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  • autophagy (biology)

    Autophagy, the degradation of worn, abnormal, or malfunctioning cellular components that takes place within organelles known as lysosomes. Autophagy serves housekeeping functions, enabling the breakdown and recycling of cellular materials, and helps balance energy demands during periods of stress.

  • autophone (music)

    musical instrument: Classification of instruments: …named his four main classes autophones, or instruments made of a sonorous material that vibrates to produce sound (e.g., bells, rattles); membranophones, in which a stretched skin is caused to vibrate (e.g., drums); aerophones, in which the sound is produced by a vibrating column of air (wind instruments); and chordophones,…

  • autopilot (aeronautics)

    Automatic pilot, device for controlling an aircraft or other vehicle without constant human intervention. The earliest automatic pilots could do no more than maintain an aircraft in straight and level flight by controlling pitch, yaw, and roll movements; and they are still used most often to

  • autopista (roadway)

    Caracas: Transportation: …facilitated by a system of autopistas, multilane divided highways extending east–west through the valley and connecting the city with interior locations. Railroads, which once provided Caracas with vital links to the sea and to interior valleys, have been abandoned in favour of highway transportation.

  • autopoiesis (biology)

    life: Autopoietic: A newer definition of life revolves around the idea of autopoiesis. This idea was put forth by Chilean biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela and emphasizes the peculiar closure of living systems, which are alive and maintain themselves metabolically whether they succeed in reproduction or…

  • autopolyploidy (botany)

    evolution: Polyploidy: …are two kinds of polyploids—autopolyploids, which derive from a single species, and allopolyploids, which stem from a combination of chromosome sets from different species. Allopolyploid plant species are much more numerous than autopolyploids.

  • autoprotolysis

    ammonia: Physical properties of ammonia: Ammonia also self-ionizes, although less so than does water. 2NH3 ⇌ NH4+ + NH2−

  • autoprotolysis constant (chemical equation)

    acid–base reaction: Acid–base equilibria: …equation, Ks is termed the ion product or the autoprotolysis constant of the solvent. The concentrations are usually expressed in moles per litre, a mole being the molecular weight of the compound in grams. Since a solvent that is a good proton donor is normally a poor proton acceptor, and…

  • autopsy

    Autopsy, dissection and examination of a dead body and its organs and structures. An autopsy may be performed to determine the cause of death, to observe the effects of disease, and to establish the evolution and mechanisms of disease processes. The word autopsy is derived from the Greek autopsia,

  • autoradiography (biology)

    morphology: Chemical techniques: …extended by the techniques of autoradiography and histochemistry. In the former, a tissue is supplied with a radioactive substance and allowed to utilize it for an appropriate period of time, after which the tissue is prepared and placed in contact with a special photographic emulsion. Silver grains in the emulsion…

  • autoreceptor (biology)

    nervous system: Acetylcholine: These receptors are called autoreceptors, and they probably regulate the release of neurotransmitter at the terminal.

  • autorefrigerated cascade cycle (technology)

    natural gas: Transport: Modern liquefaction plants employ autorefrigerated cascade cycles, in which the gas is stripped of carbon dioxide, dried, and then subjected to a series of compression-expansion steps during which it is cooled to liquefaction temperature (approximately −160 °C [−260 °F]). The compression power requirement is usually supplied by consuming a…

  • autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (economics)

    Robert F. Engle: Inherent in Engle’s autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (known as ARCH) model was the concept that, while most volatility is embedded in random error, its variance depends on previously realized random errors, with large errors being followed by large errors and small by small. This contrasted with earlier models wherein…

  • autoregressive integrated moving average (statistics)

    statistics: Time series and forecasting: …methods of forecasting are the Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and econometric models.

  • autoregulation (physiology)

    renal system: Factors that affect renal flow: …is commonly referred to as autoregulation.

  • Autoreiji (film by Kitano [2010])

    Kitano Takeshi: …with the ultraviolent Autoreiji (Outrage). The sequels Autoreiji Biyondo (Beyond Outrage) and Autoreiji Saishusho (Outrage Coda) appeared in 2012 and 2017, respectively.

  • Autoreiji Biyondo (film by Kitano [2012])

    Kitano Takeshi: The sequels Autoreiji Biyondo (Beyond Outrage) and Autoreiji Saishusho (Outrage Coda) appeared in 2012 and 2017, respectively.

  • Autoreiji Saishusho (film by Tikano [2017])

    Kitano Takeshi: …Outrage) and Autoreiji Saishusho (Outrage Coda) appeared in 2012 and 2017, respectively.

  • autos-da-fé (public ceremony)

    Auto-da-fé, (Portuguese: “act of faith”) a public ceremony during which the sentences upon those brought before the Spanish Inquisition were read and after which the sentences were executed by the secular authorities. The first auto-da-fé took place at Sevilla in 1481; the last, in Mexico in 1850.

  • autoscopic hallucination (psychology)

    hallucination: Hypnosis and trance states: …body to view himself (autoscopic hallucination) or to be transported to new surroundings. Alternatively, the hallucinations may take the form of unique visual imagery; for example, the yantra is a visual hallucination of a coloured, geometrical image that appears at a level of trance of the sort experienced by…

  • autosomal dominant (biology)

    colour blindness: Inherited and acquired colour blindness: …blindness, by contrast, is an autosomal dominant disorder and therefore is not sex-linked and requires only one copy of the defective gene from either parent to be expressed. Achromatopsia is an autosomal recessive disorder, occurring only when two copies of the defective gene (one from each parent) have been inherited.…

  • autosomal recessive (biology)

    connective tissue disease: Hereditary disorders of connective tissue: Homocystinuria is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait (it is not manifested unless inherited from both parents). Affected persons have a deficiency of cystathionine synthetase, the enzyme required for the conversion of the amino acid cystathionine to cysteine. Death from vascular occlusion secondary to atherosclerosis is common during childhood, but…

  • autosome (biology)

    Autosome, any of the numbered or nonsex chromosomes of an organism. Humans have 22 sets of autosomes; they are referred to numerically (e.g., chromosome 1, chromosome 2) according to a traditional sort order based on size, shape, and other properties. Autosomes differ from sex chromosomes, which

  • autostrada (Italian highway)

    Autostrada, (Italian: “automobile road”, ) national Italian expressway system built by the government as toll roads. The first, from Venice to Turin, was begun in 1924; construction was continuing in the early 1980s. The autostrada has three undivided lanes on a 33-foot (10-metre) roadway with 3-ft

  • Autostrada del Sole (highway, Italy)

    expressway: In 1964 Italy completed the Autostrada del Sole, stretching almost 500 miles (800 km) from Milan to Naples, to which numerous branches, spurs, and extensions were added. Other European countries and Japan also built express highways. Even some developing countries in Africa and Latin America built short stretches in the…

  • autosuggestion (psychology)

    Émile Coué: ” This method of autosuggestion came to be called Couéism.

  • autotelism (literature)

    Autotelism, the belief that a work of art, especially a work of literature, is an end in itself or provides its own justification and does not exist to serve a moral or didactic purpose. It was adopted by proponents of New Criticism in the 1920s and is similar to the “art for art’s sake” doctrine

  • autotomy

    Autotomy, the ability of certain animals to release part of the body that has been grasped by an external agent. A notable example is found among lizards that break off the tail when it is seized by a predator. The phenomenon is found also among certain worms, salamanders, and spiders. The

  • autotransformer dimmer (electronics)

    stagecraft: Dimmers: The autotransformer dimmer controls current flow by varying the voltage in the circuit. It was rarely used to control stage lights, but at the turn of the 21st century it was still being used in some theatres to control house lights.

  • autotransplant (surgery)

    transplant: Transplants and grafts: Autografts cannot be rejected. Similarly, grafts between identical twins or highly inbred animals—isografts—are accepted by the recipients indefinitely. Grafts from a donor to a recipient of the same species—allografts or homografts—are usually rejected unless special efforts are made to prevent this. Grafts between individuals of…

  • autotroph (ecology)

    Autotroph, in ecology, an organism that serves as a primary producer in a food chain. Autotrophs obtain energy and nutrients by harnessing sunlight through photosynthesis (photoautotrophs) or, more rarely, obtain chemical energy through oxidation (chemoautotrophs) to make organic substances from

  • autotrophy (ecology)

    Autotroph, in ecology, an organism that serves as a primary producer in a food chain. Autotrophs obtain energy and nutrients by harnessing sunlight through photosynthesis (photoautotrophs) or, more rarely, obtain chemical energy through oxidation (chemoautotrophs) to make organic substances from

  • autotypist (instrument)

    word processing: …of automatic typewriter, called an autotypist, that could store and reproduce simple documents. The autotypist used punched paper tape for its storage medium. In 1964 researchers at International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) produced the Selectric Typewriter, a relatively high-speed, automatic typewriter that had a magnetic tape data-storage unit and retrieval…

  • Autour du pôle sud (work by Charcot)

    Jean-Baptiste-Étienne-Auguste Charcot: …two-volume report of his findings, Autour du pôle sud (“Around the South Pole”).

  • autovalve lightning arrester (safety equipment)

    Joseph Slepian: He invented the autovalve lightning arrester, a device for the protection of large power-distribution systems, and he studied the effect of thunderstorms on electric-power transmission and distribution circuits. He proposed new theories about the conduction of electricity through gases and about the nature of arc cathodes.

  • autoxidation (chemical reaction)

    ether: Autoxidation: Autoxidation is the spontaneous oxidation of a compound in air. In the presence of oxygen, ethers slowly autoxidize to form hydroperoxides and dialkyl peroxides. If concentrated or heated, these peroxides may explode. To prevent such explosions, ethers should be obtained in small quantities, kept…

  • Autre Dumas, L’  (film by Nebbou [2010])

    Gérard Depardieu: …biopics, including L’Autre Dumas (2010; Dumas), about Alexandre Dumas père, and Rasputin (2011). Other movies included Mammuth (2010), Valley of Love (2015), Un Beau Soleil intérieur (2017; Let the Sunshine In), and Mon cochon et moi (2018; Saving My Pig). From 2016 to 2018

  • Autrecourt, Nicolas d’ (French philosopher and theologian)

    Nicholas Of Autrecourt, French philosopher and theologian known principally for developing medieval Skepticism to its extreme logical conclusions, which were condemned as heretical. Nicholas was an advanced student in liberal arts and philosophy at the Sorbonne faculty of the University of Paris f

  • Autry, Gene (American actor, singer, and entrepreneur)

    Gene Autry, American actor, singer, and entrepreneur who was one of Hollywood’s premier singing cowboys and the best-selling country and western recording artist of the 1930s and early ’40s. Autry, who grew up in Texas and Oklahoma, had aspired to be a singer since before he acquired a guitar at

  • Autry, Orvon Gene (American actor, singer, and entrepreneur)

    Gene Autry, American actor, singer, and entrepreneur who was one of Hollywood’s premier singing cowboys and the best-selling country and western recording artist of the 1930s and early ’40s. Autry, who grew up in Texas and Oklahoma, had aspired to be a singer since before he acquired a guitar at

  • autumn (season)

    Autumn, season of the year between summer and winter during which temperatures gradually decrease. It is often called fall in the United States because leaves fall from the trees at that time. Autumn is usually defined in the Northern Hemisphere as the period between the autumnal equinox (day and

  • Autumn Colours in the Qiao and Hua Mountains (painting by Zhao Mengfu)

    Chinese painting: Yuan dynasty (1206–1368): A notable example is Autumn Colours in the Qiao and Hua Mountains (1296; National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan), a nostalgic, deliberately archaistic landscape in the Tang manner. The hand scrolls Twin Pines and Level View (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City) and Water Village (1302; Palace Museum, Beijing)…

  • Autumn Harvest Uprising (1927, China)

    Jiangxi: Cultural life: An uprising in 1927 at Nanchang serves as the founding date of the Red Army, which took place in the vicinity of Mount Jinggang in the southwest near the border between Jiangxi and Hunan. It also was the first major revolutionary base of the Chinese Communist…

  • autumn ladies’ tresses (plant)

    ladies' tresses: cernua), in North America and autumn ladies’ tresses (S. spiralis) in Europe. Slender ladies’ tresses (S. lacera) of North America has a single spiral of small white flowers.

  • Autumn Leaves (ballet)

    Anna Pavlova: …with her single choreographic endeavour, Autumn Leaves (1918).

  • Autumn Leaves (film by Aldrich [1956])

    Robert Aldrich: Early work: Aldrich next directed the thriller Autumn Leaves (1956), in which Joan Crawford portrayed a spinster typist who marries a much-younger man (played by Cliff Robertson) only to learn that he is schizophrenic.

  • Autumn Oaks (painting by Inness)

    George Inness: …1875 Inness’s works, such as Autumn Oaks (c. 1875), displayed a great concentration of feeling that presaged the ascendancy of colour over form in his late works. He explored the ideas he had articulated in an article titled “Colours and Le Correspondences,” in which he described the spiritual significance of…

  • Autumn Sonata (film by Ingmar Bergman [1978])

    Ingrid Bergman: Scandal and later films: …the Swedish film Höstsonaten (1978; Autumn Sonata), directed by Ingmar Bergman; she received her seventh and final Academy Award nomination for the drama. Her last role was that of Golda Meir, the Israeli prime minister, in the television play A Woman Called Golda (1981). For this role she was posthumously…

  • Autumn Statement (British government publication)

    government budget: Components of the budget: …intentions is given in an Autumn Statement, usually published in November, and detailed expenditure plans are provided in February or March in a White Paper. The U.K. budget, usually presented in March, is mainly concerned with taxation and is represented in a separate volume entitled Financial Statement and Budget Report.…

  • autumn tresses (plant)

    ladies' tresses: …bloom in autumn, such as nodding ladies’ tresses, or autumn tresses (S. cernua), in North America and autumn ladies’ tresses (S. spiralis) in Europe. Slender ladies’ tresses (S. lacera) of North America has a single spiral of small white flowers.

  • autumnal equinox (astronomy)

    Autumnal equinox, two moments in the year when the Sun is exactly above the Equator and day and night are of equal length; also, either of the two points in the sky where the ecliptic (the Sun’s annual pathway) and the celestial equator intersect. In the Northern Hemisphere the autumnal equinox

  • Autun (France)

    Autun, town, Saône-et-Loire département, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, central France, on the Arroux River, southwest of Dijon. Augustodunum (Autun) succeeded Bibracte as the Gallic oppidum (fortified town) and was an important Roman city renowned for its schools of rhetoric. Much of the Roman

  • Autun, Council of (Roman Catholicism)

    Investiture Controversy: Events: …Hugh of Die at the Council of Autun. At a council in Rome in November 1078 Gregory himself announced that clerics were not to accept lay investiture and extended and formalized the prohibition in March 1080. The renunciation of this customary prerogative was problematic for all rulers but especially for…

  • autunite (mineral)

    Autunite, phosphate mineral, hydrated calcium and uranium phosphate [Ca(UO2)2 (PO4)2·10–12H2O], that is an ore of uranium. It forms translucent to transparent, yellow to pale-green crystals, scaly masses, or crusts in hydrothermal veins and pegmatites, where it occurs as an alteration product of

  • Auvera, Johann Wolfgang van der (German sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Central Europe: Until his death Johann Wolfgang van der Auvera was the most powerful personality in the field of sculpture in the area, but later Ferdinand Dietz at Bamberg pursued an increasingly individual Rococo style that often parodied the growing taste for Neoclassicism. Prussian Rococo sculpture was less distinguished, though…

  • Auvergne (region, France)

    Auvergne, historical region and former administrative région of France. As a région, it encompassed the central départements of Allier, Puy-de-Dôme, Cantal, and Haute-Loire. In 2016 the Auvergne région was joined with the région of Rhône-Alpes to form the new administrative entity of

  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (region, France)

    Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, région of east-central France created in 2016 by the union of the former régions of Auvergne and Rhône-Alpes. It encompasses the départements of Allier, Puy-de-Dôme, Cantal, Haute-Loire, Loire, Rhône, Ain, Haute-Savoie, Savoie, Isère, Drôme, and Ardèche. It is bounded by the

  • Auwers, Arthur von (German astronomer)

    Arthur von Auwers, German astronomer known for his star catalogs. After receiving a Ph.D. in astronomy (1862) from the University of Königsberg, Auwers joined the Gotha Observatory. He became astronomer (1866) at the Academy of Science in Berlin and from 1878 served as its permanent secretary. From

  • Auwers, Georg Friedrich Julius Arthur von (German astronomer)

    Arthur von Auwers, German astronomer known for his star catalogs. After receiving a Ph.D. in astronomy (1862) from the University of Königsberg, Auwers joined the Gotha Observatory. He became astronomer (1866) at the Academy of Science in Berlin and from 1878 served as its permanent secretary. From

  • Aux Cayes (Haiti)

    Les Cayes, town, southwestern Haiti, on the southern Caribbean shore of the southern peninsula. Founded in 1786, it was plagued by disease and pirates during colonial times. In 1815 the South American liberator Simón Bolívar visited the port to accept Haitian arms and a contingent of troops to aid

  • aux deux crayons (art)

    chalk drawing: …chalk, a technique known as aux deux crayons. As developed by Rococo artists such as Antoine Watteau and François Boucher, the expressive range of chalk drawings grew as broad as that of watercolours or pastels. The devices employed in the 18th century to achieve this subtlety of effect included the…

  • aux trois crayons (art)

    chalk drawing: …chalk (a technique known as aux trois crayons); and manipulating the medium to create an effect of mass rather than of line. In the 20th century, chalk was principally used by artists adhering to traditional art styles but also by such avant-garde painters as Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Willem…

  • Auxerre (France)

    Auxerre, town, capital of Yonne département, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, central France, on the Yonne River. The town, which flourished in pre-Roman and Roman days, became the seat of a bishop and a civitas (provincial capital) in the 3rd century. It was united to France by Louis XI in the

  • auxerrois (wine)

    Alsace: Geography: Gewürztraminer, Sylvaner, Auxerrois, and Pinot Blanc are among the notable white wines produced. Colmar is the principal centre of the wine-growing region, whose vineyards extend in a narrow strip along the lower slopes of the Vosges west of the city. Parts of the alluvial plain of Alsace…

  • auxiliary (grammar)

    Auxiliary, in grammar, a helping element, typically a verb, that adds meaning to the basic meaning of the main verb in a clause. Auxiliaries can convey information about tense, mood, person, and number. An auxiliary verb occurs with a main verb that is in the form of an infinitive or a participle.

  • auxiliary condition (mathematics)

    parabolic equation: …and together are sometimes called auxiliary conditions.

  • auxiliary discharge converter (device)

    thermionic power converter: Auxiliary discharge converters: In an auxiliary discharge converter, an inert gas is used between the electrodes (e.g., neon, argon, or xenon). Positive ions are produced by applying voltage to a third electrode. The principal advantage of the auxiliary discharge converter—so called because of its spark-plug-type…

  • Auxiliary Manual Training Normal School (university, Pittsburg, Kansas, United States)

    Pittsburg State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Pittsburg, Kan., U.S. It comprises the College of Arts and Sciences, Gladys A. Kelce School of Business, the School of Education, and the School of Technology and Applied Science. In addition to undergraduate

  • auxiliary of negation (grammar)

    Uralic languages: Negative sentences and questions: …a marker known as an auxiliary of negation, which preceded the main verb and was marked with suffixes that agreed with the subject and perhaps tense. This is best reflected in the Finnic, Samoyedic, and Yukaghir languages—e.g., Finnish mene-n ‘I go,’ e-n mene ‘I don’t go,’ mene-t ‘you go,’ e-t…

  • auxiliary propulsion

    artillery: Field artillery: …also saw the introduction of auxiliary propulsion. Consisting of small motors that drove the wheels of towed guns, this permitted the gun to be moved from its firing position to a concealed or alternative position without calling up the towing vehicle. Propulsion motors also allowed the adoption of powered loading…

  • auxiliary sailboat (boat)

    motorboat: Types.: An auxiliary sailboat is basically designed as a sailing craft but is powered with an internal-combustion engine for use in adverse weather conditions and for maneuvering in confined spaces. The motor sailer, by contrast, is designed mainly to operate as a motorboat but is equipped with…

  • auxiliary storage (computing)

    computer memory: Auxiliary memory: Auxiliary memory units are among computer peripheral equipment. They trade slower access rates for greater storage capacity and data stability. Auxiliary memory holds programs and data for future use, and, because it is nonvolatile (like ROM), it is used to store inactive programs…

  • auxiliary supply ship (military logistics)

    logistics: Special features of naval logistics: …can be filled by specialized auxiliary ships either accompanying naval forces at sea or stationed at predetermined rendezvous points. Naval operations in World War II saw a proliferation of these auxiliary vessels; in 1945 only 29 percent of the U.S. Navy consisted of purely fighting ships. By using auxiliaries and…

  • auxiliary view (drafting)

    drafting: Auxiliary views: …that facilitates the discussion of auxiliary views:

  • auxin (biochemistry)

    Auxin, any of a group of plant hormones that regulate growth, particularly by stimulating cell elongation in stems. Auxins also play a role in cell division and differentiation, in fruit development, in the formation of roots from cuttings, in the inhibition of lateral branching (apical dominance),

  • Auxis (fish)

    mackerel: …38 cm long, and the frigate mackerels (Auxis), which are small, elongated fishes found worldwide and distinguished by a corselet of enlarged scales around the shoulder region that extend along the lateral line.

  • auxochrome (chemistry)

    dye: Dye structure and colour: …2, ―OH), which he named auxochromes. These ideas remain valid, although they have been broadened by better recognition of the role of specific structural features. He had also claimed that auxochromes impart dyeing properties to these compounds, but it later became clear that colour and dyeing properties are not directly…

  • auxospore (biology)

    algae: Reproduction and life histories: …kind of cell called an auxospore. The auxospore divides, forming two large, vegetative cells, and in this manner the larger size is renewed. In centric diatoms there is marked differentiation between nonmotile female gametes, which act as egg cells, and motile (typically uniflagellate) male gametes.

  • Auyuittuq National Park Reserve (national park, Nunavut, Canada)

    Cumberland Sound: …trading post and gateway to Auyuittuq National Park Reserve (8,394 square miles [21,470 square km]), Pangnirtung has a medical centre and hospital, a weather and radio station, and a Royal Canadian Mounted Police post. Economic activities include sealing, fishing, hunting, and the marketing of crafts through the local cooperative.

  • AV (political science)

    Alternative vote (AV), method of election in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. If any single candidate receives a majority of first-preference votes, that candidate is deemed elected. If no candidate clears this hurdle, the last-place candidate is eliminated and that candidate’s

  • Av (Jewish month)

    Jewish religious year: Months and notable days: During leap year, the Adar holidays are postponed to Second Adar.

  • AV (Italian high-speed train)

    railroad: Western Europe: In Italy the first Alta Velocità (AV; “High-Speed”) line, running the 250 km (150 miles) from Rome to Florence and designed for 300-km- (185-mile-) per hour top speed, was finished in 1992; the first segment had been opened in 1977, but progress thereafter had been hampered by funding uncertainties…

  • Av 9, Fast of (Jewish fast)

    Tisha be-Av, in Judaism, traditional day of mourning for the destruction of the First and Second Temples. According to the Talmud, other disastrous events such as the following occurred on Av 9: the decree that the Jews would wander 40 years in the wilderness; the fall of Bethar in ad 135, ending

  • av bet din (Jewish official)

    sanhedrin: …“pair”), the nasi and the av bet din. It was a religious legislative body “whence the law [Halakha] goes out to all Israel.” Politically, it could appoint the king and the high priest, declare war, and expand the territory of Jerusalem and the Temple. Judicially, it could try a high…

  • AVA (medicine)

    anthrax: Anthrax as a biological weapon: …against possible anthrax infection, including Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA), the vaccine developed to protect United States military personnel. The anthrax vaccine can provide protection to most recipients, although a small percentage do not acquire complete immunity. However, if vaccinated military personnel were to encounter a massive dose of anthrax, such…

  • Ava (ancient kingdom, Myanmar)

    Ava, ancient capital of central Myanmar (Burma), on the left bank of the Irrawaddy River at the Myitnge confluence. It is linked by a road and rail bridge, 5,894 feet (1,796 m) long, to the town of Sagaing; this is the only place where the Irrawaddy is bridged. Its name is a corruption of the

  • ava (beverage)

    Kava, nonalcoholic, euphoria-producing beverage made from the root of the pepper plant, principally Piper methysticum, in most of the South Pacific islands. It is yellow-green in colour and somewhat bitter, and the active ingredient is apparently alkaloidal in nature. Consumption of the beverage

  • avacchedakata

    Indian philosophy: The new school: …is that of “limiterness” (avacchedakata), which has many different uses. If a mountain possesses fire in one region and not in another, it can be said, in the Navya-Nyaya language, “The mountain, as limited by the region r, possesses fire, but as limited by the region r′ possesses the…

  • Avadāna (Buddhist literature)

    Avadāna, (Sanskrit: “Noble Deeds”,) legendary material centring on the Buddha’s explanations of events by a person’s worthy deeds in a previous life. The Pāli cognate of the term is Apadāna. Avadāna designates both the class of such stories scattered within the Vinaya Piṭaka (“Basket of

  • avadavat (bird)

    Avadavat, (species Amandava, or Estrilda, amandava), plump, 8-centimetre- (3-inch-) long bird of the waxbill (q.v.) group (order Passeriformes), a popular cage bird. The avadavat is abundant in marshes and meadows of southern Asia (introduced in Hawaii). The male, in breeding plumage, is bright

  • Avadh (historic region, India)

    Awadh, historic region of northern India, now constituting the northeastern portion of Uttar Pradesh state. Awadh is situated in the heavily populated heart of the Indo-Gangetic Plain and is known for its rich alluvial soils. It received its name from Ayodhya, the capital of the ancient kingdom of

  • Avadh (India)

    Ayodhya, town, south-central Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies on the Ghaghara River just east of Faizabad. An ancient town, Ayodhya is regarded as one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, revered because of its association in the great Indian epic poem Ramayana with the birth of

  • avahi (primate)

    Avahi, (genus Avahi), long-legged arboreal lemur of Madagascar. Avahis have short arms, a short muzzle, and a round head with small ears hidden in woolly fur. Nocturnal and vegetarian, they live in small groups in both rainforests and patches of dry forests, typically clinging vertically to the

  • Avahi (primate)

    Avahi, (genus Avahi), long-legged arboreal lemur of Madagascar. Avahis have short arms, a short muzzle, and a round head with small ears hidden in woolly fur. Nocturnal and vegetarian, they live in small groups in both rainforests and patches of dry forests, typically clinging vertically to the

  • Avahi cleesei (primate)

    avahi: …in 2005 and was named A. cleesei after the British comedian and conservation supporter John Cleese. These three western species all have very small distributions and are in danger of extinction. Avahis are related to sifakas and the indri; all are primates of the leaping lemur family, Indridae.

  • Avahi laniger (primate)

    avahi: The eastern avahi (Avahi laniger), which lives in rainforests, is grayish brown to reddish, is about 28 cm (11 inches) long and 1.2 kg (2.6 lbs) in weight, and has a furry reddish tail of about body length or longer. The three species that live in…

  • Avahi occidentalis (primate)

    avahi: The Betsiboka avahi (A. occidentalis) has a light facial mask and broad dark rings around the eyes, whereas the recently described Sambirano avahi (A. unicolor) lacks these facial markings. An additional species from the Bemaraha district was described scientifically only in 2005 and was named A.…

  • availability theory of credit (economics)

    government economic policy: Experience in selected countries: This was the so-called availability theory of credit; it held that monetary policy had its effect on spending not only directly through interest rates but also by restricting the general availability of credit and liquid funds. It was argued that even rather small changes in the rate of interest…

  • avalanche (geology)

    Avalanche, a mass of material moving rapidly down a slope. An avalanche is typically triggered when material on a slope breaks loose from its surroundings; this material then quickly collects and carries additional material down the slope. There are various kinds of avalanches, including rock

  • avalanche diode (electronics)

    semiconductor device: Zener diode: ) This voltage regulator is a p-n junction diode that has a precisely tailored impurity distribution to provide a well-defined breakdown voltage. It can be designed to have a breakdown voltage over a wide range from 0.1 volt to thousands of volts. The Zener…

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