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  • Australian Presbyterian Church (religious organization, Australia)

    John Dunmore Lang: …and writer, founder of the Australian Presbyterian Church, and an influence in shaping colonization of that continent.

  • Australian realm (faunal region)

    biogeographic region: Notogaean realm: The Notogaean, or Australian, realm begins east of Lydekker’s Line and extends out into the Pacific Ocean (Figure 2). It consists of four regions: Australian, Oceanic, New Zealand, and Hawaiian. The faunas of many of the Pacific Islands, however, have as much in…

  • Australian region (faunal region)

    Australian region, one of the six major land areas of the world defined on the basis of its characteristic animal life. It encompasses Australia and the outlying islands of Tasmania, New Guinea, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. It includes such animals as the birds

  • Australian Republican Movement (Australian political organization)

    Malcolm Turnbull: …Turnbull became associated with the Australian Republican Movement (ARM), serving as its chairman from 1993 to 2000. He was one of the chief supporters of the unsuccessful referendum in 1999 that would have replaced the British-appointed governor-general with an Australian president as chief of state.

  • Australian Rugby Football Union (sports organization)

    rugby: Australia: The national Australian Rugby Union was not formed until 1949. In other parts of Australia, Australian rules football had already established itself as the dominant sport.

  • Australian Rugby Union (sports organization)

    rugby: Australia: The national Australian Rugby Union was not formed until 1949. In other parts of Australia, Australian rules football had already established itself as the dominant sport.

  • Australian rules football (sport)

    Australian rules football, a football sport distinctive to Australia that predates other modern football games as the first to create an official code of play. Invented in Melbourne, capital of the state of Victoria, in the late 1850s, the game was initially known as Melbourne, or Victorian, rules

  • Australian salmon (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Arripidae (Australian salmon) Not related to true salmons of Northern Hemisphere. Rather long, slender body; deeply forked tail; moderately long dorsal fin, a notch between the shorter spinous dorsal and longer soft dorsal fin. 4 species; marine, young in brackish water; shallow waters off South Australia,…

  • Australian sea lion (mammal)

    sea lion: The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) is found along the southern coast of Western Australia into South Australia. Adult males are 2.0–2.5 metres in length and weigh 300 kg, whereas females measure 1.5 metres long and weigh less than 100 kg.

  • Australian shepherd (breed of dog)

    Australian shepherd, breed of herding dog that, despite its name, was developed in the United States in the late 1800s from dogs brought there by Basque shepherds who had spent time in Australia. One ancestor of the Australian shepherd is the berger de Pyrenees, an outstanding working dog from the

  • Australian Shield (geological feature, Australia)

    Australia: The Western Plateau: The Precambrian western core area, known geologically as a shield or craton, is subdivided by long, straight (or only slightly bowed) fractures called lineaments. Those fractures, most obvious in the north and west, delineate prominent rectangular or rhomboidal blocks, some of which have been…

  • Australian shoveler (bird)
  • Australian snubfin dolphin (mammal)

    dolphin: Conservation status: dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris), and the Australian snubfin dolphin (O. heinsohni). The most vulnerable dolphins include the Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) and the Indus river dolphin (P. minor), which are classified as endangered species, and the Atlantic humpbacked dolphin

  • Australian spiral burrow scorpion (arachnid)

    scorpion: Food and feeding: …known specialist scorpion is the Australian spiral burrow, or spider-hunting, scorpion (Isometroides vescus), which feeds solely on burrowing spiders.

  • Australian stinging tree (plant)

    Urticaceae: …wood nettles (Laportea), and the Australian stinging trees (Dendrocnide)—have stinging trichomes (plant hairs) that cause a painful rash upon contact. The long fibres in the stems of some species, such as ramie (Boehmeria nivea), are used in the textile industry.

  • Australian Stock Exchange Limited (Australian organization)

    Australia: Finance: …are now traded by the Australian Stock Exchange Limited (ASX), formed in 1987 to amalgamate the six state stock exchanges, via an all-electronic system.

  • Australian tea tree

    Leptospermum: …are called tea trees: the Australian tea tree (Leptospermum laevigatum), growing to a height of 6 m (20 feet), has shredding bark and white flowers. It is used for reclamation planting and erosion control on sandy soils. The woolly tea tree (L. lanigerum) differs in having fuzzy young shoots. The…

  • Australian terrier (breed of dog)

    Australian terrier, breed of dog that originated as an Australian farm dog. First exhibited in 1885 as the Australian rough terrier, the perky breed can be traced back to an extinct British breed, the broken-haired, black-and-tan Old English terrier, but it includes in its heritage a number of

  • Australian treecreeper (bird)

    passeriform: Annotated classification: Climacteridae (Australian treecreepers) Small, creeperlike climbing birds, 12.5 to 17.5 cm (5 to 7 inches); of uncertain ancestry and affinities. Legs short; toes long, claws long, curved, strong, especially that of hallux; tail rounded, soft; bill long, somewhat downcurved. Grayish brown to black above, streaked below,…

  • Australian trumpet (mollusk)

    Baler, largest living snail, a species of conch

  • Australian umbrella tree (plant)

    schefflera: …most common schefflera is the Australian umbrella tree (S. actinophylla, or Brassaia actinophylla), which can grow up to 12 m. It is widely used as a landscape tree in Hawaii and other warm areas and is also one of the most popular indoor plants around the world. A cultivated dwarf…

  • Australian War Memorial (museum, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia)

    museum: History museums: …commemorate events, as do the Australian War Memorial in Canberra or the Imperial War Museum in London; both are military museums, members of a category that grew after World War I. Another development in the 20th-century history museum was the maritime museum. Like other types of museums, it may be…

  • Australian warbler (bird)

    passeriform: Annotated classification: Family Acanthizidae (Australian warblers) Tiny to small songbirds 8–12 cm (3.1–4.7 inches), some with beautiful songs. The weebill is Australia’s smallest bird. Mostly drab brown and gray in colour and difficult to identify. Includes thornbills (Acanthiza) and fairy warblers (Gerygone). About 15 genera, 62 species. Australia, New…

  • Australian Women’s Weekly, The (Australian magazine)

    Ita Buttrose: …as a copy girl at Australian Women’s Weekly magazine and later working as a reporter and then women’s editor at the Daily Telegraph. In 1971 she was recruited by media magnate Sir Frank Packer to create a new magazine for his company, and the following year, with Buttrose at the…

  • Australian Workers’ Union (labour organization, Australia)

    Australian Council of Trade Unions: Membership grew significantly when the Australian Workers’ Union joined the ACTU in 1967. Two other mergers with federations of white-collar unions—the Australian Council of Salaried and Professional Associations (in 1979) and the Council of Australian Government Employee Organisations (in 1981)—brought membership up to about 2.5 million members, or more than…

  • Australian, The (Australian newspaper)

    Tony Abbott: He wrote for The Australian, one of the country’s top-circulating news dailies, before taking a job as press secretary for Liberal Party leader John Hewson in 1990. When the Liberals were defeated in 1993 in an election that they were widely expected to win, Hewson became a pariah…

  • Australians for a Constitutional Monarchy (Australian organization)

    Tony Abbott: …served as executive director for Australians for a Constitutional Monarchy, an organization dedicated to preserving Australia’s historical and political ties to the British crown.

  • Australidelphia (marsupial superorder)

    marsupial: Classification: Superorder Australidelphia Nearly 200 Australasian species and 1 South American species in 5 orders. Order Diprotodontia 116 or more species in 10 families. Primarily herbivorous. Family Macropodidae (kangaroos, wallabies,

  • australite (geology)

    tektite: Form and markings: Australites and related forms comprise about 10 percent of the tektites found in Australia. They show a characteristic lenslike form, with an attached flange around the edge (see Figure 3), the whole having the shape of a saucer of ice cream. Flanged australites have clearly…

  • Australo-Papuan babbler (bird)

    passeriform: Annotated classification: Family Pomatostomatidae (Australo-Papuan babblers) Medium-sized terrestrial songbirds, 18–25 cm (7–10 inches), with long bills and tails, like mockingbirds (Mimidae) of the New World. Conspicuously social in family groups. Bold white throats, caps, eyelines, wing bars and tail tips highlight dark brown and rufous plumage. 2 genera, 5…

  • Australophocaena dioptrica (mammal)

    porpoise: The spectacled porpoise (P. dioptrica) is named for the patchlike pigmentation pattern around its eyes and is distributed throughout the southern Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific oceans.

  • australopith (fossil hominin)

    Australopithecus: The general term australopith (or australopithecine) is used informally to refer to members of the genus Australopithecus. Australopithecines include the genus Paranthropus (2.3–1.2 mya), which comprises three species of australopiths—collectively called the “robusts” because of their very large cheek teeth set in massive jaws. Non-australopithecine members of the…

  • australopithecine (fossil hominin)

    Australopithecus: The general term australopith (or australopithecine) is used informally to refer to members of the genus Australopithecus. Australopithecines include the genus Paranthropus (2.3–1.2 mya), which comprises three species of australopiths—collectively called the “robusts” because of their very large cheek teeth set in massive jaws. Non-australopithecine members of the…

  • Australopithecus (fossil hominin genus)

    Australopithecus, (Latin: “southern ape”) (genus Australopithecus), group of extinct primates closely related to, if not actually ancestors of, modern human beings and known from a series of fossils found at numerous sites in eastern, north-central, and southern Africa. The various species of

  • Australopithecus aethiopicus (fossil primate)

    Australopithecus: Australopithecus aethiopicus: Australopithecus aethiopicus (2.7–2.3 mya), formerly known as Paranthropus aethopicus, is the earliest of the so-called robust australopiths, a group that also includes A. robustus and A. boisei (described below). Robust refers to the heavily built mandible, crested cranium, and very large cheek teeth,…

  • Australopithecus afarensis (fossil hominin)

    Australopithecus: Australopithecus afarensis and Au. garhi: The best-known member of Australopithecus is Au. afarensis, a species represented by more than 400 fossil specimens from virtually every region of the hominin skeleton. Dated to between about 3.8 and 2.9 mya, 90 percent of the fossils assigned to…

  • Australopithecus africanus (fossil primate)

    Osteodontokeratic tool industry: …where the first specimen of Australopithecus africanus was found, and at Makapansgat, where other specimens of A. africanus were found. Dart proposed that these fossils were tools used by A.africanus, an early hominid species. He postulated that teeth were used as saws and scrapers, long bones as clubs, and so…

  • Australopithecus anamensis (fossil hominin)

    Australopithecus: Early species and Australopithecus anamensis: Identifying the earliest member of the human tribe (Hominini) is difficult because the predecessors of modern humans become increasingly apelike as the fossil record is followed back through time. They resemble what would be expected in the common ancestor of humans and apes…

  • Australopithecus bahrelghazali (fossil hominin)

    Australopithecus: Australopithecus afarensis and Au. garhi: …assigned to a new species, Au. bahrelghazali. Most of its anatomical features are identical to those of Au. afarensis, however. The discovery of Au. bahrelghazali extends the geographic range of Australopithecus some 2,500 km (1,500 miles) west of Africa’s Great Rift Valley (see East African Rift System).

  • Australopithecus boisei (fossil hominin)

    Mary Douglas Leakey: …lineage) that her husband named Zinjanthropus, or “eastern man,” though it is now regarded as Paranthropus, a type of australopith, or “southern ape.”

  • Australopithecus crassidens (fossil hominin)

    Kromdraai: …known for its fossils of Paranthropus robustus. Kromdraai is a limestone cave that has occasionally had openings to the surface. The remains of hominins (members of the human lineage) found in it are associated with animals that are thought to be about two million years old and that were adapted…

  • Australopithecus garhi (fossil hominin)

    Australopithecus: Australopithecus afarensis and Au. garhi: The best-known member of Australopithecus is Au. afarensis, a species represented by more than 400 fossil specimens from virtually every region of the hominin skeleton. Dated to between about 3.8 and 2.9 mya, 90 percent of the fossils assigned to Au. afarensis derive…

  • Australopithecus habilis (fossil hominin)

    Homo habilis, (Latin: “able man” or “handy man”) extinct species of human, the most ancient representative of the human genus, Homo. Homo habilis inhabited parts of sub-Saharan Africa from roughly 2.4 to 1.5 million years ago (mya). In 1959 and 1960 the first fossils were discovered at Olduvai

  • Australopithecus ramidus (fossil hominin)

    Aramis: 4-million-year-old fossils of Ardipithecus ramidus found in 1992 and named in 1994.

  • Australopithecus robustus (fossil hominin)

    Kromdraai: …known for its fossils of Paranthropus robustus. Kromdraai is a limestone cave that has occasionally had openings to the surface. The remains of hominins (members of the human lineage) found in it are associated with animals that are thought to be about two million years old and that were adapted…

  • Australopithecus sediba (fossil hominin)

    Australopithecus sediba, extinct primate species that inhabited southern Africa beginning about 1.98 million years ago and that shares several morphological characteristics in common with the hominin genus Homo. The first specimens were found and identified by American-born South African

  • Austrasia (Frankish kingdom, Europe)

    Austrasia, the eastern Frankish kingdom in the Merovingian period (6th–8th century ad) of early medieval Europe, as distinct from Neustria, the western kingdom. Its mayors of the palace, leading household and government officials under the king, were ancestors of the Carolingian dynasty. Covering

  • Austri (Norse mythology)

    Midgard: …by four dwarfs, Nordri, Sudri, Austri, and Vestri (the four points of the compass), and became the dome of the heavens. The sun, moon, and stars were made of scattered sparks that were caught in the skull.

  • Austria

    Austria, largely mountainous landlocked country of south-central Europe. Together with Switzerland, it forms what has been characterized as the neutral core of Europe, notwithstanding Austria’s full membership since 1995 in the supranational European Union (EU). A great part of Austria’s prominence

  • Austria, flag of

    horizontally striped red-white-red national flag. When it is flown by the government, it incorporates a central black eagle. Its width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.The coat of arms of Austria, a red shield with a white horizontal central stripe, is attributed to Duke Leopold V in the late 12th

  • Austria, history of

    Austria: History: In the territories of Austria, the first traces of human settlement date from the Lower Paleolithic Period (Old Stone Age). In 1991 a frozen human body dating from the Neolithic Period (New Stone Age) was discovered at the Hauslabjoch pass…

  • Austria, House of (European dynasty)

    House of Habsburg, royal German family, one of the principal sovereign dynasties of Europe from the 15th to the 20th century. The name Habsburg is derived from the castle of Habsburg, or Habichtsburg (“Hawk’s Castle”), built in 1020 by Werner, bishop of Strasbourg, and his brother-in-law, Count

  • Austria, Republic of

    Austria, largely mountainous landlocked country of south-central Europe. Together with Switzerland, it forms what has been characterized as the neutral core of Europe, notwithstanding Austria’s full membership since 1995 in the supranational European Union (EU). A great part of Austria’s prominence

  • Austria-Hungary (historical empire, Europe)

    Austria-Hungary, the Habsburg empire from the constitutional Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 between Austria and Hungary until the empire’s collapse in 1918. A brief treatment of the history of Austria-Hungary follows. For full treatment, see Austria: Austria-Hungary, 1867–1918. The empire of

  • Austrian (people)

    Austria: Ethnic groups: Ethnic Austrians constitute the vast majority of the population. Small but significant groups of German-speaking Swiss and ethnic Germans also reside in the country. Serbs, Bosniaks (Muslims from Bosnia and Herzegovina; living mainly in the larger cities), Turks (living primarily in Vienna), Hungarians and Croats (living…

  • Austrian Airlines (Austrian company)

    Austria: Transportation and telecommunications: Austrian Airlines, which began operations in March 1958, serves destinations in Europe, the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and North Africa. Wholly owned by the Austrian government until the late 1980s, the airline was slowly privatized over the next two decades, culminating in its eventual…

  • Austrian Gallery (art museum, Vienna, Austria)

    Österreichische Gallery, art museum established in Belvedere Castle, Vienna, in 1903. The museum includes many works of art that had been in the imperial Austrian private collection. The gallery is organized into three principal divisions: the Austrian Baroque Museum; the Austrian Gallery of the

  • Austrian Hunting Carpet (rug)

    Austrian Hunting Carpet, Persian floor covering of silk with the addition of threads wrapped in gilded silver. Thought by some to be the finest of all surviving Ṣafavid carpets, it shows mounted hunters and their prey surrounding a relatively small central medallion, and the unique border includes

  • Austrian Industrial Administration Limited-Liability Company (Austrian company)

    Austria: Economy: …the Republic of Austria, the Österreichische Industrieverwaltungs-Aktiengesellschaft (ÖIAG; Austrian Industrial Administration Limited-Liability Company). In 1986–89 ÖIAG was restructured to give it powers to function along the lines of a major private industry, and it was renamed Österreichische Industrieholding AG. During the 1990s, particularly after Austria joined the EU in 1995,…

  • Austrian law

    criminal law: Common law and code law: …code came into force in Austria. New criminal codes were also published in Portugal (1982) and Brazil (1984). France enacted important reform laws in 1958, 1970, 1975, and 1982, as did Italy in 1981 and Spain in 1983. Other reforms have been under way in Finland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland,…

  • Austrian National Bank (bank, Austria)

    Austria: Finance: …the Austrian National Bank (Österreichische Nationalbank), founded in 1922. Austria was among the first group of countries to adopt the single currency of the EU, the euro, in 1999; it made the complete switch from schillings to euro notes and coins in 2002.

  • Austrian National Library (library, Vienna, Austria)

    Vienna: Layout and architecture: …Roman and Austrian empires, the Austrian National Library, the Albertina and several other museums, and the Spanish Riding School. The state apartments in one wing of the Hofburg serve as the offices of Austria’s president. Close by stands the Privy Court Chancery (1716–21), where the Congress of Vienna met after…

  • Austrian Netherlands (historical province, Europe)

    Austrian Netherlands, (1713–95), provinces located in the southern part of the Low Countries (roughly comprising present Belgium and Luxembourg), which made up what had been the major portion of the Spanish Netherlands. Following the death of the Habsburg Charles II of Spain (1700), Spain and the

  • Austrian Oak, the (American politician, actor, and athlete)

    Arnold Schwarzenegger, Austrian-born American bodybuilder, film actor, and politician who rose to fame through roles in blockbuster action movies and later served as governor of California (2003–11). Schwarzenegger was known as the Styrian Oak, or Austrian Oak, in the bodybuilding world, where he

  • Austrian People’s Party (political party, Austria)

    Austria: Political process: The centre-right Austrian People’s Party (Österreichische Volkspartei; ÖVP), which describes itself as a “progressive centre party,” is the successor of the Christian Social Party founded in the 1890s. A Christian Democratic party, it is a member of the European Union of Christian Democrats and represents a combination…

  • Austrian pine (tree)

    pine: Major Eurasian pines: The Austrian, or black, pine (P. nigra) grows to a height of 30 or even 45 metres, with a straight trunk and branches in regular whorls, forming in a large tree a pyramidal head. It derives its name from the sombre aspect of its dark green,…

  • Austrian Revolution, The (work by Bauer)

    Otto Bauer: …his Die österreichische Revolution (1923; The Austrian Revolution). He resigned in July 1919, but he remained his party’s guiding personality for the next two decades. A member of the Austrian National Council from 1929 to 1934, he went into exile after the abortive Viennese socialist revolt in 1934, first to…

  • Austrian Rocket Corps

    rocket and missile system: The 19th century: The Austrian Rocket Corps, using Hale rockets, won a number of engagements in mountainous terrain in Hungary and Italy. Other successful uses were by the Dutch colonial services in Celebes and by Russia in a number of engagements in the Turkistan War.

  • Austrian school of economics

    Austrian school of economics, body of economic theory developed in the late 19th century by Austrian economists who, in determining the value of a product, emphasized the importance of its utility to the consumer. Carl Menger published the new theory of value in 1871, the same year in which English

  • Austrian State Treaty (1955)

    Austria: Allied occupation: …troops in return for an Austrian promise to declare the country permanently neutral.

  • Austrian Succession, War of the (Europe [1740–1748])

    War of the Austrian Succession, (1740–48), a conglomeration of related wars, two of which developed directly from the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and head of the Austrian branch of the house of Habsburg, on Oct. 20, 1740. In the war for the Austrian succession itself, France

  • Austrian, Robert (American physician and educator)

    Robert Austrian, American physician and educator (born April 12, 1916, Baltimore, Md.—died March 25, 2007 , Philadelphia, Pa.), devoted his life to identifying the various strains associated with pneumococcal infections. At Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, N.Y. (now known as SUNY Downstate), he

  • Austric languages

    Austric languages, hypothetical language superfamily that includes the Austroasiatic and Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) language families. The languages of these two families are spoken in an area extending from the island of Madagascar in the west to Easter Island in the east and as far

  • Austro-Asiatic languages

    Austroasiatic languages, stock of some 150 languages spoken by more than 65 million people scattered throughout Southeast Asia and eastern India. Most of these languages have numerous dialects. Khmer, Mon, and Vietnamese are culturally the most important and have the longest recorded history. The

  • Austro-Este, House of (European dynasty)

    Italy: The Vienna settlement: The Habsburg-Este family returned to Modena and inherited the duchy of Massa in 1825. Also in Tuscany, the Habsburg-Lorraine family added the State of the Garrisons to its former domains and was given claim to Lucca, which the Bourbon-Parma family was to relinquish in 1847. The…

  • Austro-French Piedmontese War (1859)

    Austria: Neoabsolutist era, 1849–60: …which would in 1859 support Sardinia in its war of Italian unification against the Austrians.

  • Austro-German Alliance (Europe [1879])

    Austro-German Alliance, (1879) pact between Austria-Hungary and the German Empire in which the two powers promised each other support in case of attack by Russia, and neutrality in case of aggression by any other power. Germany’s Otto von Bismarck saw the alliance as a way to prevent the isolation

  • Austro-Hungarian Empire (historical empire, Europe)

    Austria-Hungary, the Habsburg empire from the constitutional Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 between Austria and Hungary until the empire’s collapse in 1918. A brief treatment of the history of Austria-Hungary follows. For full treatment, see Austria: Austria-Hungary, 1867–1918. The empire of

  • Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (historical empire, Europe)

    Austria-Hungary, the Habsburg empire from the constitutional Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 between Austria and Hungary until the empire’s collapse in 1918. A brief treatment of the history of Austria-Hungary follows. For full treatment, see Austria: Austria-Hungary, 1867–1918. The empire of

  • Austro-Piedmontese War (1848–1849)

    Italy: The Revolutions of 1848: …Charles Albert of Sardinia-Piedmont declared war on Austria. It was a risky decision, but prospects for a national war seemed promising, and he wanted to seize the initiative to preclude republican and democratic domination of the insurgency. After annexing Parma and Modena, whose rulers had been driven out by insurgents,…

  • Austro-Prussian War (1866)

    Seven Weeks’ War, (1866), war between Prussia on the one side and Austria, Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, and certain minor German states on the other. It ended in a Prussian victory, which meant the exclusion of Austria from Germany. The issue was decided in Bohemia, where the principal Prussian armies

  • Austro-Russian agreements (European history [1897])

    Austria: Foreign policy, 1878–1908: The agreements signed as a result of that initiative aimed to exclude Italy from Balkan affairs and sought to entrust preservation of the Balkan order to the bilateral cooperation of the two eastern monarchies rather than to a multilateral alliance system. Thus, the final years of…

  • Austro-Tai languages

    Austroasiatic languages: …China, together forming an “Austro-Tai” superfamily.

  • Austroasiatic languages

    Austroasiatic languages, stock of some 150 languages spoken by more than 65 million people scattered throughout Southeast Asia and eastern India. Most of these languages have numerous dialects. Khmer, Mon, and Vietnamese are culturally the most important and have the longest recorded history. The

  • Austrobaileya (plant genus)

    magnoliid clade: Vegetative structures: …function as companion cells is Austrobaileya (Austrobaileyaceae; Austrobaileyales). Austrobaileya seems to retain a stage in the evolution of phloem in angiosperms, for a few companion cells have recently been found in its phloem as well.

  • Austrobaileyales (plant order)

    angiosperm: Annotated classification: Order Austrobaileyales Families: Austrobaileyaceae, Schisandraceae (includes former family Illiciaceae), Trimeniaceae. Order Chloranthales Family: Chloranthaceae. Order Nymphaeales Families: Cabombaceae,

  • Austrocedrus chilensis (plant)

    Chilean cedar, (species Austrocedrus chilensis), ornamental and timber evergreen conifer, the only species of the genus Austrocedrus, of the cypress family (Cupressaceae). It is native to southern Chile and southern Argentina. The Chilean cedar may grow up to 24 metres (about 80 feet) tall, but it

  • Austronesian (people)

    Chamorro: …20th century, they are of Indonesian stock with a considerable admixture of Spanish, Filipino (based on Tagalog), and other strains. Their vernacular, called the Chamorro language, is not a Micronesian dialect but a distinct language with its own vocabulary and grammar. Pure-blooded Chamorros are no longer found in Guam, but…

  • Austronesian languages

    Austronesian languages, family of languages spoken in most of the Indonesian archipelago; all of the Philippines, Madagascar, and the island groups of the Central and South Pacific (except for Australia and much of New Guinea); much of Malaysia; and scattered areas of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and

  • Austrotaxus (plant genus)

    Taxaceae: …is exposed in species of Austrotaxus.

  • Austrotaxus spicata (plant)

    Taxaceae: The genus Austrotaxus has only one species (A. spicata), native to mountain forests of New Caledonia. Growing from 15 to 25 metres tall, the tree resembles the yellow woods in leaf characteristics and growth habit but differs in flower structure and the presence of the seed covering.

  • austru (wind)

    Romania: Climate: A hot southwesterly wind, the austru, blows over western Romania, particularly in summer. In winter, cold and dense air masses encircle the eastern portions of the country, with the cold northeasterly known as the crivăț blowing in from the Russian Plain, and oceanic air masses from the Azores, in the…

  • Ausubel, David (American psychologist)

    schema: American psychologist David Ausubel introduced his “meaningful learning theory” in Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View (1968). He argued that there is a hierarchical organization of knowledge and that new information can be incorporated into the already existing hierarchy. In contrast, Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget argued that there…

  • Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel über Ossian und die Lieder alter Völker (work by Herder)

    myth: Romantic: …Johann Gottfried von Herder entitled “Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel über Ossian und die Lieder alter Völker” (1773; “Extract from a Correspondence on Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples”). Ossian is the name of an Irish warrior-poet whose Gaelic songs were supposedly translated and presented to the world by James…

  • Autana River (river, South America)

    Orinoco River: Physiography of the Orinoco: Llanos, and the Guayapo, Sipapo, Autana, and Cuao rivers from the Guiana Highlands.

  • Autant-Lara, Claude (French director)

    Claude Autant-Lara, French motion-picture director who won an international reputation with his film Le Diable au corps (1947; Devil in the Flesh). Autant-Lara’s mother, an ardent pacifist, lived with her son in England during World War I. After several years of schooling in London he returned to

  • Autarchoglossa (reptile infraorder)

    lizard: Evolution and classification: …the Gekkota (geckos) and the Autarchoglossa (snakes, skinks, and their relatives). Use of the vomerolfaction system did not develop within Gekkota to the extent that it did within Autarchoglossa; however, the tongue was increasingly used as a tool for cleaning the spectacle, a transparent scale covering the eye. A nasal…

  • autarchy (economics)

    Autarky, an economic system of self-sufficiency and limited trade. A country is said to be in a complete state of autarky if it has a closed economy, which means that it does not engage in international trade with any other country. Historically, societies have utilized different levels of autarky.

  • autarkei (economics)

    Autarky, an economic system of self-sufficiency and limited trade. A country is said to be in a complete state of autarky if it has a closed economy, which means that it does not engage in international trade with any other country. Historically, societies have utilized different levels of autarky.

  • autarkeia (economics)

    Autarky, an economic system of self-sufficiency and limited trade. A country is said to be in a complete state of autarky if it has a closed economy, which means that it does not engage in international trade with any other country. Historically, societies have utilized different levels of autarky.

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