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  • Attorney-General’s Department (government organization, Australia)

    Australian External Territories: The commonwealth Attorney-General’s Department provides administrative services for Norfolk Island, the Cocos Islands, Christmas Island, the Coral Sea Islands, and the Ashmore and Cartier group. The Department of Primary Industries and Energy is concerned with fishing rights in the external territories. These exclusive rights extend some 200…

  • attractant (biology)

    chemoreception: Single-celled organisms: …the concentration gradient of an attractant and begin to accumulate in areas of high concentration of the attractant. Accumulation is reinforced by the organisms’ own secretion of attractant chemicals. Organisms that leave the aggregation tumble, and the direction of the turn and of the new path relative to the original…

  • attraction (theatrical concept)

    theatre: Futurism in Italy: …however, was the concept of attractions. An attraction was whatever element in a particular act held the audience’s attention. Variety bills were constructed to produce an effective and contrasting variation of types of acts—acrobats opened the show, a solo juggler concentrated the attention, a singer or whistler capitalized on this…

  • attractor (mathematics)

    chaos theory: …as motion on an “attractor.” The mathematics of classical mechanics effectively recognized three types of attractor: single points (characterizing steady states), closed loops (periodic cycles), and tori (combinations of several cycles). In the 1960s a new class of “strange attractors” was discovered by the American mathematician Stephen Smale. On…

  • attribute (philosophy)
  • attribution theory (psychology)

    motivation: Attribution theory: A second major approach to achievement motivation rejects the expectancy-value formulation and analyzes instead the attributions that people make about achievement situations. In general, attribution theory concerns how people make judgments about someone’s (or their own) behaviour—that is, the causes to which they…

  • attrital anthraxylon (maceral)

    coal: Macerals: , telinite (the brighter parts of vitrinite that make up cell walls) and collinite (clear vitrinite that occupies the spaces between cell walls).

  • attrital fusain (maceral)

    coal: Macerals: …most common inertinite maceral is fusinite, which has a charcoal-like appearance with obvious cell texture. The cells may be either empty or filled with mineral matter, and the cell walls may have been crushed during compaction (bogen texture). Inertinites are derived from strongly altered or degraded plant material that is…

  • attrition resistance (materials science)

    abrasive: Abrasive materials: their composition and properties: Attrition resistance is the name given to this third, very significant property.

  • Attrition, War of (Egyptian-Israeli history)

    War of Attrition, inconclusive war (1969–70) chiefly between Egypt and Israel. The conflict, launched by Egypt, was meant to wear down Israel by means of a long engagement and so provide Egypt with the opportunity to dislodge Israeli forces from the Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had seized from

  • Attu (island, Alaska, United States)

    Aleutian Islands: …of the Alaska Peninsula to Attu Island, Alaska, U.S. The Aleutians occupy a total area of 6,821 square miles (17,666 square km).

  • Attucks, Crispus (American leader)

    Crispus Attucks, American hero, martyr of the Boston Massacre. Attucks’s life prior to the day of his death is still shrouded in mystery. Although nothing is known definitively about his ancestry, his father is thought to be Prince Yonger, a slave who was brought to America, while his mother is

  • Attwood, Thomas (British economist)

    Thomas Attwood, English economist and leader in the electoral reform movement. Attwood entered his father’s banking firm in Birmingham, Eng., in 1800. After his election, in 1811, as high bailiff of the city, he showed increasing concern with currency questions and sought more equitable

  • Atubaria (invertebrate genus)

    pterobranch: The third genus, Atubaria, lives on hydroids. All three genera are rare. About 21 species have been described.

  • ATUC (international labour organization)

    Organization of African Trade Union Unity: …founded in 1961) and the African Trade Union Confederation (ATUC; founded in 1962). The ATUC from its founding had encouraged member affiliation with other international union organizations, while the more-militant AATUF had rejected such affiliation as incompatible with the development of a Pan-African federation.

  • Atucha (Argentina)

    Atucha, locality in Buenos Aires provincia (province), eastern Argentina, northwest of Buenos Aires city. It is the site of a nuclear power plant, Atucha I, which is located on the Paraná de las Palmas River, a channel of the lower Paraná River delta, about 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Zárate. The

  • Atucha I (nuclear power plant, Atucha, Argentina)

    Atucha: …of a nuclear power plant, Atucha I, which is located on the Paraná de las Palmas River, a channel of the lower Paraná River delta, about 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Zárate. The station, utilizing a pressurized heavy-water reactor, began supplying power to the national grid in 1974. The…

  • Atucha II (nuclear power plant, Atucha, Argentina)

    Atucha: …construction of a second unit, Atucha II, began in 1981 but was repeatedly delayed until work resumed on it in 2006.

  • Atum (Egyptian god)

    Atum, in ancient Egyptian religion, one of the manifestations of the sun and creator god, perhaps originally a local deity of Heliopolis. Atum’s myth merged with that of the great sun god Re, giving rise to the deity Re-Atum. When distinguished from Re, Atum was the creator’s original form, living

  • Atum-Re (Egyptian god)

    Re, in ancient Egyptian religion, god of the sun and creator god. He was believed to travel across the sky in his solar bark and, during the night, to make his passage in another bark through the underworld, where, in order to be born again for the new day, he had to vanquish the evil serpent

  • atumpan (musical instrument)

    African music: Membranophones: The atumpan talking drums of the Asante are barrel-shaped with a narrow, cylindrical, open foot at the base. East African hourglass drums are single-skinned. In West Africa double-skinned hourglass drums are held under one arm, their pitch rapidly and continually changed by as much as an…

  • Atures Rapids (rapids, South America)

    Orinoco River: Physiography of the Orinoco: …of rapids, ending with the Atures Rapids. In this region, the main tributaries are the Vichada and Tomo rivers from the Colombian Llanos, and the Guayapo, Sipapo, Autana, and Cuao rivers from the Guiana Highlands.

  • Aturpat (Zoroastrian priest)

    Zoroastrianism: The Sāsānian period: …Shāpūr II, the high priest Aturpāt, at a council summoned to fix the text of the Avesta, proved the truth of his doctrine by submitting to the ordeal of molten metal poured on his breast and was victorious over all kinds of sectarians and heretics.

  • ATV (British media corporation)

    Lew Grade, Baron Grade of Elstree: …British commercial television; his company, Associated Television (ATV), went on to produce several action-adventure series, including Robin Hood, The Saint, The Avengers, The Prisoner, and Danger Man (U.S. title Secret Agent). Two of the best-known series he produced were Coronation Street (the longest-running television program in the United Kingdom) and…

  • ATV (European Space Agency spacecraft)

    Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), uncrewed European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft that carried supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) from 2008 to 2014. The first ATV, Jules Verne, named after the French author, was launched on March 9, 2008. The ATV was the largest spacecraft the ESA

  • ATW (American organization)

    Antoinette Perry: She helped found the American Theatre Wing (ATW), which operated the well-known Stage Door Canteens in several cities and otherwise provided hospitality and entertainment for servicemen, and was its chairman from 1941 to 1944. She also staged an ATW production of The Barretts of Wimpole Street, with Katharine Cornell,…

  • Atwater Kent Museum (museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Philadelphia: Cultural life: The Atwater Kent Museum is the city’s history museum, housing the Historical Society of Pennsylvania’s collection of more than 10,000 objects and 800 paintings, featuring works by Benjamin West, John Singleton Copley, Gilbert Stuart, the four Peales, and other early American painters. The output of visual…

  • Atwater, Florence (American author)

    children's literature: Peaks and plateaus (1865–1940): Two of them—Florence and Richard Atwater—worked as a pair. Their isolated effort, Mr. Popper’s Penguins (1938), will last as a masterpiece of deadpan humour that few children or adults can resist. The third writer is Laura Ingalls Wilder. Her Little House books, nine in all, started in…

  • Atwater, Lee (American political strategist)

    Mary Matalin: …of staff to the chairman, Lee Atwater.

  • Atwater, Richard (American author)

    children's literature: Peaks and plateaus (1865–1940): Two of them—Florence and Richard Atwater—worked as a pair. Their isolated effort, Mr. Popper’s Penguins (1938), will last as a masterpiece of deadpan humour that few children or adults can resist. The third writer is Laura Ingalls Wilder. Her Little House books, nine in all, started in 1932 with…

  • Atwater, Wilbur Olin (American chemist)

    Wilbur Olin Atwater, American scientist who developed agricultural chemistry and nutrition science. Upon completing his undergraduate work at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut, in 1865, Atwater continued his education at Yale University, where his thesis on corn (maize) discussed for

  • Atwater-Rosa calorimeter (science)

    Wilbur Olin Atwater: …physics at Wesleyan, constructed the Atwater-Rosa calorimeter (1892–97), which proved the law of conservation of energy in human beings and made it possible to calculate the caloric values of different foods. The system for determing caloric values that Atwater devised in 1896 continues to be used throughout the world.

  • Atwood Cay (island, The Bahamas)

    Samana Cay, islet, eastern Bahamas, 22 miles (35 km) northeast of Acklins Island. About 10 miles (16 km) long and up to 2 miles (3 km) wide and bound by reefs, the verdant cay has long been uninhabited, but figurines, pottery shards, and other artifacts discovered there in the mid-1980s have been

  • Atwood, Charles (American architect)

    Daniel Burnham: D.H. Burnham and Company: … (1895), by Burnham’s chief designer Charles Atwood, considered a landmark in the development of the tall office building, because the slim glass and steel tower presaged Modernist skyscrapers. Burnham continued to think big. At 500,000 square feet (45,000 square metres), his Ellicott Square Building (completed 1896) in Buffalo, New York,…

  • Atwood, Charles B. (American architect)

    World's Columbian Exposition: Burnham; Charles B. Atwood was designer in chief; and Frederick Law Olmsted was entrusted with landscaping. The fair’s new buildings had impressive Classical facades with a uniform cornice height of 60 feet (18.25 metres). The plaster palace fronts bore little functional relationship to exhibition halls inside;…

  • Atwood, Margaret (Canadian author)

    Margaret Atwood, Canadian writer best known for her prose fiction and for her feminist perspective. As an adolescent, Atwood divided her time between Toronto, her family’s primary residence, and the sparsely settled bush country in northern Canada, where her father, an entomologist, conducted

  • Atwood, Margaret Eleanor (Canadian author)

    Margaret Atwood, Canadian writer best known for her prose fiction and for her feminist perspective. As an adolescent, Atwood divided her time between Toronto, her family’s primary residence, and the sparsely settled bush country in northern Canada, where her father, an entomologist, conducted

  • Atwood, Mary Anne (English alchemist)

    alchemy: Modern alchemy: …famous 19th-century English spiritual alchemist Mary Anne Atwood,

  • atypical autism (neurobiological disorder)

    Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), a neurobiological disorder characterized by impairment in ability to interact with others and by abnormalities in either communication or behaviour patterns and interests. PDD-NOS is described as atypical autism, because

  • atypical mycobacteria (bacteria)

    tuberculosis: Other mycobacterial infections: …nontuberculosis mycobacteria, atypical mycobacteria, and mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT). This group includes such Mycobacterium species as M. avium (or M. avium-intracellulare), M. kansasii, M. marinum, and M. ulcerans. These bacilli have long been known to infect animals and

  • Atypidae (arachnid)

    spider: Annotated classification: Family Atypidae (purse-web spiders) 43 species of Europe, North America, Japan, Myanmar, and Java. 3 tarsal claws; 6 spinnerets; less than 3 cm long; live in closed silk tubes partly below ground; bite prey through tube and pull it in. Suborder Mesothelae (segmented spiders) About 100…

  • Atyrau (Kazakhstan)

    Atyrau, city, western Kazakhstan. It is a port on the Ural (Zhayyq) River near its mouth on the Caspian Sea. Founded as a fishing settlement in the mid-17th century by the fishing entrepreneur Mikhail Guryev, it soon became a fort on the Ural fortified line manned by the Ural Cossacks. Fishing and

  • Atyraū (Kazakhstan)

    Atyrau, city, western Kazakhstan. It is a port on the Ural (Zhayyq) River near its mouth on the Caspian Sea. Founded as a fishing settlement in the mid-17th century by the fishing entrepreneur Mikhail Guryev, it soon became a fort on the Ural fortified line manned by the Ural Cossacks. Fishing and

  • Atys (Phrygian deity)

    Attis, mythical consort of the Great Mother of the Gods (q.v.; classical Cybele, or Agdistis); he was worshipped in Phrygia, Asia Minor, and later throughout the Roman Empire, where he was made a solar deity in the 2nd century ad. The worship of Attis and the Great Mother included the annual c

  • Atzcapotzalco (Mexico)

    Atzcapotzalco, delegación (administrative subdivision), northwestern Federal District, central Mexico. Situated approximately 7,350 feet (2,240 metres) above sea level in the Valley of Mexico, it was founded in the 12th century and given the Aztec name meaning “anthill” because of its large

  • Atzerodt, George (German-born American conspirator)

    assassination of Abraham Lincoln: George Atzerodt, a German immigrant who had acted as a boatman for Confederate spies, was to kill Johnson. Booth himself was to assassinate Lincoln. All three attacks were to occur at the same time (about 10:00 pm) that night.

  • Atzmaut (political party, Israel)

    Ehud Barak: Later career: …Knesset, form a breakaway party, Atzmaut (“Independence”), that was expected to remain in Netanyahu’s ruling coalition. The Labour Party—a key member of the coalition—had been in the grips of a struggle: members who were critical of the government’s handling of the peace process pushed for the party to leave the…

  • AU (intergovernmental organization, Africa)

    African Union (AU), intergovernmental organization, established in 2002, to promote unity and solidarity of African states, to spur economic development, and to promote international cooperation. The African Union (AU) replaced the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The AU’s headquarters are in

  • Au (chemical element)

    Gold (Au), chemical element, a dense lustrous yellow precious metal of Group 11 (Ib), Period 6, of the periodic table. Gold has several qualities that have made it exceptionally valuable throughout history. It is attractive in colour and brightness, durable to the point of virtual

  • au (unit of measurement)

    Astronomical unit (AU, or au), a unit of length effectively equal to the average, or mean, distance between Earth and the Sun, defined as 149,597,870.7 km (92,955,807.3 miles). Alternately, it can be considered the length of the semimajor axis—i.e., the length of half of the maximum diameter—of

  • AU (unit of measurement)

    Astronomical unit (AU, or au), a unit of length effectively equal to the average, or mean, distance between Earth and the Sun, defined as 149,597,870.7 km (92,955,807.3 miles). Alternately, it can be considered the length of the semimajor axis—i.e., the length of half of the maximum diameter—of

  • Au Bonheur des Dames (work by Zola)

    Émile Zola: Les Rougon-Macquart: Au Bonheur des Dames (1883; Ladies’ Delight) depicts the mechanisms of a new economic entity, the department store, and its impact on smaller merchants. The sweeping descriptions of crowds and dry-goods displays justify Zola’s characterization of the novel as “a poem of modern activity.”

  • Au Co (Chinese mythology)

    Vietnam: Legendary kingdoms: …Chinese, Lac Long Quan married Au Co, a Chinese immortal, who bore him 100 eggs, from which sprang 100 sons. Later, the king and queen separated; Au Co moved with 50 of her sons into the mountains, and Lac Long Quan kept the other 50 sons and continued to rule…

  • Au Duong (ruler of Au Lac)

    Vietnam: Legendary kingdoms: …bce by a neighbouring warlord, Thuc Phan, who invaded and conquered Van Lang, united it with his kingdom, and called the new state Au Lac, which he then ruled under the name An Duong. Au Lac existed only until 207 bce, when it was incorporated by a former Chinese general,…

  • Au hasard Balthasar (film by Bresson)

    Robert Bresson: …of this first-person technique was Au hasard Balthasar (1968), in which the “person” was a donkey. Bresson’s own devout Catholicism was also woven into his works; several films, notably Pickpocket (1959) and Le Procès de Jeanne d’Arc (1962; The Trial of Joan of Arc), abruptly concluded with the leading character…

  • Au Lac (historical kingdom, Vietnam)

    Vietnam: Legendary kingdoms: …and called the new state Au Lac, which he then ruled under the name An Duong. Au Lac existed only until 207 bce, when it was incorporated by a former Chinese general, Trieu Da (Chao T’o in Chinese), into the kingdom of Nam Viet (Nan Yue in Chinese).

  • Au pays (book by Ben Jelloun)

    Tahar Ben Jelloun: Au pays (2009; A Palace in the Old Village) explores Muslim identity through the struggles of a Moroccan French retiree who returns to his homeland and begins building an enormous house in an effort to entice his family to join him. The unconventionally structured Le…

  • Au pied du Sinaï (work by Clemenceau)

    Georges Clemenceau: Early political career: …Au pied du Sinaï (At the Foot of Mount Sinai, 1922), illustrated by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, was a volume of sketches on the history of the Jewish people. He also tried his hand at writing a play.

  • Au revoir les enfants (film by Malle [1987])

    Louis Malle: …conversation between two characters; and Au revoir les enfants (1987), an autobiographical reminiscence of life in a Roman Catholic boys’ school in occupied France during World War II. Malle’s last film was Vanya on 42nd Street (1994), in which a theatre ensemble gives a reading of Anton Chekhov’s play Uncle…

  • Au Salon de la rue des Moulins (work by Toulouse-Lautrec)

    Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec: The documenter of Montmartre: …la rue des Moulins (At the Salon). This painting evokes sympathy from the spectator as he observes the women’s isolation and loneliness, qualities which the young Toulouse-Lautrec had so often experienced himself. At the Salon is a brilliant demonstration, therefore, of his stated desire to “depict the true and…

  • AUA

    Unitarianism and Universalism: American Unitarianism: In 1825 the American Unitarian Association (AUA), an association of individuals, was organized.

  • Aub, Max (Spanish writer)

    Spanish literature: The novel: Max Aub analyzed the civil conflict in the artistically and thematically impressive cycle of novels El laberinto mágico (1943–68; “The Magic Labyrinth”). Ramón José Sender, whose pre-Civil War novels had been realistic and overtly sociopolitical, developed an interest in the mysterious and irrational. While Crónica…

  • aubade (music)

    Alba, (Provençal: “dawn”) in the music of the troubadours, the 11th- and 12th-century poet-musicians of southern France, a song of lament for lovers parting at dawn or of a watchman’s warning to lovers at dawn. A song of the latter type sometimes takes the form of a dialogue between a watchman and

  • Aubagne (France)

    Aubagne, town, Bouches-du-Rhône département, Provence–Alpes–Côte d’Azur région, southeastern France. Aubagne lies about 10 miles (16 km) east of Marseille. It was the site of the Gallo-Roman Pagus Lucreti and derived its name from its health springs (Ad Bainea). Aubagne sits amidst an agricultural

  • aube (music)

    Alba, (Provençal: “dawn”) in the music of the troubadours, the 11th- and 12th-century poet-musicians of southern France, a song of lament for lovers parting at dawn or of a watchman’s warning to lovers at dawn. A song of the latter type sometimes takes the form of a dialogue between a watchman and

  • Aube (department, France)

    Champagne-Ardenne: …the northern départements of Haute-Marne, Aube, Marne, and Ardennes and was roughly coextensive with the historical province of Champagne.

  • Aube le soir ou la nuit, L’ (work by Reza)

    Yasmina Reza: …talent with the publication of L’Aube le soir ou la nuit (“Dawn Evening or Night”), a detailed biography of Nicolas Sarkozy as he ran for president of France. Reza was given almost unlimited access to a man she saw as talented and power-driven during the time she followed him on…

  • Aube River (river, France)

    Aube River, river, north central France, navigable tributary of the Seine, which it joins above Romilly. The Aube and its tributary, the Aujon, rise on the Langres Plateau, flowing northwest for 154 mi (248 km) in trenchlike valleys across the dry oolitic limestone country. In front of the Côte

  • Aubenton, Louis-Jean-Marie D’ (French naturalist)

    Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, French naturalist who was a pioneer in the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology. Daubenton was studying medicine when, in 1742, the renowned naturalist Georges Buffon asked him to prepare anatomical descriptions for an ambitious work on natural history

  • Auber, Daniel-François-Esprit (French composer)

    Daniel-François-Esprit Auber, French composer who was prominent in the 19th-century cultivation of opera containing spoken as well as sung passages (comic opera). The great contemporary success of his works was due in part to the expertly tailored librettos of Eugène Scribe and in part to Auber’s

  • aubergine (plant)

    Eggplant, (Solanum melongena), tender perennial plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), grown for its edible fruits. Eggplant requires a warm climate and has been cultivated in its native Southeast Asia since remote antiquity. A staple in cuisines of the Mediterranean region, eggplant figures

  • Aubert, Étienne (pope)

    Innocent VI, pope from 1352 to 1362. A professor of civil law at Toulouse, Fr., Innocent VI took holy orders and was appointed to the French bishoprics of Noyon (1338) and Clermont (1340). A cardinal priest in 1342, he was made cardinal bishop of Ostia, Papal States, in 1352 by Pope Clement VI,

  • Aubert, Jean (French artist)

    Rococo: …Château at Chantilly, decorated by Jean Aubert, and the salons (begun 1732) of the Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, by Germain Boffrand. The Rococo style was also manifested in the decorative arts. Its asymmetrical forms and rocaille ornament were quickly adapted to silver and porcelain, and French furniture of the period…

  • Auberval, Jean D’ (French dancer)

    Jean Dauberval, French ballet dancer, teacher, and choreographer often credited with establishing the comic ballet as a genre. In 1761 Dauberval made his debut at the Paris Académie (now Opéra) and became noted for his pantomimic dance ability; in 1773 he was made an assistant ballet master. In

  • Aubignac, François Hédelin, abbé d’ (French dramatist and critic)

    François Hédelin, abbé d’Aubignac, associate of the statesman Cardinal de Richelieu, playwright, and critic who influenced French 17th-century writing and encouraged dramatic standards based on the classics. He wrote plays, fiction, translations of Homer and Ovid, and, most important, studies of

  • Aubigné, Françoise de (untitled queen of France)

    Françoise d’Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon, second wife (from either 1683 or 1697) and untitled queen of King Louis XIV of France. She encouraged an atmosphere of dignity and piety at court and founded an educational institution for poor girls at Saint-Cyr (1686). She was born at Niort, in Poitou,

  • Aubigné, Théodore-Agrippa d’ (French soldier and author)

    Théodore-Agrippa d’ Aubigné, major late 16th-century poet, renowned Huguenot captain, polemicist, and historian of his own times. After studies in Paris, Orléans, Geneva, and Lyon, he joined the Huguenot forces and served throughout the Wars of Religion on the battlefield and in the council

  • Aubigny (Quebec, Canada)

    Lévis, city, Chaudière-Appalaches region, southern Quebec province, Canada. It is located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, opposite the city of Quebec, with which it is linked by ferry. The settlement, founded in 1647, was formerly called Aubigny in honour of the Duke of Richmond (who

  • Aubigny, duc d’ (British politician [1735-1806])

    Charles Lennox, 3rd duke of Richmond, one of the most progressive British politicians of the 18th century, being chiefly known for his advanced views on parliamentary reform. Richmond succeeded to the peerage in 1750 (his father, the 2nd duke, having added the Aubigny title to the Richmond and

  • Aubigny, Louise-Renée de Kéroualle, duchesse d’ (French noble)

    Louise-Renée de Kéroualle, duchess of Portsmouth, French mistress of Charles II of Great Britain, the least popular with his subjects but the ablest politician. The daughter of a Breton nobleman, Guillaume de Penancoet, Sieur de Kéroualle, she entered the household of Henrietta Anne, Duchess

  • Aubrac, Lucie (French resistance heroine)

    Lucie Aubrac, (Lucie Bernard), French Resistance heroine (born June 29, 1912 , Mâcon, France—died March 14, 2007 , Issy-les-Moulineaux, France), was hailed for her courageous actions in the underground network Libération Sud in southern France during World War II. She was awarded the Legion of

  • Aubrac, Raymond (French Resistance hero and government official)

    Raymond Aubrac, (Raymond Samuel), French Resistance hero and government official (born July 31, 1914, Vesoul, France—died April 10, 2012, Paris, France), was a leader in the underground network Libération Sud in southern France during World War II and in 1943 was at the centre of one of France’s

  • Aubray, Marie-Madeleine-Marguérite d’ (French noblewoman)

    Marie-Madeleine-Marguérite d’Aubray, marquise de Brinvilliers, French noblewoman who was executed (1676) after poisoning numerous family members. She was the daughter of Antoine Dreux d’Aubray, a civil lieutenant of Paris, and in 1651 she married an army officer, Antoine Gobelin de Brinvilliers. An

  • Aubrey Holes (archaeology)

    Stonehenge: First stage: 3000–2935 bce: …enclosing 56 pits called the Aubrey Holes, named after John Aubrey, who identified them in 1666. The ditch of the enclosure is flanked on the inside by a high bank and on the outside by a low bank, or counterscarp. The diameters of the outer bank, the ditch, the inner…

  • Aubrey, James (British actor)

    Lord of the Flies: Ralph (played by James Aubrey), the elected leader of the group, symbolizes order and civilization. He must contend with Jack (Tom Chapin), the chief hunter of the group, whose descent into barbarism challenges Ralph’s civilizing influence. Paranoia ensues among the younger boys, a monstrous beast is envisioned, and…

  • Aubrey, John (English writer)

    John Aubrey, antiquarian and biographer, best known for his vivid, intimate, and sometimes acid sketches of his contemporaries. Educated at Oxford at Trinity College, he studied law in London at the Middle Temple. He early displayed his interest in antiquities by calling attention to the

  • aubrite (meteorite)

    meteorite: Achondrites: …asteroidal achondrite groups are the aubrites, the howardite-eucrite-diogenite association, and the ureilites. Aubrites are also known as enstatite achondrites. Like the enstatite class of chondrites, the aubrites derive from parent bodies that formed under highly chemically reducing conditions. As a result, they contain elements in the form of less-common compounds—for…

  • Aubry, Marie (French writer)

    Olympe de Gouges, French social reformer and writer who challenged conventional views on a number of matters, especially the role of women as citizens. Marie was born to Anne Olympe Mouisset Gouze, who was married to Pierre Gouze, a butcher; Marie’s biological father may have been Jean-Jacques

  • Aubry, Martine (French politician)

    François Hollande: Early life and political rise: …was defeated by Lille Mayor Martine Aubry. The arrest of Strauss-Kahn in May 2011 on charges of sexual assault, however, caused even more tension throughout the party’s ranks. Although the charges were eventually dropped, Strauss-Kahn, the presumptive Socialist nominee in the 2012 presidential election, resigned as director of the International…

  • Auburn (Maine, United States)

    Auburn, city, seat (1854) of Androscoggin county, southwestern Maine, U.S., on the Androscoggin River opposite Lewiston and part of the Lewiston-Auburn metropolitan area. Settled in 1786, Auburn was separated from Minot in 1842 and is supposed to have been named for the Auburn of Oliver Goldsmith’s

  • Auburn (New York, United States)

    Auburn, city, seat (1805) of Cayuga county, west-central New York, U.S. It lies at the north end of Owasco Lake, in the Finger Lakes region, 22 miles (35 km) southwest of Syracuse. Founded in 1793 by John Hardenbergh, an officer in the American Revolution, on the site of a Cayuga Indian village

  • Auburn (Washington, United States)

    Auburn, city, King county, western Washington, U.S., in the White River valley, 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Tacoma. It was laid out in 1887 by Levi W. Ballard, an early local settler, and named for W.A. Slaughter, an army officer killed in a conflict with area Indians 30 years earlier. Local

  • Auburn (Alabama, United States)

    Auburn, city, Lee county, eastern Alabama, U.S., adjacent to Opelika, about 60 miles (100 km) northeast of Montgomery. Founded in 1836 by John Harper and settlers from Georgia, its name was inspired by the “sweet Auburn” of Oliver Goldsmith’s poem The Deserted Village. Auburn University, opened as

  • Auburn State Prison (prison, Auburn, New York, United States)

    Auburn State Prison, prison located in Auburn, New York. Opened in 1816, it established a disciplinary and administrative system based on silence, corporal punishment, and “congregate” (group) labour. In architecture and routine, Auburn became the model for prisons throughout the United States. In

  • Auburn system (penology)

    Auburn system, penal method of the 19th century in which persons worked during the day and were kept in solitary confinement at night, with enforced silence at all times. The silent system evolved during the 1820s at Auburn Prison in Auburn, N.Y., as an alternative to and modification of the

  • Auburn University (university, Alabama, United States)

    Auburn University, public, coeducational institution of higher education located in Auburn, Alabama, U.S. The university offers a broad range of undergraduate and graduate degree programs and is noted for its colleges of engineering and business. Degrees in nursing, pharmacy, and veterinary

  • Aubusson (France)

    Aubusson, town, Creuse département, Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou région, central France, on the Creuse River near the northern edge of the Plateau de Millevaches (highest part of the Monts du Limousin), northeast of Limoges. In the Middle Ages it was the seat of a viscounty from whose rulers descended

  • Aubusson carpet

    Aubusson carpet, floor covering, usually of considerable size, handwoven at the villages of Aubusson and Felletin, in the département of Creuse in central France. Workshops were established in 1743 to manufacture pile carpets primarily for the nobility, to whom the Savonnerie court production was

  • Aubusson, Pierre d’ (French cardinal)

    Pierre d’ Aubusson, grand master of the military-religious Order of St. John of Jerusalem, known for his defense of Rhodes against the Turks. The son of French nobility, Aubusson joined the Knights of St. John c. 1453. The Knights, with their headquarters at Rhodes, held the island as a bar to

  • Aucassin and Nicolette (French tale)

    Aucassin et Nicolette, early 13th-century French chantefable (a story told in alternating sections of verse and prose, the former sung, the latter recited). Aucassin, “endowed with all good qualities,” is the son of the Count of Beaucaire and falls in love with Nicolette, a captive Saracen turned

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