorism plots in the United States and United Kingdom, including an attempt in December 2009 to

  • ʿAwlākī, Anwār al- (American radical cleric)

    Anwar al-Awlaki, American Islamic preacher and al-Qaeda terrorist killed by a controversial U.S. drone attack. One of the United States’ most-wanted terrorists, Awlaki was directly linked to multiple terrorism plots in the United States and United Kingdom, including an attempt in December 2009 to

  • awlbill (bird)

    hummingbird: …at the tip in the awlbill (Avocettula) and avocetbill (Opisthoprora).

  • awlīyāʾ (Islam)

    Sufism: Important aspects: …may also be known as walī. By derivation the word walī (“saint”) means “one in close relation” or “friend.” The awlīyāʾ (plural of walī) are “friends of God who have no fear nor are they sad.” Later the term walī came to denote the Muslim mystics who had reached a…

  • awn (plant anatomy)

    Poaceae: Characteristic morphological features: …may develop one or more awns, needlelike structures that may catch on animal fur. The base of the spikelet may be hardened into a pointed, hairy callus. The callus is usually best developed in spikelets with an awn that twists when atmospheric humidity changes. As the awn twists, it drills…

  • ʿAwn, Mīshāl (president of Lebanon)

    Michel Aoun, commander of the Lebanese Army (1984–88) who was appointed prime minister in 1988 (though the legitimacy of this appointment was contested) and later served as president (2016– ). Although a Maronite Christian, he opposed sectarianism during the multiconfessional country’s civil war

  • Awo (Nigerian statesman)

    Obafemi Awolowo, Nigerian statesman who was a strong and influential advocate of independence, nationalism, and federalism. He was also known for his progressive views concerning social welfare. Awolowo was born in Ikenne, then part of the British Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. The

  • Awokanak (people)

    Slave, group of Athabaskan-speaking Indians of Canada, originally inhabiting the western shores of the Great Slave Lake, the basins of the Mackenzie and Liard rivers, and other neighbouring riverine and forest areas. Their name, Awokanak, or Slave, was given them by the Cree, who plundered and

  • Awole (African chief)

    Ile-Ife: When Alaafin Awole tried to raid Ife territory for slaves in 1793, it brought severe internal resistance and the series of wars that led to the collapse of the Oyo empire. Although Ife managed to avoid the attacks by the Muslim Fulani that struck other parts of…

  • Awolowo, Chief Obafemi (Nigerian statesman)

    Obafemi Awolowo, Nigerian statesman who was a strong and influential advocate of independence, nationalism, and federalism. He was also known for his progressive views concerning social welfare. Awolowo was born in Ikenne, then part of the British Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. The

  • Awolowo, Obafemi (Nigerian statesman)

    Obafemi Awolowo, Nigerian statesman who was a strong and influential advocate of independence, nationalism, and federalism. He was also known for his progressive views concerning social welfare. Awolowo was born in Ikenne, then part of the British Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. The

  • Awoonor, Kofi (Ghanaian author)

    Kofi Awoonor, Ghanaian novelist and poet whose verse has been widely translated and anthologized. After graduating (1960) from the University College of the Gold Coast (now the University of Ghana, Legon), Awoonor studied at University College, London (M.A., 1970), and the State University of New

  • Awrangzīb (Mughal emperor)

    Aurangzeb, emperor of India from 1658 to 1707, the last of the great Mughal emperors. Under him the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, although his policies helped lead to its dissolution. Aurangzeb was the third son of the emperor Shah Jahān and Mumtāz Maḥal (for whom the Taj Mahal was

  • Awrāq ‘Iṣām ‘Abd al-‘Āṭī (novella by al-Aswany)

    Alaa al-Aswany: …Aswany’s publications includes a novella, Awrāq ʿIṣām ʿAbd al-ʿĀṭī (1989; “The Isam Abd el-Ati Papers”)—which he published himself after encountering difficulties with government censors—and two volumes of short stories (1990 and 1997). The novella was eventually reprinted in the collection Nīrān ṣadīqah (2004; Friendly Fire), which also contains some of…

  • AWRI (research organization, Muskegon, Michigan, United States)

    Grand Valley State University: …Energy Center (MAREC) and the Robert B. Annis Water Resources Institute (AWRI), both in Muskegon, also operate under the aegis of the university. MAREC is dedicated to the research and development of alternative energy technologies, while AWRI studies freshwater resources and their preservation.

  • AWS (Internet service)

    Amazon.com: Beyond retailing: …in 2002 the company launched Amazon Web Services (AWS), which initially offered data on Internet traffic patterns, Web site popularity, and other statistics for developers and marketers. In 2006 the company expanded its AWS portfolio with its Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which rents out computer processing power in small or…

  • AWS (political coalition, Poland)

    Poland: The constitution of 1997: …loose coalition known as the Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS), challenged the draft submitted by the National Assembly and called for its rejection in a national referendum. In May 1997 the referendum approved the draft by a slim margin. The constitution came into force in October 1997.

  • ʿAws, al- (Medinan tribe)

    Hijrah: …tribes, the feuding al-Khazraj and al-Aws, whom Muhammad had been asked to reconcile when he was still a rising figure in Mecca. They came to be his devoted supporters, constituting three-fourths of the Muslim army at the Battle of Badr (624 ce). When no one of their number was chosen…

  • AWSA (international organization)

    Nawal El Saadawi: …1982 El Saadawi founded the Arab Women’s Solidarity Association (AWSA) and later served as editor of the organization’s publication, Al-nūn. In 1991 the government closed down Al-nūn and then, several months later, AWSA itself. Due to her outspoken views, El Saadawi continued to face frequent legal challenges from political and…

  • AWSA (American organization)

    American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), American political organization that worked from 1869 to 1890 to gain for women the right to vote. Based in Boston, Massachusetts, the AWSA was created by Lucy Stone, Henry B. Blackwell, Julia Ward Howe, T.W. Higginson, and others when two factions of the

  • Awsān (ancient kingdom, Arabia)

    history of Arabia: Sabaeans: The most important was Awsān, which lay in the highlands to the south of the Wadi Bayḥān. An early Sabaean text speaks of a massive defeat of Awsān, in terms that attest its high significance. Yet the kingdom had a brief resurgence much later, around the turn of the…

  • AWU (American organization)

    Asian Women United (AWU), American organization dedicated to reflecting and shaping public perceptions of Asian culture, particularly of Asian women. Asian Women United (AWU) was founded in the San Francisco Bay area in 1976. It seeks to generate awareness of Asian culture and to chronicle American

  • awujale (African ruler)

    Ijebu-Ode: As the seat of the awujale, the Ijebu political and spiritual ruler, it served as the capital of the Ijebu kingdom, which for several centuries dominated the trade between the ports of the Lagos Lagoon (including Lagos, 44 miles [70 km] west-southwest) and the Yoruba hinterland (especially Ibadan, 38 miles…

  • Awura Pokou (Baule queen)

    Baule: …under the leadership of Queen Awura Pokou about ad 1750, following a dispute over the chieftaincy, and assimilated many of the indigenous peoples. After 1790 quarrels between important families destroyed the unity of the Baule, though they continued to rule much of Côte d’Ivoire until the end of the 19th…

  • Awzāʿī, al- (Muslim scholar)

    Islamic world: Sharīʿah: …various recognized masters, such as al-Awzāʿī in Syria, Abū Ḥanīfah in Iraq, and Mālik ibn Anas, all of whom used some combination of local custom, personal reasoning, Qurʾān, and Hadith. Al-Shāfiʿī was raised in Mecca, studied with Mālik, participated in a Shīʿite revolt in the Yemen, and was sent to…

  • ax (tool)

    Ax, hand tool used for chopping, splitting, chipping, and piercing. Stone Age hand axes originated in simple stone implements that acquired wooden hafts, or handles, about 30,000 bc. Copper-bladed axes appeared in Egypt about 4000 bc and were followed by axes with blades of bronze and eventually

  • ax stroke (Chinese painting)

    Chinese painting: Song (960–1279), Liao (907–1125), and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties: …texture into a broader “ax-cut” texture stroke that subsequently remained a hallmark of most Chinese court academy landscape painting.

  • Ax, Emanuel (American pianist)

    Yo-Yo Ma: …of a trio with pianist Emanuel Ax and violinist Young-Uck Kim and as part of a quartet with Ax and violinists Isaac Stern and Jaime Laredo. Ma and Ax received high acclaim for their recordings of the sonatas of Ludwig van Beethoven (1985) and Johannes Brahms (1991). Of special interest…

  • Ax, James (mathematician)

    metalogic: Elementary logic: …been applied by two mathematicians, James Ax and Simon B. Kochen, to problems in the field of algebra (on p-adic fields).

  • AXC (political party, Azerbaijan)

    Azerbaijan: Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, dissolution of the Soviet Union, and presidency of Heydar Aliyev: In May 1992 the Azerbaijan Popular Front overthrew Mutalibov and forced new elections, in which its candidate, Abulfez Elchibey, emerged victorious on a platform of separating from the Commonwealth of Independent States and maintaining control over Nagorno-Karabakh. Elchibey was himself overthrown in June 1993 by Heydar Aliyev, a former…

  • axe (tool)

    Ax, hand tool used for chopping, splitting, chipping, and piercing. Stone Age hand axes originated in simple stone implements that acquired wooden hafts, or handles, about 30,000 bc. Copper-bladed axes appeared in Egypt about 4000 bc and were followed by axes with blades of bronze and eventually

  • Axe, Society of the (Russian revolutionary group)

    Sergey Gennadiyevich Nechayev: …small secret revolutionary group, the People’s Retribution (Russian: Narodnaya Rasprava), also called the Society of the Axe, based on the principles of the Catechism and requiring its members to submit unquestioningly to the will of the leader. When I.I. Ivanov, a student member of the group, protested Nechayev’s methods, Nechayev…

  • Axe, The (film by Costa-Gavras [2005])

    Costa-Gavras: …camps, and Le Couperet (2005; The Axe), about a frustrated unemployed man who decides to kill the other people competing against him for a job. His later credits included Eden à l’Ouest (2009; Eden Is West), a drama about illegal immigrants, Le Capital (2012; Capital), which explores corporate corruption and…

  • axe-cut texture stroke (Chinese painting)

    Chinese painting: Song (960–1279), Liao (907–1125), and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties: …texture into a broader “ax-cut” texture stroke that subsequently remained a hallmark of most Chinese court academy landscape painting.

  • Axël (work by Villiers de L’Isle-Adam)

    Axël, dramatic prose poem by Auguste, comte de Villiers de L’Isle-Adam, published in 1890. Wagnerian in theme and scope, Axël combines symbolism and occult themes. Axël, the lord of a German castle, kills a relative who attempts to uncover the secret of a mysterious treasure buried in his home and

  • axel (ice skating jump)

    Gillis Grafström: …the first to make the axel a controlled jump, because its inventor, Axel Paulsen, had worn hockey skates when he performed it. He also originated several spins—the flying sit spin and the Grafström spin, a variation of the camel spin. He skated just four times for the world title and…

  • Axel Springer Verlag AG (German company)

    Die Welt: …bought by the Hamburg publisher Axel Springer.

  • Axel’s Castle (work by Wilson)

    Axel’s Castle, book of critical essays by Edmund Wilson, published in 1931. Subtitled “A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870–1930,” the book traced the origins of specific trends in contemporary literature, which, Wilson held, was largely concerned with Symbolism and its relationship to

  • Axel, Christian Frederik Carl George Valdemar (king of Norway)

    Haakon VII, first king of Norway following the restoration of that country’s full independence in 1905. The second son of the future king Frederick VIII of Denmark, he was originally called Prince Charles (Carl) of Denmark. He was trained for a naval career. In 1896 he married Princess Maud,

  • Axel, Gabriel (Danish director, actor, and author)

    Gabriel Axel, (Gabriel Axel Mørch), Danish filmmaker (born April 18, 1918, Aarhus, Den.—died Feb. 9, 2014, Copenhagen, Den.), wrote and directed Babettes gaestebud (1987; Babette’s Feast), which unexpectedly won the Academy Award for best foreign-language film in 1988 as well as the BAFTA for best

  • Axel, Richard (American scientist)

    Richard Axel , American scientist who, with Linda B. Buck, won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2004 for pioneering research on the olfactory system. Axel received an A.B. (1967) from Columbia University and an M.D. (1970) from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. In 1978 he

  • Axelrod, George (American playwright and screenwriter)

    George Axelrod, American playwright and screenwriter (born June 9, 1922, New York, N.Y.—died June 21, 2003, Los Angeles, Calif.), created witty, sophisticated, and sometimes satiric works for the stage and screen in the 1950s and ’60s and for a time was Hollywood’s highest-paid screenwriter. A

  • Axelrod, Julius (American biochemist)

    Julius Axelrod, American biochemist and pharmacologist who, along with the British biophysicist Sir Bernard Katz and the Swedish physiologist Ulf von Euler, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1970. Axelrod’s contribution was his identification of an enzyme that degrades

  • Axelrod, Paul (Russian political scientist)

    Pavel Borisovich Akselrod, Marxist theorist, a prominent member of the first Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party, and one of the leaders of the reformist wing of Russian social democracy, known after 1903 as the Mensheviks. Akselrod participated in the Narodnik (populist) movement during the

  • Axgil, Axel (Danish gay rights activist)

    Axel Axgil, (Axel Lundahl-Madsen), Danish gay rights activist (born 1915, Braendekilde, Den.—died Oct. 29, 2011, Copenhagen, Den.), was a founder (1948) of LGBT Danmark (originally the Kredsen af 1948 [“Circle of 1948”]), one of the first European organizations devoted to the fight for gay rights;

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