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  • Artatama I (Mitannian king)

    Anatolia: The Hittite empire to c. 1180 bce: …assassinated, and his successor, King Artatama, unwilling to place any further reliance on Egypt, turned to Assyria for an alliance against the Hittites. Meanwhile, Suppiluliumas returned to complete his conquest of Syria, capturing Carchemish after an eight-day siege. Telipinus now became king of Aleppo and his brother, Piyasilis (Shar-Kushukh), king…

  • Artaud, Antoine-Marie-Joseph (French author and actor)

    Antonin Artaud, French dramatist, poet, actor, and theoretician of the Surrealist movement who attempted to replace the “bourgeois” classical theatre with his “theatre of cruelty,” a primitive ceremonial experience intended to liberate the human subconscious and reveal man to himself. Artaud’s

  • Artaud, Antonin (French author and actor)

    Antonin Artaud, French dramatist, poet, actor, and theoretician of the Surrealist movement who attempted to replace the “bourgeois” classical theatre with his “theatre of cruelty,” a primitive ceremonial experience intended to liberate the human subconscious and reveal man to himself. Artaud’s

  • Artavasdes (king of Armenia)

    Mithradates II: …and defeated the Armenian king Artavasdes, whose son Tigranes (later Tigranes II) became a Parthian hostage and was redeemed only for the cession of 70 valleys. One of the most successful of the Parthian kings, Mithradates concluded the first treaty between Parthia and Rome in 92 bc.

  • Artavasdes (Parthian prince)

    ancient Iran: Rise of Ardashīr I: Another Parthian prince, Artavasdes, a son of Artabanus V, known from coins on which he is portrayed with the distinguishing feature of a forked beard, seems to have exercised practical independence even after 228. Numismatic evidence further reflects the stages of Ardashīr’s struggle for undisputed leadership. He appears…

  • Artavasdes II (king of Armenia)

    Artavasdes II, king of Armenia (reigned 53–34 bc), the son and successor of Tigranes II the Great. Artavasdes was at first an ally of Rome, but, when the Parthian king Orodes II invaded Armenia, he joined the Parthian side and gave his sister in marriage to Pacorus, Orodes’ son. When the Romans

  • Artavasdos (Byzantine general)

    Leo III: Military accomplishments.: Leo, in alliance with Artavasdos, the commander of the Armeniakon theme (the second largest in Asia Minor), refused to recognize the new emperor and continued to champion the cause of Anastasius. Meanwhile, Arab armies had invaded Asia Minor. Leo deceived them into believing that he would subjugate the empire…

  • Artaxata (ancient city, Armenia)

    Artaxias: Artaxias built his capital, Artaxata, on the Araxes (now Aras, or Araks) River near Lake Sevan.

  • Artaxerxes I (king of Persia)

    Artaxerxes I, Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned 465–425 bc). He was surnamed in Greek Macrocheir (“Longhand”) and in Latin Longimanus. A younger son of Xerxes I and Amestris, he was raised to the throne by the commander of the guard, Artabanus, who had murdered Xerxes. A few months later,

  • Artaxerxes I Macrocheir (king of Persia)

    Artaxerxes I, Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned 465–425 bc). He was surnamed in Greek Macrocheir (“Longhand”) and in Latin Longimanus. A younger son of Xerxes I and Amestris, he was raised to the throne by the commander of the guard, Artabanus, who had murdered Xerxes. A few months later,

  • Artaxerxes II (king of Persia)

    Artaxerxes II, Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned 404–359/358). He was the son and successor of Darius II and was surnamed (in Greek) Mnemon, meaning “the mindful.” When Artaxerxes took the Persian throne, the power of Athens had been broken in the Peloponnesian War (431–404), and the Greek towns

  • Artaxerxes II Mnemon (king of Persia)

    Artaxerxes II, Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned 404–359/358). He was the son and successor of Darius II and was surnamed (in Greek) Mnemon, meaning “the mindful.” When Artaxerxes took the Persian throne, the power of Athens had been broken in the Peloponnesian War (431–404), and the Greek towns

  • Artaxerxes III (king of Persia)

    Artaxerxes III , Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned 359/358–338 bc). He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and was called Ochus before he took the throne. Artaxerxes III was a cruel but energetic ruler. To secure his throne he put to death most of his relatives. In 356 he ordered all the

  • Artaxias (king of Armenia)

    Artaxias, one of the founders of the ancient kingdom of Armenia (reigned 190–159 bc). After the defeat of the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great by the Romans in the Battle of Magnesia (190), Artaxias and Zariadres, who were Antiochus’ satraps (governors) in Armenia, revolted and established

  • Artay Viraf, Book of

    Zoroastrianism: Sources: …based on reason, and the Book of Artāy Virāf, which describes Virāf’s descent into the netherworld as well as heaven and hell and the pleasures and pains awaiting the virtuous and the wicked. There are also a few signed works, such as those of the two brothers Zātspram and Mānushchihr,…

  • arte de la fuga, El (work by Pitol)

    Sergio Pitol: El arte de la fuga (1996; “The Art of Flight”) recounted Pitol’s childhood, his experiences as a writer in Mexico during the 1950s and ’60s, and his work as a diplomat, but it also included literary analysis of books that Pitol found influential and an…

  • Arte de la pintura (treatise by Pacheco)

    Pablo de Céspedes: …Francisco Pacheco in his treatise Del arte de la pintura (“On the Art of Painting”) in 1649.

  • Arte de Lima, Museo de (museum, Lima, Peru)

    Museum of Art in Lima (MALI), art museum in Lima, Peru, that features the art of Peru from the ancient to the contemporary. The Museum of Art in Lima maintains one of Peru’s broadest art collections, featuring work from pre-Columbian times to the present day. The museum’s many rooms are organized

  • arte generativo (painting)

    Latin American art: Trends, c. 1950–c. 1970: …Argentina, a founding member of Generative Art in 1959 in Buenos Aires (with Miguel Angel Vidal and later Ary Brizzi), created paintings that gave the illusion of volume with intersecting geometric lines. MacEntyre’s acrylics on canvas recall early 20th-century Constructivist sculpture of Plexiglas, but their lack of tangible scale makes…

  • Arte Latinoamericano de Buenos Aires, Museo de (museum, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Museum of Latin American Art of Buenos Aires, museum in Buenos Aires dedicated to Latin American art from the early 20th century through the present day. The Museum of Latin American Art of Buenos Aires was established as a progressive institution and cultural centre that would promote the artistic

  • Arte Madí (art group)

    Concrete Invention: …Association”), led by Maldonado, and Arte Madí, led by Arden Quin, Kosice, and Rothfuss.

  • Arte Manuelina (architectural style)

    Manueline, particularly rich and lavish style of architectural ornamentation indigenous to Portugal in the early 16th century. Although the Manueline style actually continued for some time after the death of Manuel I (reigned 1495–1521), it is the prosperity of his reign that the style celebrates.

  • arte mayor (literature)

    Arte mayor, a Spanish verse form consisting of 8-syllable lines, later changed to 12-syllable lines, usually arranged in 8-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme of abbaacca. The form originated in the late 13th to the early 14th century and was used for most serious poetry in the 15th century. It fell

  • arte menor (Spanish literature)

    Arte menor, in Spanish poetry, a line of two to eight syllables and usually only one accent, most often on the penultimate syllable. Because of the general nature of the form, it has been used for many different types of poetry, from traditional verse narratives to popular songs. The term is a

  • Arte Moderna, Galleria d’ (museum, Florence, Italy)

    Gallery of Modern Art, in Florence, Italy, museum of Italian painting and sculpture of the 19th and 20th centuries housed in a section of the Pitti Palace. It includes works from the Neoclassical and Romantic periods of the late 18th century. Notable holdings include paintings by Pompeo Batoni and

  • Arte Moderna, Galleria Nazionale d’ (museum, Rome, Italy)

    National Gallery of Modern Art, in Rome, important collection devoted to Italian artists and forming a full survey of 19th- and 20th-century Italian art. The museum was begun in 1883 and moved to its present site in 1911. The collection is enormous, with early examples from the Neoclassical

  • Arte Moderno, Museo de (museum, Mexico City, Mexico)

    Museum of Modern Art, gallery opened in Mexico City in 1964 to house works by modern artists. The museum’s contemporary circular building features large domes and wedge-shaped exhibit areas. Until the early 1970s, the art was arranged according to historical periods; afterward the museum

  • Arte Nacional, Galería de (museum, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Museum of Fine Arts: It adjoins the Gallery of National Art (Galería de Arte Nacional), one of the few museums in South America founded to show the national cultural identity of the country; opened in 1976, the gallery contains works by more than 40 Venezuelan painters in the contemporary- and popular-arts sections.…

  • Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo (work by Vega)

    Lope de Vega: Works: …key to his plays, the Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo. This verse apology rested on the sound Aristotelian principle that the dramatist’s first duty is to hold and satisfy his audience: the comedia, he says in effect, had developed in response to what the Spanish public demanded…

  • Arte of English Poesie, The (treatise by Puttenham)

    punctuation: Punctuation in English since 1600: …George Puttenham, in his treatise The Arte of English Poesie (1589), and Simon Daines, in Orthoepia Anglicana (1640), specified a pause of one unit for a comma, of two units for a semicolon, and of three for a colon, they were no doubt trying to bring some sort of order…

  • Arte of Warre, The (work by Machiavelli)

    Niccolò Machiavelli: The Art of War and other writings: The Art of War (1521), one of only a few works of Machiavelli to be published during his lifetime, is a dialogue set in the Orti Oricellari, a garden in Florence where humanists gathered to discuss philosophy and…

  • Arte Povera (Italian art movement)

    Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Early life: …seen as a form of Arte Povera, an Italian art movement that challenged conventional art elitism through experiments with everyday materials.

  • Arteaga Serrano de Córdova, Rosalía (president of Ecuador)

    Rosalía Arteaga, Ecuadoran politician who served as the first female president of Ecuador (1997), though she was in office for only two days. She had previously served as the country’s vice president (1996–97) and acceded to the presidency after Pres. Abdala Bucaram was removed from office. Arteaga

  • Arteaga, Rosalía (president of Ecuador)

    Rosalía Arteaga, Ecuadoran politician who served as the first female president of Ecuador (1997), though she was in office for only two days. She had previously served as the country’s vice president (1996–97) and acceded to the presidency after Pres. Abdala Bucaram was removed from office. Arteaga

  • artefact (archaeology)

    archaeology: …describe, classify, and analyze the artifacts he studies. An adequate and objective taxonomy is the basis of all archaeology, and many good archaeologists spend their lives in this activity of description and classification. But the main aim of the archaeologist is to place the material remains in historical contexts, to…

  • Artefactos (work by Parra)

    Nicanor Parra: …a collection of postcards entitled Artefactos (1972; “Artifacts”). In these he attempted to reduce language to its simplest form without destroying its social and philosophical impact. His later collections include Sermones y prédicas del Cristo de Elqui (1977; Sermons and Homilies of the Christ of Elqui); Hojas de Parra (1985;…

  • Artëm (Russia)

    Artyom, city, Primorsky kray (region), far eastern Russia. It lies about 22 miles (35 km) northeast of Vladivostok. Founded in 1924, Artyom became a city in 1938 and is a centre of lignite (brown coal) production. Factories produce building materials, porcelain, and pianos. The city was named in

  • Artembares (Persian satrap)

    Anatolia: Caria, Lycia, and Cilicia in the Achaemenian period: Persian rulers, such as Artembares, governor of western Lycia, are named in inscriptions and on coins. There is evidence that this same Artembares took part in the satrap rebellion. The Lycian king Pericles ruled over eastern Lycia between about 380 and 362. Toward the end of his reign Pericles…

  • Artemia (crustacean)

    Brine shrimp, (genus Artemia), any of several small crustaceans of the order Anostraca (class Branchiopoda) inhabiting brine pools and other highly saline inland waters throughout the world. Artemia salina, the species that occurs in vast numbers in Great Salt Lake, Utah, is of commercial

  • Artemia salina (crustacean)

    brine shrimp: Artemia salina, the species that occurs in vast numbers in Great Salt Lake, Utah, is of commercial importance. Young brine shrimp hatched there from dried eggs are used widely as food for fish and other small animals in aquariums. Measuring up to 15 mm (0.6…

  • Artemidorus (Greek geographer)

    Artemidorus, Greek geographer whose systematic geography in 11 books was much used by the famed Greek geographer-historian Strabo (b. 64/63 bce). Artemidorus’s work is based on his itineraries in the Mediterranean and on the records of others. The work is known only from Strabo’s references to it

  • Artemidorus (Ephesian soothsayer)

    Artemidorus, soothsayer whose Oneirocritica (“Interpretation of Dreams”) affords valuable insight into ancient superstitions, myths, and religious rites. Mainly a compilation of the writings of earlier authors, the work’s first three books consider dreams and divination generally; a reply to

  • Artemio Franchi (stadium, Florence, Italy)

    Florence: Cultural life: …renamed “Artemio Franchi,” or simply Franchi Stadium.

  • Artemis (Byzantine emperor)

    Anastasius II, Byzantine emperor from 713 to 715. He was chosen to take the throne after an army coup deposed Philippicus, whose secretary he had been. Anastasius reversed the ecclesiastical policies of Philippicus and tried to reform the army before he, too, was deposed. Assuring Pope Constantine

  • Artemis (Greek goddess)

    Artemis, in Greek religion, the goddess of wild animals, the hunt, and vegetation, and of chastity and childbirth; she was identified by the Romans with Diana. Artemis was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and the twin sister of Apollo. Among the rural populace, Artemis was the favourite goddess. Her

  • ARTEMIS (United States satellite system)

    THEMIS: …were given a new mission—Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS)—to study the space environment near the Moon. On July 20, 2009, the ARTEMIS satellites started on a trajectory by which they would arrive at the second and first Lagrangian points in August…

  • Artemis, Temple of (temple, Ephesus, Turkey)

    Temple of Artemis, temple at Ephesus, now in western Turkey, that was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The great temple was built by Croesus, king of Lydia, about 550 bce and was rebuilt after being burned by a madman named Herostratus in 356 bce. The Artemesium was famous not only for its

  • Artemisa (Cuba)

    Artemisa, city, western Cuba, situated east of the Sierra del Rosario. Artemisa is a key commercial and processing centre of the region. Sugarcane, tobacco, and pineapples and other fruits are its major agricultural products. Liquor and soap are made in the city, and sugar refineries are nearby.

  • Artemisia (novel by Banti)

    Anna Banti: …most noted works, the novel Artemisia (Eng. trans. Artemisia), based on the life of 16th-century painter Artemisia Gentileschi, who was among the first women artists to “maintain the right to spiritual parity between the sexes.” Banti’s short-story collection Le donne muoiono (1951; “The Women Die”) was also noted; her subsequent…

  • Artemisia (plant)

    Artemisia, (genus Artemisia), any of a genus (Artemisia) of aromatic herbs and shrubs in the Asteraceae family. Examples include wormwood, sagebrush, and tarragon. Many species are valued as ornamentals for their attractive silvery gray foliage, which is frequently used in horticultural plantings

  • artemisia (plant)

    Artemisia, (genus Artemisia), any of a genus (Artemisia) of aromatic herbs and shrubs in the Asteraceae family. Examples include wormwood, sagebrush, and tarragon. Many species are valued as ornamentals for their attractive silvery gray foliage, which is frequently used in horticultural plantings

  • Artemisia absinthium (plant)

    artemisia: The leaves of common wormwood (A. absinthium) have been used in medicines and beverages such as absinthe and vermouth. An extract from the Eurasian A. annua is used to treat quinine-resistant malaria.

  • Artemisia annua (plant)

    malaria: Treatment: …Artemisia annua, a type of wormwood whose dried leaves have been used against malarial fevers since ancient times in China. All of these drugs destroy the malarial parasites while they are living inside red blood cells. For the treatment of malignant or cerebral malaria, the antimalarial drug must be given…

  • Artemisia dracunculus (herb)

    Tarragon, (Artemisia dracunculus), bushy aromatic herb of the family Asteraceae, the dried leaves and flowering tops of which are used to add tang and piquancy to many culinary dishes, particularly fish, chicken, stews, sauces, omelets, cheeses, vegetables, tomatoes, and pickles. Tarragon is a

  • Artemisia I (queen of Halicarnassus)

    Artemisia I, queen of Halicarnassus, a Greco-Carian city in the ancient district of Caria (in southwestern Anatolia), and of the nearby islands of Cos, Calymnos, and Nisyrus about 480 bce. Artemisia ruled during the overlordship of the Persian king Xerxes (reigned 486–465) and participated in

  • Artemisia II (queen of Caria)

    Artemisia II, sister and wife of King Mausolus (reigned 377/376–353/352) of Caria, in southwestern Anatolia, and sole ruler for about three years after the king’s death. She built for her husband, in his capital at Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum, Turkey), the tomb called the Mausoleum, which was

  • Artemisia maritime (plant)

    desert dormouse: >wormwood (Artemisia maritime) growing on salty clay soils.

  • Artemisia moxa (plant)

    moxibustion: …wormwood plant most frequently used, Artemisia moxa, or (Japanese) A. mogusa. Acupuncture and moxibustion are sometimes used in combination for the treatment of disease and for anesthesia.

  • Artemisia tridentata (plant)

    sagebrush: The common sagebrush (S. tridentata) is a many-branched shrub, usually 1 to 2 metres (about 3 to 6.5 feet) high, with silvery gray, bitter-aromatic foliage. The small, wedge-shaped leaves usually have three teeth at the outer end.

  • Artemisia vulgaris (plant)

    wormwood: …seasoning, and those of the mugwort (A. vulgaris) are often used to flavour beverages.

  • artemisinin (drug)

    Artemisinin, antimalarial drug derived from the sweet wormwood plant, Artemisia annua. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone (a compound made up of three isoprene units bound to cyclic organic esters) and is distilled from the dried leaves or flower clusters of A. annua. The antipyretic

  • artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (protozoan)
  • Artemisium (temple, Ephesus, Turkey)

    Temple of Artemis, temple at Ephesus, now in western Turkey, that was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The great temple was built by Croesus, king of Lydia, about 550 bce and was rebuilt after being burned by a madman named Herostratus in 356 bce. The Artemesium was famous not only for its

  • Artemisium, Battle of (ancient Greece)

    Battle of Artemisium, (480 bc), during the Greco-Persian Wars, a Persian naval victory over the Greeks in an engagement fought near Artemisium, a promontory on the north coast of Euboea. The Greek fleet held its own against the Persians in three days of fighting but withdrew southward when news

  • Artemivsk (Ukraine)

    Artemivsk, city, eastern Ukraine, on the Bakhmut River. The town originated in the 17th century as a fort protecting the Russian frontiers against the Crimean Tatars. Peter I (the Great) established a salt industry there in 1701, but seven years later the fort was destroyed in the Bulavin revolt.

  • Artemovsk (Ukraine)

    Artemivsk, city, eastern Ukraine, on the Bakhmut River. The town originated in the 17th century as a fort protecting the Russian frontiers against the Crimean Tatars. Peter I (the Great) established a salt industry there in 1701, but seven years later the fort was destroyed in the Bulavin revolt.

  • arterial arch (anatomy)

    circulatory system: Amphibians: There are four arterial arches in salamanders (urodeles) and three in frogs (anurans). These are three through six of the original series, the fifth disappearing in adult frogs. There is no ventral aorta, and the arterial arches arise directly from the conus—an important feature, given that the conus…

  • arterial blood gas test (medicine)

    oxygen therapy: Flow rate: …in the blood include the arterial blood gas (ABG) test and the pulse oximetry test. In the ABG test, blood is drawn from an artery, and blood acidity, oxygen, and carbon dioxide levels are measured. In pulse oximetry, a probe, generally placed over the end of a finger, is used…

  • arterial blood pressure (physiology)

    Blood pressure, force originating in the pumping action of the heart, exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels; the stretching of the vessels in response to this force and their subsequent contraction are important in maintaining blood flow through the vascular system. In humans,

  • arterial embolism (pathology)

    human respiratory system: Swimming and diving: …circulation to the brain (arterial gas embolism). This is a major cause of death among divers. Failure to exhale during ascent causes such accidents and is likely to occur if the diver makes a rapid emergency ascent, even from depths as shallow as 2 metres (6.6 feet). Other possible…

  • arterial system (anatomy)

    Artery, in human physiology, any of the vessels that, with one exception, carry oxygenated blood and nourishment from the heart to the tissues of the body. The exception, the pulmonary artery, carries oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs for oxygenation and removal of excess carbon dioxide (see

  • arterial tree (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: The arterial tree—the branching system of arteries—terminates in short, narrow, muscular vessels called arterioles, from which blood enters simple endothelial tubes (i.e., tubes formed of endothelial, or lining, cells) known as capillaries. These thin, microscopic capillaries are permeable to vital cellular nutrients and waste products that…

  • arteries, hardening of the

    Arteriosclerosis, chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the walls of arteries, with a resulting loss of elasticity. Arteries carry oxygenated blood full of nutrients from the heart to organs throughout the body. The arterial wall is made up of three distinct

  • arteriography (medicine)

    Angiography, diagnostic imaging procedure in which arteries and veins are examined by using a contrast agent and X-ray technology. Blood vessels cannot be differentiated from the surrounding organs in conventional radiography. It is therefore necessary to inject into the lumen of the vessels a

  • arteriole (anatomy)

    acrocyanosis: …hands caused by spasms in arterioles (small arteries) of the skin. Less commonly, the feet are affected. The fingers or toes are usually cold and sweat copiously. The cause of the condition is unknown. Acrocyanosis is most common in women, particularly in adolescents and those in their 20s. The condition…

  • arteriolosclerosis (pathology)

    arteriosclerosis: Arteriolosclerosis affects small arteries and arterioles (very small arteries). It involves thickening of the vessel walls that narrows the lumen. Similar to atherosclerosis in the larger vessels, the process of arteriolosclerosis can lead to ischemia, or insufficient blood flow to organs supplied by the blocked…

  • arteriosclerosis

    Arteriosclerosis, chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the walls of arteries, with a resulting loss of elasticity. Arteries carry oxygenated blood full of nutrients from the heart to organs throughout the body. The arterial wall is made up of three distinct

  • arteriovenous aneurysm (pathology)

    Arteriovenous fistula, abnormal direct opening between an artery and a vein; it sometimes results from accidental penetration wounds or from vascular disease, or it may be congenital in origin. As a result of the defect, the arterial blood is passed to the venous side of the fistula, and the blood

  • arteriovenous fistula (pathology)

    Arteriovenous fistula, abnormal direct opening between an artery and a vein; it sometimes results from accidental penetration wounds or from vascular disease, or it may be congenital in origin. As a result of the defect, the arterial blood is passed to the venous side of the fistula, and the blood

  • arteritis (pathology)

    Arteritis, inflammation of an artery or arteries. Arteritis may occur in a number of diseases, including syphilis, tuberculosis, pancreatic disease, serum sickness (a reaction against a foreign protein), and lupus erythematosus (a systemic disease that has also been attributed to some form of

  • artery (anatomy)

    Artery, in human physiology, any of the vessels that, with one exception, carry oxygenated blood and nourishment from the heart to the tissues of the body. The exception, the pulmonary artery, carries oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs for oxygenation and removal of excess carbon dioxide (see

  • Artesia (New Mexico, United States)

    Artesia, city, Eddy county, southeastern New Mexico, U.S., near the Pecos River. It originated in 1890 as a stop (called Miller) on the old stagecoach route between Roswell and Carlsbad. As a livestock-shipping point on the Pecos Valley Southern Railway (completed 1894), it was known as Stegman.

  • artesian flow (geology)

    pingo: Artesian pressure (pressure that forces groundwater to the surface without pumping) builds up under the permafrost layer, and, as the water rises, pushing up the overlying material, it freezes in a lens shape. This variety of pingo is most frequently found in the alluvial material…

  • artesian spring

    Artesian well, well from which water flows under natural pressure without pumping. It is dug or drilled wherever a gently dipping, permeable rock layer (such as sandstone) receives water along its outcrop at a level higher than the level of the surface of the ground at the well site. At the outcrop

  • artesian well

    Artesian well, well from which water flows under natural pressure without pumping. It is dug or drilled wherever a gently dipping, permeable rock layer (such as sandstone) receives water along its outcrop at a level higher than the level of the surface of the ground at the well site. At the outcrop

  • artesunate (drug)

    artemisinin: Artesunate is unique among the artemisinin-derived agents because it can be administered intravenously, enabling the drug to take immediate effect. As a result, artesunate is used in the treatment of cerebral malaria, which is an acute form of the disease characterized by the rapid spread…

  • Artevelde, Jacob van (Flemish leader)

    Jacob van Artevelde, (English: James Van Artevelde) Flemish leader who played a leading role in the preliminary phase of the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453). Governing Ghent with other “captains” from 1338, he aligned the Flemings with King Edward III of England and against both France and the Count

  • Artevelde, James van (Flemish leader)

    Jacob van Artevelde, (English: James Van Artevelde) Flemish leader who played a leading role in the preliminary phase of the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453). Governing Ghent with other “captains” from 1338, he aligned the Flemings with King Edward III of England and against both France and the Count

  • Artevelde, Philip van (Flemish leader)

    Louis II: …Ghent reached its height under Philip van Artevelde in 1382. He defeated Louis, took Bruges, and was made regent of Flanders. But the triumph of the White Hoods, as the popular party was called, was of short duration. On Nov. 27, 1382, Artevelde suffered a crushing defeat from a large…

  • Artforum (American magazine)

    Donald Kuspit: …the 1970s, writing primarily for Artforum and Art in America as well as in several specialized philosophical journals. In 1979 he published his study of Clement Greenberg, one of the first book-length analyses of the work of a 20th-century art critic. In addition to criticizing Greenberg’s “exclusively positivist explanation [which]…

  • Artful Dodger, the (fictional character)

    The Artful Dodger, fictional character in Charles Dickens’s novel Oliver Twist (1837–39). The Artful Dodger is a precocious streetwise boy who introduces the protagonist Oliver to the thief Fagin and his gang of children, who work as thieves and

  • artha (Hinduism)

    Artha, (Sanskrit: “wealth,” or “property”), in Hinduism, the pursuit of wealth or material advantage, one of the four traditional aims in life. The sanction for artha rests on the assumption that—with the exclusion of the exceptional few who can proceed directly to the final aim of moksha, or

  • Artha, Leopold Hasner, Ritter von (Austrian prime minister)

    Leopold Hasner, Ritter von Artha, economist, jurist, and politician who served as liberal Austrian minister of education (1867–70) and briefly as prime minister (1870). Educated in philosophy and law at Prague and Vienna, Hasner in 1848 became editor of an official newspaper in Prague—the Prager

  • Artha-shastra (work by Chanakya)

    Artha-shastra, (Sanskrit: “The Science of Material Gain”) singularly important Indian manual on the art of politics, attributed to Kautilya (also known as Chanakya), who reportedly was chief minister to the emperor Chandragupta (c. 300 bce), the founder of the Mauryan dynasty. Although it is

  • arthapatti (Hinduism)

    Arthapatti, (Sanskrit: “the incidence of a case”) in Indian philosophy, the fifth of the five means of knowledge (pramana) by which one obtains accurate knowledge of the world. Arthapatti is knowledge arrived at through presumption or

  • Arthaud, Florence (French yachtswoman)

    Florence Arthaud, French yachtswoman (born Oct. 28, 1957, Boulogne-Billancourt, France—died March 9, 2015, near Villa Castelli, La Rioja province, Arg.), guided her 18-m (60-ft) trimaran Pierre 1er to victory in the 1990 Route du Rhum, a quadrennial solo transatlantic yacht race from Saint-Malo,

  • Arthoniales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Arthoniales Forms lichens; produces asci that elongate to discharge spores; example genera include Arthonia, Dirina, and Roccella. Class Dothideomycetes Pathogenic, endophytic, or epiphytic on plants, saprotrophic in soil, parasitic on fungi and animals, or symbiotic with algae to form lichens; spores undergo ascolocular

  • Arthoniomycetes (class of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Class Arthoniomycetes Forms lichens; contains 1 order. Order Arthoniales Forms lichens; produces asci that elongate to discharge spores; example genera include Arthonia, Dirina, and Roccella. Class Dothideomycetes Pathogenic, endophytic, or

  • arthralgia (pathology)

    joint disease: Inflammatory joint diseases: types of arthritis: Arthralgias simply are pains in the joints; as ordinarily used, the word implies that there is no other accompanying evidence of arthritis. Rheumatism, which is not synonymous with these, does not necessarily imply an inflammatory state but refers to all manners of discomfort of the…

  • arthritis (disease)

    Arthritis, inflammation of the joints and its effects. Arthritis is a general term, derived from the Greek words arthro-, meaning “joint,” and -itis, meaning “inflammation.” Arthritis can be a major cause of disability. In the United States, for example, data collected from 2007 to 2009 indicated

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