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  • Astor of Hever, of Hever Castle, John Jacob Astor, 1st Baron (British journalist [1886-1971])

    John Jacob Astor, British journalist and great-great-grandson of the U.S. fur magnate John Jacob Astor; as chief proprietor of The Times of London (1922–66), he maintained the newspaper’s leading position in British journalism. He was the second son of the 1st Viscount Astor (before his immigration

  • Astor Place Opera House riot (United States history)

    William Charles Macready: …Macbeth by Macready at the Astor Place Opera House in New York City, Forrest’s partisans tried to storm the theatre and thus started a riot in which more than 20 persons were killed and from which Macready narrowly escaped with his life. He returned to England for his farewell performances…

  • Astor Place riot (United States history)

    William Charles Macready: …Macbeth by Macready at the Astor Place Opera House in New York City, Forrest’s partisans tried to storm the theatre and thus started a riot in which more than 20 persons were killed and from which Macready narrowly escaped with his life. He returned to England for his farewell performances…

  • Astor River (river, Pakistan)

    Indus River: Physical features: A short distance downstream the Astor River, running off the eastern slope of Nanga Parbat, joins as a left-bank tributary. The Indus then flows west and turns south and southwest to enter Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, in the process skirting around the northern and western sides of the Nanga Parbat massif…

  • Astor, Brooke Russell (American philanthropist and writer)

    Brooke Russell Astor, American socialite, philanthropist, and writer, who employed her position, wealth, and energies in the interest of cultural enrichment and the poor. The daughter of a U.S. Marine Corps officer and a socialite, young Brooke’s early years were spent on Marine posts in Hawaii,

  • Astor, Caroline Webster Schermerhorn (American socialite)

    Caroline Webster Schermerhorn Astor, the doyenne of American high society in the latter half of the 19th century, who held the ground of “old money” in the face of changing times and values. Caroline Schermerhorn was the daughter of a wealthy merchant and had colonial Dutch aristocracy on both

  • Astor, Francis David Langhorne (American editor)

    Francis David Langhorne Astor, British newspaper editor (born March 5, 1912, London, Eng.—died Dec. 7, 2001, London), as editor of The Observer from 1948 to 1975, was largely responsible for turning the paper’s viewpoint from a conservative, establishment-supporting one to espousal of a number of l

  • Astor, John Jacob (British journalist [1886-1971])

    John Jacob Astor, British journalist and great-great-grandson of the U.S. fur magnate John Jacob Astor; as chief proprietor of The Times of London (1922–66), he maintained the newspaper’s leading position in British journalism. He was the second son of the 1st Viscount Astor (before his immigration

  • Astor, John Jacob (American businessman [1864-1912])

    Astor family: John Jacob Astor (1864–1912) was a cousin of William Waldorf Astor and a great-grandson of the fur trader who had founded the family fortune. An inventor and a science fiction novelist, he was also responsible for building several great New York City hotels: the Astoria…

  • Astor, John Jacob (American philanthropist [1822–1890])

    Astor family: John Jacob Astor (1822–90), son of William Backhouse Astor, increased the fortune to between $75 million and $100 million. He was a more active philanthropist than his predecessors, making substantial gifts to the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Trinity Church as well as to the…

  • Astor, John Jacob (American businessman [1763-1848])

    John Jacob Astor, fur magnate and founder of a renowned family of Anglo-American capitalists, business leaders, and philanthropists. His American Fur Company is considered the first American business monopoly. Astor started a fur-goods shop in New York City about 1786 after learning about the fur

  • Astor, Mary (American actress)

    Mary Astor, American motion-picture and stage actress noted for her delicate, classic beauty and a renowned profile that earned her the nickname “The Cameo Girl.” With the ability to play a variety of characters ranging from villains to heroines to matrons, Astor worked in film from the silent era

  • Astor, Nancy Witcher (British politician)

    Nancy Witcher Astor, Viscountess Astor, first woman to sit in the British House of Commons, known in public and private life for her great energy and wit. In 1897 she married Robert Gould Shaw of Boston, from whom she was divorced in 1903, and in 1906 she married Waldorf Astor, great-great-grandson

  • Astor, Nancy Witcher Astor, Viscountess (British politician)

    Nancy Witcher Astor, Viscountess Astor, first woman to sit in the British House of Commons, known in public and private life for her great energy and wit. In 1897 she married Robert Gould Shaw of Boston, from whom she was divorced in 1903, and in 1906 she married Waldorf Astor, great-great-grandson

  • Astor, Vincent (American businessman)

    Astor family: Vincent Astor (1891–1959), son of the John Jacob Astor who built the well-known hotels, departed markedly from Astor family conservatism. He sold some Astor-owned properties to New York City under generous terms so that they might be converted into housing projects. In addition, he backed…

  • Astor, Waldorf (British politician)

    Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor, member of Parliament (1910–19) and agricultural expert whose Cliveden home was a meeting place during the late 1930s for Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and supporters of his policy of “appeasement” toward Adolf Hitler. He was the elder son of William Waldorf

  • Astor, William Backhouse (American businessman)

    John Jacob Astor: His son, William Backhouse Astor (1792–1875), greatly expanded the family real-estate holdings, building more than 700 stores and dwellings in New York City. The wealthiest person in the U.S. at the time of his death, the senior Astor bequeathed $400,000 for the founding of a public library,…

  • Astor, William Waldorf, 1st Viscount Astor, of Hever Castle (British politician)

    Astor family: His son, William Waldorf Astor (1848–1919), was politically ambitious, but, after a stint in the New York state legislature and three years as U.S. minister to Italy, he moved permanently to England in 1890. He became a British subject in 1899, and in 1917 he became 1st…

  • Astorga (Spain)

    Astorga, city, León provincia (province), in the Castile-León comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northwestern Spain, on the left bank of the Tuerto River on a spur of the Manzanal mountain chain. It originated as the Roman Asturica Augusta (called a “magnificent city” by Pliny) and was an

  • Astorga, Emanuele d’ (Italian composer)

    Emanuele d’ Astorga, composer known for his dignified and moving Stabat Mater (c. 1707) and for his chamber cantatas, of which about 170 survive. Astorga belonged to a family of Spanish descent that won a barony in Sicily in the 17th century. The family eventually settled in Palermo. Astorga’s

  • Astorga, Nora (Nicaraguan revolutionary and diplomat)

    Nora Astorga, Nicaraguan revolutionary and diplomat. Astorga took part in the revolution that overthrew the regime of Anastasio Somoza Debayle in 1979 and later served (1986–88) as Nicaragua’s chief delegate to the United Nations (UN). Astorga studied sociology at the Catholic University of America

  • Astori, Danilo (Uruguayan politician)

    José Mujica: …one of his chief competitors, Danilo Astori, a fellow senator and former finance minister, eventually joined the ticket as the vice presidential candidate. During the campaign, Mujica was the front-runner, but his guerrilla past—which he was at pains to show was well behind him—stirred controversy, as did his public criticism…

  • Astoria (Oregon, United States)

    Astoria, city, seat (1844) of Clatsop county, northwestern Oregon, U.S., on the south bank of the Columbia River (there bridged to Megler, Washington) near its mouth on the Pacific Ocean. It is near the site of Oregon’s first military establishment, Fort Clatsop, built by the Lewis and Clark

  • Astoria Bridge (bridge, Oregon, United States)

    Astoria Bridge, bridge spanning the mouth of the Columbia River between the states of Oregon and Washington, western United States. At its completion in 1966, it was the longest continuous-truss bridge in the world. The bridge, stretching from Astoria, Ore., to Point Ellice (near Megler), Wash.,

  • Astoria Canyon (submarine canyon, Pacific Ocean)

    Astoria Canyon, submarine canyon and fan-valley system of the Pacific continental margin, off the coast of Oregon, U.S. The canyon’s head is in water about 330 feet (100 metres) deep, 11 miles (18 km) west of the mouth of the Columbia River. The canyon crosses the seaward half of the continental

  • Astoria Column (monument, Astoria, Oregon, United States)

    Astoria: Astoria Column (1926, restored 1995), 125 feet (38 metres) high on Coxcomb Hill, 700 feet (213 metres) above the river, commemorates the settlement of the Pacific Northwest with a 535-foot- (163-metre-) long spiral sgrafitto frieze modeled on Trajan’s Column in Rome. Fort Astoria has been…

  • Astoria-Megler Bridge (bridge, Oregon, United States)

    Astoria Bridge, bridge spanning the mouth of the Columbia River between the states of Oregon and Washington, western United States. At its completion in 1966, it was the longest continuous-truss bridge in the world. The bridge, stretching from Astoria, Ore., to Point Ellice (near Megler), Wash.,

  • Astounding Science Fiction (American magazine)

    At the Mountains of Madness: …and then serially published in Astounding Stories in 1936.

  • Astounding Stories (American magazine)

    At the Mountains of Madness: …and then serially published in Astounding Stories in 1936.

  • ASTP (United States-Soviet space program)

    Vance Brand: …named command pilot for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP).

  • Astraea (asteroid)

    asteroid: Early discoveries: …fifth asteroid, which he named Astraea.

  • Astraea Redux (poem by Dryden)

    John Dryden: Youth and education: …welcoming him, publishing in June Astraea Redux, a poem of more than 300 lines in rhymed couplets. For the coronation in 1661, he wrote To His Sacred Majesty. These two poems were designed to dignify and strengthen the monarchy and to invest the young monarch with an aura of majesty,…

  • astragal (architecture)

    molding: Single curved: (7) An astragal is a small torus. (8) An apophyge molding is a small, exaggerated cavetto.

  • Astragalus (plant genus)

    Fabales: Ecological and economic importance: …belonging to the large genus Astragalus. Species of Astragalus are commonly referred to as locoweed in North America because, following excessive consumption of these plants, cattle seem to become unmanageable and “go crazy” or “loco.” Astragalus is poisonous in any of three ways: by promoting selenium accumulation, through locoine, and…

  • astragalus (bone)

    artiodactyl: General structure: …of artiodactyls is that the astragalus, one of the bones in the ankle, has upper and lower rounded articulations (areas of contact of bones) and no constricted neck, instead of simply one rounded articulation above a neck, as in other mammals. This character is so basic to artiodactyls that it…

  • Astragalus mollissimus (plant)

    locoweed: A few are especially dangerous: woolly locoweed (Astragalus mollissimus), with woolly leaves and violet flowers; halfmoon milkvetch (A. wootonii), with whitish flowers; crazyweed, or purple loco (Oxytropis lambertii), with pink to purplish flowers; and the showy oxytropis (O. splendens), bearing silvery hairs and rich lavender-pink flowers.

  • Astragalus wootonii (plant)

    locoweed: …especially dangerous: woolly locoweed (Astragalus mollissimus), with woolly leaves and violet flowers; halfmoon milkvetch (A. wootonii), with whitish flowers; crazyweed, or purple loco (Oxytropis lambertii), with pink to purplish flowers; and the showy oxytropis (O. splendens), bearing silvery hairs and rich lavender-pink flowers.

  • Astrakhan (oblast, Russia)

    Astrakhan, oblast (region), southwestern Russia. It occupies a low-lying area (much of it below sea level) along the lower Volga River and is bordered to the northeast by Kazakhstan. The Volga and its parallel distributary, the Akhtuba River, form the axis of the oblast, ending in a large delta on

  • Astrakhan (Russia)

    Astrakhan, city and administrative centre of Astrakhan oblast (province), southwestern Russia. Astrakhan city is situated in the delta of the Volga River, 60 miles (100 km) from the Caspian Sea. It lies on several islands on the left bank of the main, westernmost channel of the Volga. Astrakhan was

  • Astrakhan fur

    Astrakhan: Astrakhan fur, from the karakul lamb of Central Asia, is so named because it was first brought to Russia by Astrakhan traders. There are medical and teacher-training institutes. Pop. (2006 est.) 498,953.

  • Astrakhan Tatar language

    Tatar language: Kasimov, Tepter (Teptyar), and Astrakhan and Ural Tatar. Kazan Tatar is the literary language.

  • Astrakhanid dynasty (Asian history)

    history of Central Asia: The Uzbeks: …and even more under the Ashtarkhanids (also known as Astrakhanids, Tuquy-Timurids, or Janids) who succeeded them during the 1600s, Central Asia experienced a decline in prosperity compared with the preceding Timurid period, in part because of a marked reduction in the transcontinental caravan trade following the opening of new oceanic…

  • astral omen (occultism)

    Omen, observed phenomenon that is interpreted as signifying good or bad fortune. In ancient times omens were numerous and varied and included, for instance, lightning, cloud movements, the flight of birds, and the paths of certain sacred animals. Within each type of sign were minor subdivisions,

  • astral religion

    nature worship: Stars and constellations: …of astronomy—was the origin of astral religions and myths that affected religions all over the world. Though the view is controversial, Mesopotamian astral worship and influence may have reached as far as Central and Andean America (by way of China or Polynesia). Sumerian, Elamite, and Hurrian contemplation of the stars…

  • Astral Weeks (album by Morrison)

    Van Morrison: …a year later he released Astral Weeks, an album of astonishing originality and inventiveness that stretched the frontier of rock music. A cycle of extended semi-improvised songs with backing from an acoustic group including vibraharp, flute, guitar, bass, drums, and a small string section, it was neither rock nor folk…

  • Astrapia (bird genus)

    bird-of-paradise: …species of long-tailed birds-of-paradise (Astrapia), males are shining black, sometimes with iridescent ruffs, and have long graduated tails of broad black or black-and-white feathers; total length may be 80 to 115 cm.

  • Astrapogon stellatus (fish)

    cardinal fish: Some, such as Astrapogon (or Apogonichthys) stellatus of the Caribbean, take shelter in the shells of living conchs. Cardinal fishes range from 5 to 20 cm (2 to 8 inches) in length and are characterized by two dorsal fins, a large mouth, large eyes, and large scales. Many…

  • Astraspida (fossil vertebrate order)

    agnathan: Annotated classification: †Order Astraspida Head covered with small mushroom-shaped plates, gill openings separate. 3 genera, 3 species. Late Ordovician to Early Silurian (461–428 million years ago). †Order Osteostraci Head covered in broad bony shield, undersurface of head covered with tiny scales, gill openings on undersurface, eyes dorsal, nostril…

  • AstraZeneca (Swedish company)

    Louis Schweitzer: He also served pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca in that capacity and was the director of environmental services provider Veolia Environnement ADS.

  • Astrea (work by d’Urfé)

    Honoré d' Urfé: …whose pastoral romance L’Astrée (1607–27; Astrea) was extremely popular in the 17th century and inspired many later writers.

  • Astrebla (plant genus)

    grassland: Biota: …northern areas, and Astrebla (Mitchell grass) is prevalent in seasonally arid areas, especially on cracking clay soils in the east. Other grass species are usually subordinate but may dominate in spots. Woody plants, particularly Acacia in arid areas and Eucalyptus in moister places, may be so numerous that the…

  • Astrée, L’  (work by d’Urfé)

    Honoré d' Urfé: …whose pastoral romance L’Astrée (1607–27; Astrea) was extremely popular in the 17th century and inspired many later writers.

  • Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award (literary award)

    Astrid Lindgren: The Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award, given for adolescent and children’s literature, was established in 2002.

  • Astrida (Rwanda)

    Butare, town and educational centre, southern Rwanda. Before Rwanda’s independence in 1962, the town was called Astrida. It consists of the traditional housing areas of Ngoma and Matyazo, the former colonial settlement, and a newer commercial section with a nearby airstrip. Butare, the third

  • astringent (pharmacology)

    Astringent, any of a group of substances that cause the contraction or shrinkage of tissues and that dry up secretions. Astringents are usually classified into three groups according to their mode of action: (1) those that decrease the blood supply by narrowing the small blood vessels (e.g.,

  • Astrium (European company)

    aerospace industry: Mergers and divestitures: …joint venture under the name Astrium, 50 percent of which was owned by Aerospatiale Matra and BAE Systems and 50 percent by Dasa. Astrium was the first trinational space company, with facilities in France, Germany, and Great Britain. Its activities covered the whole spectrum of the space business, from ground…

  • Astro, Vance (comic-book superhero)

    Guardians of the Galaxy: …to Earth, where they meet Vance Astro, a 20th-century astronaut who emerged from cryogenic suspension with powerful psychokinetic abilities, and Yondu, a humanoid native of Alpha Centauri. The quartet adopts the collective name the Guardians of the Galaxy and embarks on a mission to drive the Badoon from their strongholds…

  • Astro-EII (satellite observatory)

    Suzaku, Japanese-U.S. satellite observatory designed to observe celestial X-ray sources. Suzaku was launched on July 10, 2005, from the Uchinoura Space Center and means “the vermilion bird of the south” in Japanese. It was designed to complement the U.S. Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Europe’s

  • Astro-F (Japanese satellite observatory)

    Akari, Japanese satellite observatory that carried a 67-cm (26-inch) near- to far-infrared telescope. On February 22, 2006, Akari (“Light” in Japanese) was launched from the Uchinoura Space Center in Japan. Its mission was to produce an infrared map of the entire sky that would improve on the map

  • astrobiology (science)

    Astrobiology, a multidisciplinary field dealing with the nature, existence, and search for extraterrestrial life (life beyond Earth). Astrobiology encompasses areas of biology, astronomy, and geology. Although no compelling evidence of extraterrestrial life has yet been found, the possibility that

  • astrobleme (geology)

    Astrobleme, (from Greek astron, blema, “star wound”), remains of an ancient meteorite-impact structure on the Earth’s surface, generally in the form of a circular scar of crushed and deformed bedrock. Because such telltale features as crater walls, fused silica glass, and meteorite fragments are

  • Astroblepidae (fish)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Astroblepidae (climbing catfishes) Mouth and fins modified for adhesion to rocks in mountain streams. Skin naked. Panama and South America. 1 genus, up to 54 species. Family Claroteidae (claroteids) Africa. 7 genera, up to 59 species. Ostariophysans

  • Astrocaryum (tree genus)

    palm: Economic importance: …palm genera (the black palm, Astrocaryum; the piassava palm, Attalea; the carnauba wax palm, Copernicia; Euterpe; Mauritia; and the babassu palm) was more than $100 million. Entrepreneurs recognized during the 1980s that several genera that have been utilized only from natural stands might be enhanced by the selection, cultivation, and…

  • Astrocaryum jauari (plant species)

    palm: Ecology: …hombronii), or river margins (Astrocaryum jauari, Leopoldinia pulchra) where competition is limited.

  • Astrocaryum mexicanum (plant species)

    palm: Ecology: Beetles are implicated in Astrocaryum mexicanum, Bactris, Cryosophila albida, Rhapidophyllum hystrix, and Socratea exorrhiza. Syrphus flies apparently pollinate Asterogyne martiana in Costa Rica, and drosophila flies are thought to pollinate the nipa palm in New Guinea. Bees pollinate several species (

  • Astrocaryum standleyanum (plant species)

    Hitching a Ride: …bright orange fruits of the black palm (Astrocaryum standleyanum), for example, comprise a seed covered by a tough woody layer forming a nut, or stone, which is in turn covered by a layer of pulp. When the fruit ripens and drops to the forest floor, many animals come to eat…

  • astrochemistry (science)

    geology: Chemistry of the Earth: …system, galaxy, and universe (cosmochemistry); the abundance of elements in the major divisions of the Earth, including the core, mantle, crust, hydrosphere, and atmosphere; the behaviour of ions in the structure of crystals; the chemical reactions in cooling magmas and the origin and evolution of deeply buried intrusive igneous…

  • astrocyte (cytology)

    Astrocyte, star-shaped cell that is a type of neuroglia found in the nervous system in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Astrocytes can be subdivided into fibrous and protoplasmic types. Fibrous astrocytes are prevalent among myelinated nerve fibres in the white matter of the central nervous

  • Astrodomain Complex (building complex, Houston, Texas)

    Houston: The contemporary city: Farther southwest is Reliant Center (formerly the Astrodomain Complex), which has convention, sports, and entertainment facilities. Reliant Stadium (opened 2002) houses the city’s professional gridiron football team (the Texans) and events such as the annual Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo (February), the world’s largest. The nearby Astrodome (1965),…

  • Astrodome (stadium, Houston, Texas, United States)

    Astrodome, the world’s first domed air-conditioned indoor stadium, built in Houston, Texas, in 1965 and arguably the city’s most important architectural structure. Conceived by Roy Mark Hofheinz (a former county judge and mayor of Houston, 1953–55) and designed by architects Hermon Lloyd and W.B.

  • astrogeology (science)

    geology: Astrogeology: Astrogeology is concerned with the geology of the solid bodies in the solar system, such as the asteroids and the planets and their moons. Research in this field helps scientists to better understand the evolution of the Earth in comparison with that of its…

  • astrograph (astronomy)

    telescope: Light gathering and resolution: …of refracting telescope is the astrograph, which usually has an objective diameter of approximately 20 cm (8 inches). The astrograph has a photographic plateholder mounted in the focal plane of the objective so that photographs of the celestial sphere can be taken. The photographs are usually taken on glass plates.…

  • Astrolabe (French ship)

    Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse: …Boussole and accompanied by the Astrolabe, the explorers sailed from France on August 1, 1785. After rounding Cape Horn, La Pérouse made a stop in the South Pacific at Easter Island (April 9, 1786). Investigating tropical Pacific waters, he visited the Sandwich Islands (now Hawaii) and, with the object of…

  • astrolabe (instrument)

    Astrolabe, any of a type of early scientific instrument used for reckoning time and for observational purposes. One widely employed variety, the planispheric astrolabe, enabled astronomers to calculate the position of the Sun and prominent stars with respect to both the horizon and the meridian. It

  • Astrolabe Bay (bay, New Guinea)

    Oceanic art and architecture: Astrolabe Bay: The people of Astrolabe Bay, southeast of the coastal Sepik-Ramu area, carved as their most important works large ancestor figures, few of which now remain. Most of the figures are standing males, posed frontally. Their shoulders are hunched well forward of the torso,…

  • astrolabon (instrument)

    armillary sphere: …and in Ptolemy’s instrument, the astrolabon, there were diametrically disposed tubes upon the graduated circles, the instrument being kept vertical by a plumb line.

  • astrology

    Astrology, type of divination that involves the forecasting of earthly and human events through the observation and interpretation of the fixed stars, the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. Devotees believe that an understanding of the influence of the planets and stars on earthly affairs allows them

  • astrometry (astronomy)

    star: Stellar positions: Accurate observations of stellar positions are essential to many problems of astronomy. Positions of the brighter stars can be measured very accurately in the equatorial system (the coordinates of which are called right ascension [α, or RA] and

  • Astronauci (work by Lem)

    Stanisław Lem: …became his first published book, Astronauci (1951; “The Astronauts”), and convinced him to become a full-time writer. Later adapted for an East German film, Astronauci (like his other early works) contains elements of conventional Socialist Realism; Lem later criticized these novels as socially simplistic.

  • astronaut

    Astronaut, designation, derived from the Greek words for “star” and “sailor,” commonly applied to an individual who has flown in outer space. More specifically, “astronaut” refers to those from the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan who travel into space. Those Soviet and later Russian

  • astronautical engineering

    Aerospace engineering, field of engineering concerned with the design, development, construction, testing, and operation of vehicles operating in the Earth’s atmosphere or in outer space. In 1958 the first definition of aerospace engineering appeared, considering the Earth’s atmosphere and the

  • astronautics

    Space exploration, the investigation, by means of crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, of the reaches of the universe beyond Earth’s atmosphere and the use of the information so gained to increase knowledge of the cosmos and benefit humanity. A complete list of all crewed spaceflights, with details on

  • Astronomia Nova (work by Kepler)

    astronomy: Kepler: …of planetary motion, published in Astronomia Nova (New Astronomy, 1609). According to the first law, the paths of planets are ellipses with one focus located at the Sun. The second law, which was actually discovered first, makes a small improvement on Ptolemy’s equant: a planet moves around the Sun at…

  • Astronomica (work by Manilius)

    Marcus Manilius: He was the author of Astronomica, an unfinished poem on astronomy and astrology probably written between the years ad 14 and 27. Following the style and philosophy of Lucretius, Virgil, and Ovid, Manilius stresses the providential government of the world and the operation of divine reason. He exercises his amazing…

  • Astronomical Almanac, The

    ephemeris: …same time was renamed The Astronomical Ephemeris. The two are of identical content, reproduced separately in each country; the work of computing is shared. Beginning in 1981, both national ephemerides were renamed The Astronomical Almanac. Ephemerides of Minor Planets, compiled and published annually by the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, St.…

  • astronomical atlas

    Astronomical map, any cartographic representation of the stars, galaxies, or surfaces of the planets and the Moon. Modern maps of this kind are based on a coordinate system analogous to geographic latitude and longitude. In most cases, modern maps are compiled from photographic observations made

  • astronomical catalog (astronomy)

    Star catalog, list of stars, usually according to position and magnitude (brightness) and, in some cases, other properties (e.g., spectral type) as well. Numerous catalogs and star atlases have been made, some of fundamental importance to stellar astronomy. A star may well appear in several

  • astronomical cycles, theory of (geology)

    Pleistocene Epoch: Cause of the climatic changes and glaciations: One early theory, the theory of astronomical cycles, seems to explain much of the climatic record and is considered by most to best account for the fundamental cause or driving force of the climatic cycles.

  • Astronomical Diary and Almanack (work by Ames)

    almanac: …the best of which, the Astronomical Diary and Almanack, was begun by Nathaniel Ames of Dedham, Mass., in 1725 and published until 1775. Benjamin Franklin’s brother James printed The Rhode Island Almanac in 1728, and Benjamin Franklin (under the nom de plume of Richard Saunders) began his Poor Richard’s almanacs,…

  • Astronomical Journal, The (American publication)

    Benjamin Apthorp Gould: In 1849 he founded The Astronomical Journal, which was modeled on the German journal Astronomische Nachrichten and was the first journal of professional astronomical research published in the United States. Publication lapsed in 1861 because of financial difficulties and the outbreak of the Civil War. After a 25-year hiatus,…

  • astronomical map

    Astronomical map, any cartographic representation of the stars, galaxies, or surfaces of the planets and the Moon. Modern maps of this kind are based on a coordinate system analogous to geographic latitude and longitude. In most cases, modern maps are compiled from photographic observations made

  • astronomical observatory

    Astronomical observatory, any structure containing telescopes and auxiliary instruments with which to observe celestial objects. Observatories can be classified on the basis of the part of the electromagnetic spectrum in which they are designed to observe. The largest number of observatories are

  • Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac (astronomical book)

    Simon Newcomb: Accomplishments: …important work appeared in the Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, a series of memoirs that he founded in 1879 with the object of giving “a systematic determination of the constants of astronomy from the best existing data, a reinvestigation of the theories…

  • astronomical photometry (astronomy)

    Photometry, in astronomy, the measurement of the brightness of stars and other celestial objects (nebulae, galaxies, planets, etc.). Such measurements can yield large amounts of information on the objects’ structure, temperature, distance, age, etc. The earliest observations of the apparent

  • Astronomical Society of London (British science society)

    Royal Astronomical Society (RAS), British scientific society founded in 1820 to promote astronomical research. Its headquarters are located in Burlington House, near Piccadilly Circus, London, England. First named the Astronomical Society of London, it received its royal charter on March 7, 1831.

  • astronomical transit instrument (astronomy)

    telescope: Astronomical transit instruments: These small but extremely important telescopes have played a vital role in mapping the celestial sphere. Astronomical transit instruments are usually refractors with apertures of 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 inches). (Ole Rømer, a Danish astronomer, is credited with having…

  • astronomical unit (unit of measurement)

    Astronomical unit (AU, or au), a unit of length effectively equal to the average, or mean, distance between Earth and the Sun, defined as 149,597,870.7 km (92,955,807.3 miles). Alternately, it can be considered the length of the semimajor axis—i.e., the length of half of the maximum diameter—of

  • Astronomische Gesellschaft (German astronomical organization)

    Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander: Argelander founded the Astronomische Gesellschaft (Astronomical Society), which in collaboration with many observatories expanded his work to produce the AG catalogs.

  • Astronomische Gesellschaft Katalog (astronomy)

    AG catalog, compilation of the positions of all stars brighter than the ninth magnitude, compiled by the Astronomische Gesellschaft of Germany. Friedrich W.A. Argelander, founder of the society, proposed the star catalog in 1867, after completing the Bonner Durchmusterung (“Bonn Survey”). The

  • Astronomisches Jahrbuch (astronomical publication)

    Johann Elert Bode: …founded in 1774 the well-known Astronomisches Jahrbuch (“Astronomic Yearbook”), 51 yearly volumes of which he compiled and issued. He became director of the Berlin Observatory in 1786 and withdrew from official life in 1825. Among his other publications was Uranographia (1801), a collection of 20 star maps accompanied by a…

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