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  • autarky (economics)

    Autarky, an economic system of self-sufficiency and limited trade. A country is said to be in a complete state of autarky if it has a closed economy, which means that it does not engage in international trade with any other country. Historically, societies have utilized different levels of autarky.

  • autecology (biology)

    Autecology, the study of the interactions of an individual organism or a single species with the living and nonliving factors of its environment. Autecology is primarily experimental and deals with easily measured variables such as light, humidity, and available nutrients in an effort to u

  • auteur theory (filmmaking)

    Auteur theory, theory of filmmaking in which the director is viewed as the major creative force in a motion picture. Arising in France in the late 1940s, the auteur theory—as it was dubbed by the American film critic Andrew Sarris—was an outgrowth of the cinematic theories of André Bazin and

  • Authari (king of the Lombards)

    Italy: Lombards and Byzantines: …reestablishment of Lombard kingship under Authari (584–590) and then Agilulf (590–616), nearly as many Lombard leaders seem to have been fighting with the Byzantines as against them. In 584, in the face of Frankish invasions from beyond the Alps, the Lombard dukes met and elected Authari king, ceding him considerable…

  • Authentic Brands Group (American company)

    Sports Illustrated: …the magazine’s intellectual property to Authentic Brands Group for $110 million. As part of the deal, Meredith would continue to publish Sports Illustrated through a licensing agreement.

  • authentic cadence (music)

    cadence: In an authentic cadence, a chord that incorporates the dominant triad (based on the fifth tone of the scale) is followed by the tonic triad (based on the first tone of the scale), V–I; the tonic harmony comes at the end of the phrase. In the strongest…

  • authentic existence (philosophy)

    phenomenology: Heidegger’s hermeneutic phenomenology: …comes to its self (called authenticity) or loses itself (called inauthenticity); Dasein is inauthentic, for example, when it lets the possibilities of the choice for its own “ek-sisting” be given to it by others instead of deciding for itself. Heidegger’s concept of care (Sorge, cura) has nothing to do with…

  • authentic mode (music)

    mode: The eight modes: An authentic mode consists of a pentachord (a succession of five diatonic notes) followed by a conjunct tetrachord, for example:

  • Authentica Habita (imperial privilege)

    Italy: Institutional reforms: …studying law, the so-called “Authentica Habita” (c. 1155), and played a leading role in the gradual evolution of the law schools at Bologna. Roman law, however, was merely one source that contributed to the development of more clearly defined social and political institutions in the 12th century. The profound…

  • authentication (data communication)

    cryptology: The fundamentals of codes, ciphers, and authentication: The most frequently confused, and misused, terms in the lexicon of cryptology are code and cipher. Even experts occasionally employ these terms as though they were synonymous.

  • authigenesis (geology)

    lithification: …pores; these reactions, collectively termed authigenesis, may form new minerals or add to others already present in the sediment. Minerals may be dissolved and redistributed into nodules and other concretions, and minerals in solution entering the sediment from another area may be deposited or may react with minerals already present.…

  • authigenic mineral (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Mineralogical and geochemical composition: …two principal types—namely, detrital and authigenic. Detrital minerals, such as grains of quartz and feldspar, survive weathering and are transported to the depositional site as clasts. Authigenic minerals, like calcite, halite, and gypsum, form in situ within the depositional site in response to geochemical processes. The chemical compounds that constitute…

  • authigenic sediment (geology)

    Authigenic sediment, deep-sea sediment that has been formed in place on the seafloor. The most significant authigenic sediments in modern ocean basins are metal-rich sediments and manganese nodules. Metal-rich sediments include those enriched by iron, manganese, copper, chromium, and lead. These

  • author (literature)

    Author, one who is the source of some form of intellectual or creative work; especially, one who composes a book, article, poem, play, or other literary work intended for publication. Usually a distinction is made between an author and others (such as a compiler, an editor, or a translator) who

  • author collection (library)

    book collecting: Styles of collecting: …fall within three genres: the author collection, the subject collection, and the cabinet collection.

  • Author to Her Book, The (work by Bradstreet)

    substitution: …in the following lines from “The Author to Her Book”:

  • Author! Author! (film by Hiller [1982])

    Arthur Hiller: Later films: …of forgettable comedies followed, including Author! Author! (1982), which starred Al Pacino as an overwhelmed playwright, and The Lonely Guy (1984), with Steve Martin and a scene-stealing Charles Grodin. Hiller had a modest hit with Outrageous Fortune (1987), which cast Bette Midler and Shelley Long as rivals, but See No

  • Author, Author (novel by Lodge)

    David Lodge: Author, Author (2004) and A Man of Parts (2011) are based on the lives of writers Henry James and H.G. Wells, respectively.

  • Authoritarian Personality, The (book by Adorno)

    political science: Post-World War II trends and debates: …insights in their pioneering study The Authoritarian Personality (1950), which used a 29-item questionnaire to detect the susceptibility of individuals to fascist beliefs. The French political scientist Maurice Duverger’s Political Parties (1951) is still highly regarded, not only for its classification of parties but also for its linking of party…

  • authoritarianism (politics)

    Authoritarianism, principle of blind submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action. In government, authoritarianism denotes any political system that concentrates power in the hands of a leader or a small elite that is not constitutionally responsible to the body

  • authority

    Authority, the exercise of legitimate influence by one social actor over another. There are many ways in which an individual or entity can influence another to behave differently, and not all of them have equal claim to authority. A classic hypothetical example serves to differentiate the term

  • authority gap (economics and society)

    gender wage gap: Vertical or hierarchical segregation: …the gender wage gap is vertical segregation. Vertical segregation, also known as hierarchical segregation, or the “authority gap,” refers to the fact that men are much more likely than women to be in positions of authority. A number of researchers have found a significant pro-male bias in promotion decisions that…

  • Authority in the Modern State (work by Laski)

    Harold Joseph Laski: During this period he wrote Authority in the Modern State (1919) and The Foundations of Sovereignty, and Other Essays (1921). In both works he attacked the notion of an all-powerful sovereign state, arguing instead for political pluralism. In his Grammar of Politics (1925), however, he defended the opposite position, viewing…

  • Authority, Liberty, and Function in Light of the War (work by Maeztu)

    Ramiro de Maeztu: He wrote, in English, Authority, Liberty, and Function in Light of the War, in which he called for a reliance on authority, tradition, and the institutions of the Roman Catholic church. It was published in Spanish as La crisis del humanismo (1919).

  • Authorized Version (sacred text)

    King James Version (KJV), English translation of the Bible published in 1611 under the auspices of King James I of England. The translation had a marked influence on English literary style and was generally accepted as the standard English Bible from the mid-17th to the early 20th century. The

  • Authors Guild (American organization)

    Scott Turow: …served as president of the Authors Guild in 2010–14.

  • autism (developmental disorder)

    Autism, developmental disorder affecting physical, social, and language skills, with an onset of signs and symptoms typically before age three. The term autism (from the Greek autos, meaning “self”) was coined in 1911 by Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, who used it to describe withdrawal into

  • autism spectrum disorder

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), any of a group of neurobiological disorders that are characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication and by abnormalities in behaviours, interests, and activities. In 1911 Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler coined the term autism (from the Greek

  • Autism Spectrum, The

    In 2009 researchers made numerous discoveries concerning the prevalence, Neuropathology, and treatment of autism spectrum conditions (also known as autism spectrum disorders). Indeed, new estimates of prevalence in both the United States and the United Kingdom indicated that roughly 1 in every 100

  • autistic disorder (developmental disorder)

    Autism, developmental disorder affecting physical, social, and language skills, with an onset of signs and symptoms typically before age three. The term autism (from the Greek autos, meaning “self”) was coined in 1911 by Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, who used it to describe withdrawal into

  • Autlán (Mexico)

    Autlán, city, southwestern Jalisco estado (state), west-central Mexico. Autlán is situated in the western foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental at 3,291 feet (1,003 metres) above sea level. It is a regional centre of commerce, agriculture (oranges, lemons, guavas, and other fruits), livestock

  • Autlán de Navarro (Mexico)

    Autlán, city, southwestern Jalisco estado (state), west-central Mexico. Autlán is situated in the western foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental at 3,291 feet (1,003 metres) above sea level. It is a regional centre of commerce, agriculture (oranges, lemons, guavas, and other fruits), livestock

  • auto

    Automobile, a usually four-wheeled vehicle designed primarily for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. The modern automobile is a complex technical system employing subsystems with specific design functions. Some of these consist of

  • Auto Acordado of 1713 (Spanish history)

    Salic Law of Succession: …the Salic Law by his Auto Acordado of 1713, which was later repealed. The Salic Law of Succession was applied when Victoria, who was from the house of Hanover, became queen of England in 1837 but was barred from succession to the Hanover crown, which went to her uncle.

  • auto de fé (public ceremony)

    Auto-da-fé, (Portuguese: “act of faith”) a public ceremony during which the sentences upon those brought before the Spanish Inquisition were read and after which the sentences were executed by the secular authorities. The first auto-da-fé took place at Sevilla in 1481; the last, in Mexico in 1850.

  • Auto de la Pasión (work by Fernández)

    Lucas Fernández: His best work is the Auto de la Pasión, an Easter play. His Diálogo para cantar (1514; “Dialogue for Singing”) is the first example of a rudimentary zarzuela, the distinctively Spanish musical play.

  • Auto de los reyes magos (Spanish drama)

    Spanish literature: Early drama: The Auto de los reyes magos (“Play of the Three Wise Kings”), dated from the second half of the 12th century, is an incomplete play of the Epiphany cycle. It is medieval Spanish drama’s only extant text. The play’s realistic characterization of the Magi and of…

  • auto sacramental (Spanish drama)

    Auto sacramental, (Spanish: “sacramental act”), Spanish dramatic genre that reached its height in the 17th century with autos written by the playwright Pedro Calderón de la Barca. Performed outdoors as part of the Corpus Christi feast day celebrations, autos were short allegorical plays in verse

  • Auto-da-Fé (work by Canetti)

    Auto-da-Fé, novel by Elias Canetti, published in 1935 in German as Die Blendung (“The Deception”). It was also published in English as The Tower of Babel. Originally planned as the first in a series of eight novels examining mad visionaries, the book deals with the dangers inherent in believing

  • auto-da-fé (public ceremony)

    Auto-da-fé, (Portuguese: “act of faith”) a public ceremony during which the sentences upon those brought before the Spanish Inquisition were read and after which the sentences were executed by the secular authorities. The first auto-da-fé took place at Sevilla in 1481; the last, in Mexico in 1850.

  • Auto-Emancipation (work by Pinsker)

    Leo Pinsker: By a Russian Jew”; Auto-Emancipation, 1884), which provoked strong reactions, both critical and commendatory, from Jewish leaders. In the pamphlet he contended that the only restorative for Jewish dignity and spiritual health lay in a Jewish homeland.

  • Auto-Emanzipation. Ein Mahnruf an seine Stammesgenossen. Von einem russischen Juden (work by Pinsker)

    Leo Pinsker: By a Russian Jew”; Auto-Emancipation, 1884), which provoked strong reactions, both critical and commendatory, from Jewish leaders. In the pamphlet he contended that the only restorative for Jewish dignity and spiritual health lay in a Jewish homeland.

  • Auto-Tune

    In July 2014 a recording of Britney Spears singing a song from her new album, Britney Jean, was leaked online and provoked mass ridicule across the Internet. The reason for this reaction was that the song, “Alien,” sounded nothing like the finished version: it was a raw vocal track that was

  • autoacceleration (chemistry)

    chemistry of industrial polymers: Industrial polymerization methods: This phenomenon, called autoacceleration, can cause polymerization reactions to accelerate at explosive rates unless efficient means for heat dissipation are included in the design of the reactor.

  • autoallergic disease (pathology)

    immune system disorder: Autoimmune disorders: The mechanism by which the enormous diversity of B and T cells is generated is a random process that inevitably gives rise to some receptors that recognize the body’s own constituents as foreign. Lymphocytes bearing such self-reactive receptors, however, are eliminated or rendered…

  • Autoamerican (album by Blondie)

    Blondie: By the time of Autoamerican (1980), the other members’ creative contributions had waned, even as the group’s style grew more adventurous, encompassing the reggae hit “The Tide Is High” and introducing the nascent genre of hip-hop to rock audiences with the single “Rapture.” The Hunter (1982) represented a downturn…

  • autoamputation

    Autotomy, the ability of certain animals to release part of the body that has been grasped by an external agent. A notable example is found among lizards that break off the tail when it is seized by a predator. The phenomenon is found also among certain worms, salamanders, and spiders. The

  • autoanalyzer (medical technology)

    blood: Laboratory examination of blood: …for each analysis; however, the autoanalyzer, a completely automated machine, increases the number of chemical analyses that can be performed in laboratories. A dozen analyses may be made simultaneously by a single machine employing a small amount of serum. The serum is automatically drawn from a test tube and is…

  • autoantibody (immunity)

    Autoantibody, harmful antibody that attacks components of the body called self antigens. Normally autoantibodies are routinely eliminated by the immune system’s self-regulatory process—probably through the neutralization of autoantibody-producing lymphocytes before they mature. At times this

  • autoantigen (biochemistry)

    immune system disorder: Alteration of self antigens: Various mechanisms can alter self components so that they seem foreign to the immune system. New antigenic determinants can be attached to self proteins, or the shape of a self antigen can shift—for a variety of reasons—so that previously unresponsive helper T cells…

  • Autobahn (German highway)

    Autobahn, (German: “automobile road”) high-speed, limited-access highway, the basis of the first modern national expressway system. Planned in Germany in the early 1930s, the Autobahnen were extended to a national highway network (Reichsautobahnen) of 2,108 km (1,310 miles) by 1942. West Germany

  • Autobahn (album by Kraftwerk)

    Kraftwerk: …22-minute title track of the Autobahn album (1974). Repetitious, monotonous, lulling, and entrancing, “Autobahn” became an unlikely hit in Europe and the United States (where it was played on commercial radio stations in severely edited form). Subsequent albums explored such subjects as radios and trains with a combination of childlike…

  • Autobahnen (German highway)

    Autobahn, (German: “automobile road”) high-speed, limited-access highway, the basis of the first modern national expressway system. Planned in Germany in the early 1930s, the Autobahnen were extended to a national highway network (Reichsautobahnen) of 2,108 km (1,310 miles) by 1942. West Germany

  • Autobiographer as Torero, The (work by Leiris)

    Michel Leiris: …considérée comme une tauromachie” (1946; The Autobiographer as Torero), comparing the courage required to write with that required of a matador. In 1948 he began another autobiography, La Règle du jeu (“The Rules of the Game”), which was published in four volumes as Biffures (1948; “Erasures”), Fourbis (1955; “Odds and…

  • autobiographical memory (psychology)

    memory: Autobiographical memory: As an aspect of episodic memory, autobiographical memories are unique to each individual. The study of autobiographical memory poses problems, because it is difficult to prove whether the events took place as reported. Using diary methods, researchers have found that people recall actions more…

  • Autobiography (work by Mill)

    John Stuart Mill: Public life and writing: The Autobiography tells how in 1826 Mill’s enthusiasm was checked by a misgiving as to the value of the ends that he had set before him. At the London Debating Society, where he first measured his strength in public conflict, he found himself looked upon with…

  • autobiography (literature)

    Autobiography, the biography of oneself narrated by oneself. Autobiographical works can take many forms, from the intimate writings made during life that were not necessarily intended for publication (including letters, diaries, journals, memoirs, and reminiscences) to a formal book-length

  • Autobiography (work by Trollope)

    English literature: The novel: …of 47 novels, and his Autobiography (1883) is a uniquely candid account of the working life of a Victorian writer.

  • Autobiography (work by Spencer)

    Herbert Spencer: Life and works: …would marry, but in his Autobiography (1904) Spencer denies any such desire, much as he admired Eliot’s intellectual powers. Other friends were George Henry Lewes, Thomas Henry Huxley, and John Stuart Mill. In 1853 Spencer, having received a legacy from his uncle, resigned his position with The Economist.

  • Autobiography (work by Haydon)

    Benjamin Robert Haydon: …historical painter and writer, whose Autobiography has proved more enduring than his painting.

  • Autobiography (work by Jefferson)

    Joseph Jefferson: Jefferson’s Autobiography (1890) is written with spirit and humour, and its judgments with regard to the art of the actor and the playwright place it beside Colley Cibber’s Apology.

  • Autobiography (work by Loyola)

    St. Ignatius of Loyola: Early life: …desire to win renown” (Autobiography, 1). Although his morals were far from stainless, Ignatius was in his early years a proud rather than sensual man. He stood just under five feet two inches in height and had in his youth an abundance of hair of a reddish tint. He…

  • Autobiography (work by Cellini)

    Benvenuto Cellini: …and his period in his autobiography, one of the most picturesque figures of the Renaissance.

  • Autobiography (work by Cartwright)

    Peter Cartwright: …his colourful life in his Autobiography (1856), which became a leading source for material on the life of the western circuit rider.

  • Autobiography (work by Franklin)

    John Bigelow: …editor of Benjamin Franklin’s long-lost Autobiography. As U.S. consul in Paris during the American Civil War, he also prevented the delivery of warships constructed in France for the Confederacy.

  • Autobiography of a Runaway Slave, The (work by Barnet)

    Miguel Barnet: …Biografía de un cimarrón (1966; Biography of a Runaway Slave, also published as The Autobiography of a Runaway Slave), a trend-setting book that inaugurated and then became the standard for what was to be known as testimonio, or testimonial narrative, in Latin America. In these works, a subject who has…

  • Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, The (work by Stein)

    The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, book by Gertrude Stein, written in the voice of her lifelong companion, Alice B. Toklas. Published in 1933, the work ostensibly contains Toklas’s first-person account not of her own life but of Stein’s, written from Toklas’s viewpoint and replete with Toklas’s

  • Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, The (novel by Johnson)

    The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, novel by James Weldon Johnson, published in 1912. This fictional autobiography, originally issued anonymously in order to suggest authenticity, explores the intricacies of racial identity through the eventful life of its mixed-race (and unnamed) narrator. The

  • Autobiography of An Idea (work by Sullivan)

    Louis Sullivan: Work in association with Adler: …event that Sullivan ended the Autobiography of an Idea (1924), his account of his career and his architectural theories.

  • Autobiography of Fukuzawa Yukichi, The (book by Fukuzawa)

    Fukuzawa Yukichi: Writing in his The Autobiography of Fukuzawa Yukichi (Eng. trans. 1934; numerous subsequent editions and reprintings) shortly before his death in 1901, Fukuzawa declared that the abolition of all feudal privileges by the Meiji government and Japan’s victory over China in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95 (which gave…

  • Autobiography of Malcolm X, The (work by Haley)

    The Autobiography of Malcolm X, biography, published in 1965, of the American black militant religious leader and activist who was born Malcolm Little. Written by Alex Haley, who had conducted extensive audiotaped interviews with Malcolm X just before his assassination in 1965, the book gained

  • Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, The (television movie [1974])

    Television in the United States: A potpourri of genres: …1971), Brian’s Song (ABC, 1971), The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman (CBS, 1974), and The Execution of Private Slovik (NBC, 1974).

  • Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, The (novel by Gaines)

    The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, novel by Ernest J. Gaines, published in 1971. The novel is set in rural southern Louisiana and spans 100 years of American history—from the early 1860s to the onset of the civil rights movement in the 1960s—in following the life of the elderly Jane Pittman,

  • Autobiography of My Mother, The (book by Kincaid)

    Jamaica Kincaid: …reached a fierce pitch in The Autobiography of My Mother (1996) and My Brother (1997), an account of the death from AIDS of Kincaid’s younger brother Devon Drew. Her “Talk of the Town” columns for The New Yorker were collected in Talk Stories (2001), and in 2005 she published Among…

  • Autobiography of Red: A Novel in Verse (novel by Carson)

    Canadian literature: Poetry and poetics: In Autobiography of Red (1998)—the story of the winged red monster Geryon and his doomed love for Herakles—she draws on the Greek poet Stesichoros, while in The Beauty of the Husband: A Fictional Essay in 29 Tangos (2001) she invokes English poet John Keats. A classics…

  • Autobiography, An (work by Smith)

    Amanda Smith: In 1893 Smith published An Autobiography. The proceeds from the book, together with her savings, the income from a small newspaper she published, and gifts from others, enabled her to open a home for African-American orphans in Harvey, Ill., in 1899. Eventually she resumed preaching and singing in order…

  • Autobiography, An (work by Wright)

    Frank Lloyd Wright: The 1920s and ’30s: …debacles, Wright began to write An Autobiography, as well as a series of articles on architecture, which appeared in 1927 and 1928. Finally, some of Wright’s admirers set up Wright, Incorporated—a firm that owned his talents, his properties, and his debts—that effectively shielded him. In 1929 Wright designed a tower…

  • Autobranchia (bivalve subclass)

    mollusk: Annotated classification: (Nuculida), Palaeobranchia (Solemyida), Autobranchia (lamellibranch and septibranch bivalves); about 6,000 marine and 2,000 limnic species. Class Scaphopoda (Solenoconcha; tusk shells) Midventrally fused mantle and tubiform to barrel-shaped shell; head with tubular snout and 2 bunches of slender tentacles (captacula); foot pointed and cylindrical; no ctenidia and distinct blood…

  • autocatalysis (chemistry)

    food preservation: Autoxidation: …of unsaturated fatty acids is autocatalytic; that is, it proceeds by a free-radical chain reaction. Free radicals contain an unpaired electron (represented by a dot in the molecular formula) and, therefore, are highly reactive chemical molecules. The basic mechanisms in a free-radical chain reaction involve initiation, propagation, and termination steps…

  • autocephalous church (Eastern Orthodoxy)

    Autocephalous church, in the modern usage of Eastern Orthodox canon law, church that enjoys total canonical and administrative independence and elects its own primates and bishops. The term autocephalous was used in medieval Byzantine law in its literal sense of “self-headed” (Greek:

  • Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Poland (Eastern Orthodoxy)

    Orthodox Church of Poland, ecclesiastically independent member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, established in 1924 to accommodate the four million Orthodox Christians residing in the vast Ukrainian and Byelorussian territories acquired by Poland after World War I. As the new political situation

  • autochrome process (photography)

    history of photography: Colour photography: The Autochrome process, introduced in France in 1907 by Auguste and Louis Lumière, was the first practical colour photography process. It used a colour screen (a glass plate covered with grains of starch dyed to act as primary-colour filters and black dust that blocked all unfiltered…

  • autochthon (Greek mythology)

    Cecrops: As one of the autochthons of Attica—i.e., literally sprung from its soil—Cecrops was represented as human in the upper part of his body, while the lower part was shaped like a snake.

  • autoclave (vessel)

    Autoclave, vessel, usually of steel, able to withstand high temperatures and pressures. The chemical industry uses various types of autoclaves in manufacturing dyes and in other chemical reactions requiring high pressures. In bacteriology and medicine, instruments are sterilized by being placed in

  • Autocode (computer science)

    computer: Compilers: …first of several programs called Autocode for the Manchester Mark I. Autocode was the first compiler actually to be implemented. (The language that it compiled was called by the same name.) Glennie’s compiler had little influence, however. When J. Halcombe Laning created a compiler for the Whirlwind computer at the…

  • autoconstrucción (art)

    Abraham Cruzvillegas: … who developed the concept of autoconstrucción (self-construction). His art practice melded incongruent elements through improvisation and unmonitored change in order to probe the ongoing transformation of community—and of his own identity—in the belief that “we go through a long, long path to become ourselves.”

  • autocracy (political system)

    Absolutism, the political doctrine and practice of unlimited centralized authority and absolute sovereignty, as vested especially in a monarch or dictator. The essence of an absolutist system is that the ruling power is not subject to regularized challenge or check by any other agency, be it

  • autocrine function (biology)

    cell: Types of chemical signaling: In the autocrine signaling process, molecules act on the same cells that produce them. In paracrine signaling, they act on nearby cells. Autocrine signals include extracellular matrix molecules and various factors that stimulate cell growth. An example of paracrine signals is the chemical transmitted from nerve to…

  • Autodromo (race track, Monza, Italy)

    Monza: …the site of the famous Autodromo (automobile-racing track), which, because of its elliptical shape and concrete banked curves, is claimed to be the fastest in the world. Pop. (2006 est.) mun., 121,961.

  • Autofiction (work by Kanehara)

    Kanehara Hitomi: …followed it with Ōtofikushon (2006; Autofiction), which opens with another nihilistic 20-something female and then scrolls back in time to reveal the past that shaped her skewed perceptions. It was a candidate for the Man Asian Literary Prize in 2007. That year also saw the release of Kanehara’s Haidora (Hydra).

  • autofiction (literature)

    Patrick Modiano: …of what the French call autofiction, the blend of autobiography and historical fiction. His writing style was described by one critic as “so spare and elliptical that the words seem only lightly attached to the page.” Throughout his body of work, the reader can readily sense the author’s perception of…

  • autofocus (photography)

    technology of photography: Autofocus systems: Some cameras evaluate the coincidence (or lack thereof) between two rangefinder images by image analysis with a microchip system. This signals electronically when the lens is set to the correct distance and often carries out the distance setting by a servomotor built into…

  • autogamy (biology)

    self-fertilization: Autogamy, the production of gametes by the division of a single parent cell, is frequently found in unicellular organisms such as the protozoan Paramecium. These organisms, however, may also reproduce by means of conjugation, in which cross-fertilization is achieved by the exchange of genetic material…

  • autogenous fly (zoology)

    dipteran: Adults: …of eggs without blood are autogenous; those that cannot lay at all without blood are anautogenous. One species can have both types, possibly as a result of shifting populations or races arising from natural selection. For example, in the far north, large populations of biting flies (e.g., mosquitoes, biting midges,…

  • autogenous mill

    mineral processing: Grinding: Autogenous mills operate without grinding bodies; instead, the coarser part of the ore simply grinds itself and the smaller fractions. To semiautogenous mills (which have become widespread), 5 to 10 percent grinding bodies (usually metal spheres) are added.

  • autogiro (aircraft)

    Autogiro, rotary-wing aircraft, superseded after World War II by the more efficient helicopter. It employed a propeller for forward motion and a freely rotating, unmotorized rotor for lift. In searching for an aircraft that could be slowed down in flight and landed vertically, experimenters built

  • autograft (surgery)

    transplant: Transplants and grafts: Autografts cannot be rejected. Similarly, grafts between identical twins or highly inbred animals—isografts—are accepted by the recipients indefinitely. Grafts from a donor to a recipient of the same species—allografts or homografts—are usually rejected unless special efforts are made to prevent this. Grafts between individuals of…

  • autograph (manuscript)

    Autograph, any manuscript handwritten by its author, either in alphabetical or musical notation. (The term also refers to a person’s handwritten signature.) Aside from its antiquarian or associative value, an autograph may be an early or corrected draft of a manuscript and provide valuable evidence

  • Autograph Man, The (novel by Smith)

    Zadie Smith: Smith’s second novel, The Autograph Man, was published in 2002. It centred on Alex-Li Tandem, a Chinese Jewish autograph trader who sets out to meet a reclusive 1950s starlet and in the process undertakes his own journey of self-discovery. The Autograph Man, which also addressed the public’s obsession…

  • autogyro (aircraft)

    Autogiro, rotary-wing aircraft, superseded after World War II by the more efficient helicopter. It employed a propeller for forward motion and a freely rotating, unmotorized rotor for lift. In searching for an aircraft that could be slowed down in flight and landed vertically, experimenters built

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