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  • ATC (United States Air Force)

    history of flight: Wartime legacies: Army Air Force Air Transport Command (ATC) constituted a major step forward. The ATC became legendary during its transport services across the towering Himalayan mountain ranges (pilots called these challenging missions “flying the hump”), carrying crucial supplies to Chinese and Allied forces in the China-Burma-India theatre. More important,…

  • ATCA (United States [1789])

    Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA), U.S. law, originally a provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789, that grants to U.S. federal courts original jurisdiction over any civil action brought by an alien (a foreign national) for a tort in violation of international law or a U.S. treaty. (A tort is any wrongful

  • Atchafalaya Bay (bay, United States)

    Atchafalaya Bay, arm of the Gulf of Mexico, extending southeastward along the southern coast of Louisiana, U.S., for 21 miles (34 km) from Point Chevreuil to Point Au Fer on Point Au Fer Island. The bay is 10 miles (16 km) wide, and Four League Bay extends another 11 miles (18 km) to the southeast.

  • Atchafalaya River (river, United States)

    Atchafalaya River, distributary of the Red and Mississippi rivers in Louisiana, U.S. It branches southwest from the Red River near a point in east-central Louisiana where the Old River (about 7 miles [11 km] long) links the Red River with the Mississippi, and it flows generally south for about 140

  • Atchana, Tell (ancient Syrian city, Turkey)

    Alalakh, ancient Syrian city in the Orontes (Asi) valley, southern Turkey. Excavations (1936–49) by Sir Leonard Woolley uncovered numerous impressive buildings, including a massive structure known as the palace of Yarim-Lim, dating from c. 1780 bc, when Alalakh was the chief city of the district of

  • Atchison (Kansas, United States)

    Atchison, city, seat (1855) of Atchison county, northeastern Kansas, U.S., on the Missouri River. A French trading post at the site of the present city was the embarkation point, in 1804, for the Lewis and Clark expedition. Founded in 1854 by a group of proslavery settlers, it was named for their

  • Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company (American railway)

    Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, former railway that was one of the largest in the United States. Chartered in Kansas as the Atchison and Topeka Railroad Company in 1859, it later exercised great influence on the settlement of the southwestern United States. It was renamed the

  • ATCRBS (radar technology)

    radar: Airport surveillance radar: …lightweight planar-array antenna for the air-traffic-control radar-beacon system (ATCRBS). Its dimensions are 26 feet (8 metres) by 5.2 feet (1.6 metres). ATCRBS is the primary means for detecting and identifying aircraft equipped with a transponder that can reply to the ATCRBS interrogation. The ATCRBS transmitter, which is independent of the…

  • ATCS

    railroad: Interlocking and routing: …the 1980s to develop an Advanced Train Control Systems (ATCS) project, which integrated the potential of the latest microelectronics and communications technologies. In fully realized ATCS, trains continuously and automatically radio to the dispatching centre their exact location and speed; both would be determined by a locomotive-mounted scanner as well…

  • Atdabanian Stage (paleontology)

    Cambrian Period: Correlation of Cambrian strata: …all but rocks below the Atdabanian Stage or those of equivalent age. Until the mid-1900s, almost all trilobite zones were based on members of the order Polymerida. Such trilobites usually have more than five segments in the thorax, and the order includes about 95 percent of all trilobite species. Most…

  • Ate (Greek mythology)

    Ate, Greek mythological figure who induced rash and ruinous actions by both gods and men. She made Zeus—on the day he expected the Greek hero Heracles, his son by Alcmene, to be born—take an oath: the child born of his lineage that day would rule “over all those dwelling about him” (Iliad, Book

  • Ateas (Scythian ruler)

    Scythian: In 339 the ruler Ateas was killed at age 90 while fighting Philip II of Macedonia. The community was eventually destroyed in the 2nd century bce, Palakus being the last sovereign whose name is preserved in history.

  • ATEC (United States Army)

    the United States Army: Administrative structure: The United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) is a DRU responsible for testing and evaluation of military systems. The United States Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC) is a DRU that oversees the conceptualization, development, and acquisition of military systems. The United States Army Installation…

  • Atef, Muhammad (Egyptian militant)

    Muhammad Atef, (Sobhi Abu Sitta), Egyptian-born Islamist militant (born 1944?, Egypt—died Nov. 14/15, 2001, near Kabul, Afg.), was believed to have been a close associate of Osama bin Laden (in early 2001 his daughter married Bin Laden’s son) and chief military strategist for the Islamic t

  • atelechory (biology)

    seed: Self-dispersal: Atelechory, the dispersal over a very limited distance only, represents a waste-avoiding defensive “strategy” that functions in further exploitation of an already occupied favourable site. This strategy is typical in old, nutrient-impoverished landscapes, such as those of southwestern Australia. The aim is often achieved by…

  • atelectasis (medical disorder)

    Atelectasis, derived from the Greek words atelēs and ektasis, literally meaning “incomplete expansion” in reference to the lungs. The term atelectasis can also be used to describe the collapse of a previously inflated lung, either partially or fully, because of specific respiratory disorders. There

  • Ateleopodiformes (fish order)

    fish: Annotated classification: Order Ateleopodiformes (highfin tadpole fish) Snout bulbous, caudal fin reduced; all genera except Guentherus have a caudal fin united with a long anal fin; pelvic fin of adults with 1 ray on throat; skeleton largely cartilaginous. 1 family, Ateleopodidae, jellynose fishes. 4 genera with about 12…

  • Atelerix (mammal)

    hedgehog: …(genus Erinaceus), there are four African hedgehogs (genus Atelerix), six desert hedgehogs (genus Hemiechinus), and two steppe hedgehogs (genus Mesechinus). European hedgehogs are kept as pets, as is the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

  • Ateles (primate)

    Spider monkey, (genus Ateles), large, extremely agile monkey that lives in forests from southern Mexico through Central and South America to Brazil. In spite of its thumbless hands, this lanky potbellied primate can move swiftly through the trees, using its long tail as a fifth limb. The seven

  • Ateles fusciceps (primate)

    spider monkey: …endangered, and two of these—the brown-headed spider monkey (A. fusciceps), which is found from eastern Panama through northwestern Ecuador, and the variegated, or brown, spider monkey (A. hybridus), which inhabits northeastern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela—are listed as critically endangered. Spider monkeys are widely hunted for food by local people. Consequently,…

  • Ateles hybridus (primate)

    spider monkey: …through northwestern Ecuador, and the variegated, or brown, spider monkey (A. hybridus), which inhabits northeastern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela—are listed as critically endangered. Spider monkeys are widely hunted for food by local people. Consequently, some of their population decline has been attributed to hunting pressure. However, habitat loss resulting from…

  • Atelidae (primate family)

    howler monkey: …of several within the family Atelidae, which also includes woolly monkeys, spider monkeys, and woolly spider monkeys. All are found only in the Western Hemisphere.

  • Atelier 17 (printmaking group)

    printmaking: France: In the 1930s his Atelier 17 printmaking group was the centre of experimental intaglio work in Paris. In the 1940s he went to the United States and, through his teaching in New York, exercised a powerful influence on contemporary American printmaking. Other artists who did noteworthy graphic work in…

  • Atelier Dix-Sept (printmaking group)

    printmaking: France: In the 1930s his Atelier 17 printmaking group was the centre of experimental intaglio work in Paris. In the 1940s he went to the United States and, through his teaching in New York, exercised a powerful influence on contemporary American printmaking. Other artists who did noteworthy graphic work in…

  • Atelier du peintre, Allégorie réelle, L’  (painting by Courbet)

    Gustave Courbet: Leader of the new school of Realism: …he completed in six weeks: The Artist’s Studio, an allegory of all the influences on Courbet’s artistic life, which are portrayed as human figures from all levels of society. Courbet himself presides over all the figures with ingenuous conceit, working on a landscape and turning his back to a nude…

  • atelier national (French historical agency)

    France: The Second Republic, 1848–52: …an emergency-relief agency called the ateliers nationaux (national workshops) was established. A kind of economic and social council called the Luxembourg Commission was created to study programs of social reform; Blanc was named its president. The principle of universal manhood suffrage was proclaimed—a return to the precedent of 1792 that…

  • Atellan play (Italian drama)

    Fabula Atellana, (Latin: “Atellan play”), the earliest native Italian farce, presumably rustic improvisational comedy featuring masked stock characters. The farces derived their name from the town of Atella in the Campania region of southern Italy and seem to have originated among Italians speaking

  • Atelocynus (mammal genus)

    canine: Paleontology and classification: Genus Atelocynus (small-eared zorro) 1 species of South America. Genus Cerdocyon (crab-eating fox) 1 species of South America. Genus Chrysocyon (maned wolf)

  • Atelocynus microtis (mammal)

    canine: Paleontology and classification: Atelocynus (small-eared zorro) 1 species of South America. Genus Cerdocyon (crab-eating fox) 1 species of South America. Genus Chrysocyon (maned wolf) 1 species of South America.

  • Atelopus (amphibian)

    toad: …which are also known as variegated toads (Atelopus), are found in South and Central America. They are commonly triangular-headed and have enlarged hind feet. Some are brightly coloured in black with yellow, red, or green. When molested, the small poisonous Melanophryniscus stelzneri of Uruguay bends its head and limbs over…

  • Atelopus zeteki (amphibian)

    Panamanian golden toad, (Atelopus zeteki), small, bright yellow toad, often with a few black spots or blotches, that is found at moderate elevations in the central part of Panama. Considered to be one of the most beautiful frogs in Panama, where it is endangered and legally protected, the golden

  • atemoya (plant)

    Magnoliales: Fruit: …Annona squamosa × cherimola (atemoya) apparently originated in Central America and the Antilles; the fruit contains some of the best features of both parents. Extracts of the root and leaves have a laxative effect, and poultices of the leaves are used to dress infected wounds. Annona glabra (alligator, or…

  • Aten (Egyptian god)

    Aton, in ancient Egyptian religion, a sun god, depicted as the solar disk emitting rays terminating in human hands, whose worship briefly was the state religion. The pharaoh Akhenaton (reigned 1353–36 bce) returned to supremacy of the sun god, with the startling innovation that the Aton was to be

  • Aten asteroid (astronomy)

    asteroid: Near-Earth asteroids: …of Earth-crossing asteroids is named Atens for (2062) Aten, which was discovered in 1976. The Aten asteroids have mean distances from the Sun that are less than 1 AU and aphelion distances that are greater than or equal to 0.983 AU, the perihelion distance of Earth; they cross Earth’s orbit…

  • Aten object (astronomy)

    asteroid: Near-Earth asteroids: …of Earth-crossing asteroids is named Atens for (2062) Aten, which was discovered in 1976. The Aten asteroids have mean distances from the Sun that are less than 1 AU and aphelion distances that are greater than or equal to 0.983 AU, the perihelion distance of Earth; they cross Earth’s orbit…

  • Aten Reign (art installation by Turrell)

    James Turrell: That year he also designed Aten Reign for the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City. The work was a site-specific “skyspace” lit with hidden LED fixtures that flooded the interior rotunda with changing atmospheric colour. In seeking to test and transform the experience of seeing, Turrell used light…

  • Atencia, María Victoria (Spanish poet)

    Spain: Literature: …and early 21st centuries included María Victoria Atencia, known for her poetry inspired by domestic situations, for her cultivation of the themes of art, music, and painting, and for her later existentialist contemplations; Pureza Canelo, known especially for her ecological poetry and feminist volumes; Juana Castro; Clara Janés; and Ana…

  • Aterau (Kazakhstan)

    Atyrau, city, western Kazakhstan. It is a port on the Ural (Zhayyq) River near its mouth on the Caspian Sea. Founded as a fishing settlement in the mid-17th century by the fishing entrepreneur Mikhail Guryev, it soon became a fort on the Ural fortified line manned by the Ural Cossacks. Fishing and

  • Aterian industry (archaeology)

    Aterian industry, stone tool tradition of the Middle and Late Paleolithic, found widespread in the late Pleistocene throughout northern Africa. The Aterian people were among the first to use the bow and arrow. Aterian stone tools are an advanced African form of the European Levalloisian t

  • Aternum (Italy)

    Pescara, city, Abruzzi regione, central Italy. Pescara lies along the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Pescara River, east-northeast of Rome. The Roman Aternum, the city was almost destroyed in the barbarian invasions and arose again in the early European Middle Ages as Piscaria (i.e., abounding

  • Āteshkadeh-ye Sorkh Kowtal (archaeological site, Afghanistan)

    Baghlān: …km) southwest of Baghlān is Āteshkadeh-ye Sorkh Kowtal, site of the ruins of a Zoroastrian fire temple, believed to have been built in the 1st century ad by the Kushān emperor Kaniṣka I. The population of Baghlān is predominantly Tadzhik. Pop. (2006 est.) 56,200.

  • Ateso (people)

    Teso, people of central Uganda and Kenya who speak Teso (Ateso), an Eastern Sudanic (Nilotic) language of the Nilo-Saharan language family. The Teso are counted among the most progressive farmers of Uganda; they quickly took to ox plows when they began cultivating cotton in the early 1900s. Millet

  • Ateste (ancient site, Italy)

    Ateste, an ancient town of northern Italy, and the predecessor of the modern-day town of Este. In antiquity Ateste occupied a commanding position beside the Adige River (which later changed course) and was for a time the capital of the Veneti people. After a period of complete abandonment, it was

  • Ateşten gömlek (work by Edib Adıvar)

    Halide Edib Adıvar: …famous novel, Ateşten gömlek (1922; The Daughter of Smyrna), is the story of a young woman who works for the liberation of her country and of the two men who love her. From 1925 to 1938 Halide Edib traveled extensively, lecturing in Paris, London, the United States, and India. On…

  • ATF (United States government)

    Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF), agency within the United States Department of Justice that is responsible for enforcing federal laws relating to alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives. The ATF headquarters are in Washington, D.C. The bureau’s agents are dispersed

  • Atgah Khān, Shams ud-Dīn Muḥammad (Mughal minister)

    India: The early years: Second, he appointed Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad Atgah Khan as prime minister (November 1561). Third, at about the same time, he took possession of Chunar, which had always defied Humāyūn.

  • Atget, Eugène (French photographer)

    Eugène Atget, French commercial photographer who specialized in photographing the architecture and associated arts of Paris and its environs at the turn of the 20th century. Very few biographical facts are known about Atget. The Atget family (originally Atger) were saddlers and carriage-makers who

  • Atget, Jean-Eugène-Auguste (French photographer)

    Eugène Atget, French commercial photographer who specialized in photographing the architecture and associated arts of Paris and its environs at the turn of the 20th century. Very few biographical facts are known about Atget. The Atget family (originally Atger) were saddlers and carriage-makers who

  • ATGM

    Antitank guided missile, medium or long-range missile whose primary purpose is to destroy tanks and other armoured vehicles. A variety of rockets and missiles are employed against armoured vehicles, but the most sophisticated are antitank guided missiles (ATGM), which can be directed to a target by

  • Athabasca Glacier (glacier, Canada)

    Columbia Icefield: General description: …skyline at the head of Athabasca Glacier, with parts visible as ice cliffs on Snow Dome, Mount Kitchener, and Mount Stutfield. The Athabasca and Saskatchewan glaciers are the two main outlet ice tongues on the north and east.

  • Athabasca River (river, Canada)

    Athabasca River, river in northern Alberta, Canada, forming the southernmost part of the Mackenzie River system. From its source in the Columbia Icefield (Canadian Rocky Mountains) near the Continental Divide, the river flows through Jasper National Park, site of the spectacular Athabasca Falls,

  • Athabasca, Lake (lake, Canada)

    Lake Athabasca, lake in Canada, astride the Alberta–Saskatchewan border, just south of the Northwest Territories. The lake, 208 mi (335 km) long by 32 mi wide, has an area of 3,064 sq mi (7,936 sq km) and a maximum depth of 407 ft (124 m). Fed from the southwest by the Peace and Athabasca rivers

  • Athabasca, Mount (mountain, Canada)

    Columbia Icefield: …metres]) on the west and Mount Athabasca (11,452 feet [3,491 metres]) on the east.

  • Athabascan language family

    Athabaskan language family, one of the largest North American Indian language families, consisting of about 38 languages. Speakers of Athabaskan languages often use the same term for a language and its associated ethnic group (similar to the use of ‘English’ for both a language and a people),

  • Athabaska, District of (historical region, Canada)

    District of Athabaska, part of the original Northwest Territories in Canada. The district was created in 1882 and enlarged by an eastward extension in 1895. It was abolished in 1905. Its area comprised the northern parts of present Alberta and Saskatchewan and a small portion of northwestern

  • Athabaskan language family

    Athabaskan language family, one of the largest North American Indian language families, consisting of about 38 languages. Speakers of Athabaskan languages often use the same term for a language and its associated ethnic group (similar to the use of ‘English’ for both a language and a people),

  • Athabaskan languages

    Athabaskan language family, one of the largest North American Indian language families, consisting of about 38 languages. Speakers of Athabaskan languages often use the same term for a language and its associated ethnic group (similar to the use of ‘English’ for both a language and a people),

  • Athalaric (prince of Ostrogoths)

    Amalasuntha: …was left with a son, Athalaric, and a daughter. At Theodoric’s death, in 526, Athalaric was 10 years old, and the highly educated Amalasuntha assumed the regency. Her pro-Byzantine policy, her patronage of literature and the arts, and her desire to educate her son in the Roman style were vigorously…

  • Athalia (queen of Judah)

    Athaliah, in the Old Testament, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel and wife of Jeham, king of Judah. After the death of Ahaziah, her son, Athaliah usurped the throne and reigned for seven years. She massacred all the members of the royal house of Judah (II Kings 11:1–3), except Joash. A successful r

  • Athaliah (queen of Judah)

    Athaliah, in the Old Testament, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel and wife of Jeham, king of Judah. After the death of Ahaziah, her son, Athaliah usurped the throne and reigned for seven years. She massacred all the members of the royal house of Judah (II Kings 11:1–3), except Joash. A successful r

  • Athalie (play by Racine)

    Jean Racine: Life: …performed and published 1689) and Athalie—for the girls at the school she cofounded in Saint-Cyr. His other undertakings during his last years were to reedit, in 1687 and finally in 1697, the edition of his complete works that he had first published in 1676 and to compose, likely as his…

  • Athamas (Greek mythology)

    Athamas, in Greek mythology, king of the prehistoric Minyans in the ancient Boeotian city of Orchomenus. His first wife was Nephele, a cloud goddess. But later Athamas became enamoured of Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, and neglected Nephele, who disappeared in anger. Athamas and Ino incurred the

  • Athanaric (Visigoth chieftain)

    Athanaric, Visigothic chieftain from 364 to 376 who fiercely persecuted the Christians in Dacia (approximately modern Romania). The persecutions occurred between 369 and 372; his most important victim was St. Sabas the Goth. In 376 Athanaric was defeated by the Huns. He fled with a few followers to

  • Athanasian Creed (Christianity)

    Athanasian Creed, a Christian profession of faith in about 40 verses. It is regarded as authoritative in the Roman Catholic and some Protestant churches. It has two sections, one dealing with the Trinity and the other with the Incarnation; and it begins and ends with stern warnings that unswerving

  • Athanasius I (patriarch of Constantinople)

    Athanasius I, Byzantine monk and patriarch of Constantinople, who directed the opposition to the reunion of Greek and Latin churches decreed by the Second Council of Lyon in 1274. His efforts in reforming the Greek Orthodox Church encountered opposition from clergy and hierarchy. A monk who

  • Athanasius of Trebizond (Byzantine monk)

    Saint Athanasius the Athonite, ; feast day May 2), Byzantine monk who founded communal monasticism in the hallowed region of Mt. Athos, a traditional habitat for contemplative monks and hermits. Originally named Abraham, he took the monastic name of Athanasius when he retired to Mt. Athos after

  • Athanasius the Athonite, Saint (Byzantine monk)

    Saint Athanasius the Athonite, ; feast day May 2), Byzantine monk who founded communal monasticism in the hallowed region of Mt. Athos, a traditional habitat for contemplative monks and hermits. Originally named Abraham, he took the monastic name of Athanasius when he retired to Mt. Athos after

  • Athanasius, St. (Egyptian theologian)

    St. Athanasius, ; feast day May 2), theologian, ecclesiastical statesman, and Egyptian national leader. He was the chief defender of Christian orthodoxy in the 4th-century battle against Arianism, the heresy that the Son of God was a creature of like, but not of the same, substance as God the

  • Athapascan language family

    Athabaskan language family, one of the largest North American Indian language families, consisting of about 38 languages. Speakers of Athabaskan languages often use the same term for a language and its associated ethnic group (similar to the use of ‘English’ for both a language and a people),

  • Athapaskan language family

    Athabaskan language family, one of the largest North American Indian language families, consisting of about 38 languages. Speakers of Athabaskan languages often use the same term for a language and its associated ethnic group (similar to the use of ‘English’ for both a language and a people),

  • Āthār aṣṣanādīd (work by Ahmad Khan)

    Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan: …brought out a noteworthy book, Āthār aṣṣanādīd (“Monuments of the Great”), on the antiquities of Delhi. Even more important was his pamphlet, “The Causes of the Indian Revolt.” During the Indian Mutiny of 1857 he had taken the side of the British, but in this booklet he ably and fearlessly…

  • Atharabanki River (river, Bangladesh)

    Pusur River, distributary of the Padma River (Ganges [Ganga] River), southwestern Bangladesh. It leaves the Madhumati River (there called the Baleswar) northeast of Khulna city and flows some 110 miles (177 km) southward past the port at Mongla and through the swampy Sundarbans region to the Bay of

  • Atharvaveda (Hindu literature)

    Atharvaveda, collection of hymns and incantations that forms part of the ancient sacred literature of India known as the Vedas. See

  • Athaulf (king of Visigoths)

    Ataulphus, chieftain of the Visigoths from 410 to 415 and the successor of his brother-in-law Alaric. In 412 Ataulphus led the Visigoths, who had recently sacked Rome (410), from Italy to settle in southern Gaul. Two years later he married the Roman princess Galla Placidia (sister of the emperor

  • Athayde, Tristão de (Brazilian essayist, philosopher, and literary critic)

    Alceu Amoroso Lima, essayist, philosopher, and literary critic, a leading champion of the cause of intellectual freedom in Brazil. He was also an enthusiastic supporter of Modernismo, a Brazilian cultural movement of the 1920s, and, after his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1928, a leader in the

  • atheism

    Atheism, in general, the critique and denial of metaphysical beliefs in God or spiritual beings. As such, it is usually distinguished from theism, which affirms the reality of the divine and often seeks to demonstrate its existence. Atheism is also distinguished from agnosticism, which leaves open

  • Atheist’s Tragedie: Or The Honest Man’s Revenge, The (drama by Tourneur)

    Cyril Tourneur: The Atheist’s Tragedie: Or The Honest Man’s Revenge was published in 1611. The Revenger’s Tragedie, which is sometimes attributed to Tourneur, had appeared anonymously in 1607. In 1656 the bookseller Edward Archer entered it as by Tourneur on his list, but most recent scholarship attributes…

  • Atheist’s Tragedy, The (drama by Tourneur)

    Cyril Tourneur: The Atheist’s Tragedie: Or The Honest Man’s Revenge was published in 1611. The Revenger’s Tragedie, which is sometimes attributed to Tourneur, had appeared anonymously in 1607. In 1656 the bookseller Edward Archer entered it as by Tourneur on his list, but most recent scholarship attributes…

  • atheistic existentialism (philosophy)

    existentialism: Ontic structure of human existence: …Sartre, in Camus, and in atheistic existentialism; or it can lead toward the quest for a more direct relationship of existence with Being, beyond the constitutive possibilities of existence, so that Being reveals itself, at least partly, in existence—through language or through faith or through some mystical form of religiousness,…

  • Atheistic Humanism (work by Flew)

    Antony Flew: …Philosophy (1966; reissued 2005) and Atheistic Humanism (1993) provided articulate expositions of atheistic principles that won a wide popular as well as academic following. Flew’s writings influenced later atheists, such as Richard Dawkins and Sam Harris, who wrote for popular as well as academic audiences. Flew nevertheless maintained an intellectual…

  • Athel tree (plant)

    tamarisk: The Athel tree (T. aphylla), which sometimes grows to about 18 metres (60 feet), has jointed twigs and minute ensheathing leaves and is used as a windbreak in desert areas. T. ramosissima (or T. pentandra) and T. chinensis, with denser flower clusters, are frequently cultivated as…

  • Atheliales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Atheliales Mycorrhizal, found primarily on conifers and hardwood trees; included in subclass Agaricomycetidae; example genera include Athelia, Piloderma, and Tylospora. Order Boletales Saprotrophic, many are found living at the base of trees such as pines; spores enclosed in

  • Atheling (Anglo-Saxon aristocrat)

    Aetheling, in Anglo-Saxon England, generally any person of noble birth. Use of the term was usually restricted to members of a royal family, and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it is used almost exclusively for members of the royal house of Wessex. It was occasionally used after the Norman Conquest

  • Atheling, William, Jr. (American author and critic)

    James Blish, American author and critic of science fiction best known for the Cities in Flight series (1950–62) and the novel A Case of Conscience (1958). His work, which often examined philosophical ideas, was part of the more sophisticated science fiction that arose in the 1950s. Blish had been a

  • Athelney (hill, England, United Kingdom)

    Athelney, small eminence, formerly an island, rising above the drained marshes around the confluence of the Rivers Tone and Parrett in the administrative and historic county of Somerset, England. In 878 King Alfred sought refuge from the Danes in the marshes and constructed a stronghold at

  • Athelstan (king of England)

    Athelstan, first West Saxon king to have effective rule over the whole of England. On the death of his father, Edward the Elder, in 924, Athelstan was elected king of Wessex and Mercia, where he had been brought up by his aunt, Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians. Crowned king of the whole country at

  • Athelstan (king of Denmark)

    Guthrum, leader of a major Danish invasion of Anglo-Saxon England who waged war against the West Saxon king Alfred the Great (reigned 871–899) and later made himself king of East Anglia (reigned 880–890). Guthrum went to England in the great Danish invasion of 865, and in mid-January 878 he

  • athematicism (music)

    Alois Hába: …achievement; in it he uses nonthematic constructions characteristic of his work as a whole. Such music makes as little use as possible of repetition and variation of distinct melodies and themes. Another athematic opera, Thy Kingdom Come (1940), is written in a sixth-tone system.

  • Athena (Greek mythology)

    Athena, in Greek religion, the city protectress, goddess of war, handicraft, and practical reason, identified by the Romans with Minerva. She was essentially urban and civilized, the antithesis in many respects of Artemis, goddess of the outdoors. Athena was probably a pre-Hellenic goddess and was

  • Athena Alea (ancient temple, Tegea, Greece)

    Tegea: The Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea was described by the Greek geographer Pausanias (2nd century ad) as excelling all others in the Peloponnese. Originally built by the city’s traditional founder, Aleus, the temple was later rebuilt by Scopas, the famous sculptor. Fragments of the temple have been…

  • Athena Lindia, Temple of (temple, Lindos, Greece)

    Lindos: …1952) that uncovered the Doric Temple of Athena Lindia on the acropolis, propylaea (entrance gates), and a stoa (colonnade). Also discovered was a chronicle of the temple compiled in 99 bc by a local antiquarian, listing mythical and historical dedications from many parts of the Mediterranean. Residents of the town…

  • Athena Nike (Greek deity)

    Nike: Athena Nike was always wingless; Nike alone was winged. She also appears carrying a palm branch, wreath, or Hermes staff as the messenger of victory. Nike is also portrayed erecting a trophy, or, frequently, hovering with outspread wings over the victor in a competition; for…

  • Athena Nike, Temple of (temple, Athens, Greece)

    Western architecture: High Classical (c. 450–400 bc): …smaller temples, as for the Temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis; but even though the Ionic was never to be used as the exterior order for major buildings on the Greek mainland, Athens did contribute new forms of column base to the order.

  • Athena Parthenos (sculpture by Phidias)

    Phidias: The colossal statue of the Athena Parthenos, which Phidias made for the Parthenon, was completed and dedicated in 438. The original work was made of gold and ivory and stood some 38 feet (12 metres) high. The goddess stood erect, wearing a tunic, aegis, and helmet and holding a Nike…

  • Athena Polias, Temple of (ancient temple, Priene, Greece)

    Priene: …hill upon which stands the Temple of Athena Polias. Built by Pythius, probable architect of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the temple was recognized in ancient times as the classic example of the pure Ionic style. Priene is laid out on a grid plan, with 6 main streets running east-west and…

  • Athena Promachos (ancient statue, Athens, Greece)

    Athens: The Acropolis: …30-foot-high bronze seated statue of Athena Promachos (Athena Who Fights in the Foremost Ranks), by the 5th-century-bce Athenian sculptor Phidias, was set up in the open behind the Propylaea, her gleaming helmet and spear visible to mariners off Cape Sunium (Soúnion) 30 miles away. The 6th-century Byzantine emperor Justinian carried…

  • Athena, Temple of (ancient site, Paestum, Italy)

    Paestum: Of the three temples, the Temple of Athena (the so-called Temple of Ceres) and the Temple of Hera I (the so-called Basilica) date from the 6th century bc, while the Temple of Hera II (the so-called Temple of Neptune) was probably built about 460 bc and is the best preserved…

  • Athenae Oxonienses (work by Wood)

    Anthony Wood: …educated at Oxford appeared as Athenae Oxonienses (1691–92). Wood lived in Oxford as a near recluse close to Merton College, where he matriculated and in whose chapel he was buried.

  • Athenaeum (university, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States)

    Xavier University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. It is affiliated with the Jesuit order (Society of Jesus) of the Roman Catholic church. The university comprises colleges of arts and sciences, business administration, and social sciences. In

  • Athenaeum (British periodical)

    history of publishing: Literary and scientific magazines: …other early reviews were the Athenaeum (1828–1921), an independent literary weekly, and the Spectator (founded 1828), a nonpartisan but conservative-leaning political weekly that nonetheless supported parliamentary reform and the cause of the North in the American Civil War. Later reviews included the Saturday Review (1855–1938), which had George Bernard Shaw…

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