• 0-9
  • a
  • b
  • c
  • d
  • e
  • f
  • g
  • h
  • i
  • j
  • k
  • l
  • m
  • n
  • o
  • p
  • q
  • r
  • s
  • t
  • u
  • v
  • w
  • x
  • y
  • z
  • Arsaces I (king of Parthia)

    Andragoras: …the Caspian steppes led by Arsaces, who later set up an independent kingdom in Parthia.

  • Arsaces II (king of Parthia)

    Artabanus I, king of Parthia (reigned 211–191 bc) in southwestern Asia. In 209 he was attacked by the Seleucid king Antiochus III of Syria, who took Hecatompylos, the Arsacid capital (the present location of which is uncertain), and Syrinx in Hyrcania. Finally, however, Antiochus concluded a treaty

  • Arsaces VI (king of Parthia)

    Mithradates I, king of Parthia (reigned 171–138 bc); he succeeded his brother Phraates I. Before 160 Mithradates I seized Media from the Seleucid ruler Timarchus. Turning to the east, he won two provinces, Tapuria and Traxiana, from the Bactrian king Eucratides. Mithradates then captured the p

  • Arsacia (ancient city, Iran)

    Rayy, formerly one of the great cities of Iran. The remains of the ancient city lie on the eastern outskirts of the modern city of Shahr-e Rey, which itself is located just a few miles southeast of Tehrān. A settlement at the site dates from the 3rd millennium bce. Rayy is featured in the Avesta

  • Arsacid dynasty (ancient Iranian dynasty)

    Arsacid dynasty, (247 bc–ad 224), ancient Iranian dynasty that founded and ruled the Parthian empire. The progenitors of the dynasty were members of the Parni tribe living east of the Caspian Sea. They entered Parthia (q.v.) shortly after the death of Alexander the Great (323 bc) and gradually

  • arsefoot (bird)

    Grebe, (order Podicipediformes), any member of an order of foot-propelled diving birds containing a single family, Podicipedidae, with about 20 species. They are best known for the striking courtship displays of some species and for the silky plumage of the underparts, which formerly was much used

  • Arsenal (film by Dovzhenko [1929])

    history of the motion picture: The Soviet Union: …different stages of Ukrainian history; Arsenal (1929), an epic film poem about the effects of revolution and civil war upon the Ukraine; and Zemlya (Earth, 1930), which is considered to be his masterpiece. Earth tells the story of the conflict between a family of wealthy landowning peasants (kulaks) and the…

  • Arsenal (English football club)

    Arsenal, English professional football (soccer) team based in London. Arsenal is one of the most successful squads in English football history, having played in the country’s top division (Football League First Division to 1992, Premier League thereafter) each season since 1919. In the process it

  • Arsenal (district, Venice, Italy)

    shipyard: …reached a culmination in the arsenal of Venice, a shipyard in which a high degree of organization produced an assembly-line technique, with a ship’s fittings added to the completed hull as it was floated past successive docks. In 18th-century British shipyards, the hull was towed to a floating stage called…

  • Arsenal Football Club (English football club)

    Arsenal, English professional football (soccer) team based in London. Arsenal is one of the most successful squads in English football history, having played in the country’s top division (Football League First Division to 1992, Premier League thereafter) each season since 1919. In the process it

  • arsenate mineral

    Arsenate mineral, any of a group of naturally occurring compounds of arsenic, oxygen, and various metals, most of which are rare, having crystallized under very restricted conditions. At the mineralogically famous Långban iron and manganese mines in central Sweden, more than 50 species of arsenate

  • Arseneva, Natalla (Belarusian poet)

    Belarus: Literature: … (1937) and Kalinowski (1938), and Natalla Arseneva, whose greatest poems are to be found in the collections Beneath the Blue Sky (1927), Golden Autumn (1937), and Today (1944).

  • arsenic (chemical element)

    Arsenic (As), a chemical element in the nitrogen group (Group 15 [Va] of the periodic table), existing in both gray and yellow crystalline forms. atomic number 33 atomic weight 74.9216 melting point (gray form) 814 °C (1,497 °F) at 36 atmospheres pressure density (gray form) 5.73 g/cm3 at 14 °C (57

  • Arsenic and Old Lace (film by Capra [1944])

    Frank Capra: The 1940s: …on the motion-picture adaptation of Arsenic and Old Lace, a huge stage hit whose creators sold its rights on condition that the film version not be released until the Broadway run had completed. As a result, although Capra finished filming in December 1941, the film was not released until 1944.…

  • Arsenic and Old Lace (play by Lindsay and Crouse)

    Frank Capra: The 1940s: …and Old Lace, a huge stage hit whose creators sold its rights on condition that the film version not be released until the Broadway run had completed. As a result, although Capra finished filming in December 1941, the film was not released until 1944. Cary Grant gave what some critics…

  • arsenic chalcogenide glass (materials science)

    amorphous solid: Models of atomic scale structures: …to current models for the arsenic chalcogenide glasses As2S3 and As2Se3. (Sulfur, S, and selenium, Se, belong to the group of elements called chalcogens.) The model was introduced as a schematic analogue for the network structure of the oxide glasses. The prototypical oxide glass is amorphous SiO2, or silica glass.…

  • arsenic hydride (chemical compound)

    Arsine, colourless, extremely poisonous gas composed of arsenic with hydrogen (see

  • arsenic pentoxide (chemical compound)

    arsenic: Commercial production and uses: Arsenic pentoxide is formed by the action of an oxidizing agent (e.g., nitric acid) on arsenious oxide. It comprises a major ingredient of insecticides, herbicides, and metal adhesives.

  • arsenic poisoning

    Arsenic poisoning, harmful effects of various arsenic compounds on body tissues and functions. Arsenicals are used in numerous products, including insect, rodent, and weed killers, some chemotherapeutic agents, and certain paints, wallpaper, and ceramics. Arsenic poisoning in humans most often

  • arsenic selenide (chemical compound)

    amorphous solid: Amorphous semiconductors in electronics: …selenium (Se) and, later, amorphous arsenic selenide (As2Se3) were used to form the thin-film, large-area photoconducting element that lies at the heart of the xerographic process. The photoconductor, which is an electrical insulator in the absence of light but which conducts electricity when illuminated, is exposed to an image of…

  • arsenide (mineral)

    Arsenide, any member of a rare mineral group consisting of compounds of one or more metals with arsenic (As). The coordination of the metal is almost always octahedral or tetrahedral. In the former case, each metal ion occupies a position within an octahedron composed of six oppositely charged

  • Arsenije III Crnojević (Serbian archbishop)

    Serbia: The disintegration of Ottoman rule: In 1691 Archbishop Arsenije III Crnojević of Peć led a migration of 30,000–40,000 Serbs from “Old Serbia” and southern Bosnia across the Danube and Sava. There they were settled and became the basis of the Austrian Militärgrenze, or Military Frontier. (The South Slav translation, Vojna Krajina, was used…

  • Arsenio Hall Show, The (American television show)

    Television in the United States: The late shows: …own successful late-night talk show, The Arsenio Hall Show, in syndication from 1989 to 1994.

  • arsenious oxide (chemical compound)

    arsenic: Commercial production and uses: …principal forms of which are arsenious oxide (As4O6) and arsenic pentoxide (As2O5). Arsenious oxide, commonly known as white arsenic, is obtained as a by-product from the roasting of the ores of copper, lead, and certain other metals as well as by the roasting of arsenopyrite and arsenic sulfide ores. Arsenious…

  • Arsenite schism (Byzantine history)

    Byzantine Empire: The empire under the Palaeologi: 1261–1453: …what was known as the Arsenite schism in the Byzantine Church. Many in Anatolia, loyal to the memory of the Lascarid emperors who had enriched and protected them, condemned Michael VIII as a usurper.

  • Arsenius Autorianus (patriarch of Constantinople)

    Arsenius Autorianus, patriarch of Constantinople, whose deposition caused a serious schism in the Byzantine Church. He took the name Arsenius on being appointed patriarch of Nicaea in 1255 by the Byzantine emperor Theodore II Lascaris. In 1259 he crowned John IV, Theodore’s son and legitimate heir,

  • Arsenius of Rome (Roman monk)

    Arsenius The Great, Roman noble, later monk of Egypt, whose asceticism among the Christian hermits in the Libyan Desert caused him to be ranked among the celebrated Desert Fathers and influenced the development of the monastic and contemplative life in Eastern and Western Christendom. Born of a R

  • Arsenius the Great (Roman monk)

    Arsenius The Great, Roman noble, later monk of Egypt, whose asceticism among the Christian hermits in the Libyan Desert caused him to be ranked among the celebrated Desert Fathers and influenced the development of the monastic and contemplative life in Eastern and Western Christendom. Born of a R

  • arsenopyrite (mineral)

    Arsenopyrite, an iron sulfoarsenide mineral (FeAsS), the most common ore of arsenic. It is most commonly found in ore veins that were formed at high temperatures, as at Mapimí, Mex.; Butte, Mont.; and Tunaberg, Swed. Arsenopyrite forms monoclinic or triclinic crystals with an orthorhombic shape;

  • Arsenyevka River (river, Asia)

    Ussuri River: … (Xingkai); and the Ulakhe and Arsenyevka rivers, both of which rise on the southwestern slopes of the Sikhote-Alin mountain complex. Its length from the source of the Ulakhe is 565 miles (909 km), and its basin is 72,200 square miles (187,000 square km) in area. The Ussuri is navigable from…

  • Arses (king of Persia)

    Arses, Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned November 338–June 336 bc); he was the youngest son of Artaxerxes III Ochus and Atossa. Arses had been placed on the throne by the eunuch Bagoas, who had murdered Arses’ father and all his brothers. Little is known of Arses’ short reign; the major external

  • Arshakan (king of Parthia)

    Sanatruces, king of Parthia from 76/75 to 70/69 bc, who restored unity to his kingdom. Sanatruces may have been a son of Mithradates I (reigned 171–138), the Parthian king who had established the kingdom’s power. Following the death of King Mithradates II in 88 bc, dynastic struggles troubled

  • Arshakuni dynasty (ancient Iranian dynasty)

    Arsacid dynasty, (247 bc–ad 224), ancient Iranian dynasty that founded and ruled the Parthian empire. The progenitors of the dynasty were members of the Parni tribe living east of the Caspian Sea. They entered Parthia (q.v.) shortly after the death of Alexander the Great (323 bc) and gradually

  • Arshawsky, Arthur Jacob (American musician)

    Artie Shaw, American clarinetist and popular bandleader of the 1930s and ’40s. He was one of the few outstanding jazz musicians whose commitment to jazz was uncertain. Shaw began playing in high school and turned professional in 1925. The first signs of indecision became apparent in the early

  • Arsi Savara (people)

    Savara: …Jati Savara are cultivators; the Arsi, weavers of cloth; the Muli, workers in iron; the Kindal, basket makers; and the Kumbi, potters. The traditional social unit is the extended family, including both males and females descended from a common male ancestor.

  • arsine (chemical compound)

    Arsine, colourless, extremely poisonous gas composed of arsenic with hydrogen (see

  • Arsinoe (Cyprus)

    Famagusta, a major port in the Turkish Cypriot-administered portion of northern Cyprus. It lies on the island’s east coast in a bay between Capes Greco and Eloea and is about 37 miles (55 km) east of Nicosia. The port possesses the deepest harbour in Cyprus. Famagusta is a Frankish corruption of

  • Arsinoe (archaeological site, Egypt)

    Al-Fayyūm: …has many ancient sites, including Shedet (later Crocodilopolis), chief centre for worship of the crocodile-god Sebek, near which Al-Fayyūm town now lies. In the time of the Ptolemies, Setje was named Arsinoe after the wife of Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Since pharaonic times Al-Fayyūm’s irrigation waters, its lifeline, have been controlled…

  • Arsinoe I (queen of Egypt)

    Arsinoe I, queen of ancient Egypt, daughter of Lysimachus, king of Thrace, and first wife of Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Although she bore Ptolemy three children, including his successor, she was unable to prevent him from repudiating her and marrying his sister, Arsinoe II. Arsinoe I was married to

  • Arsinoe II (queen of Thrace and Egypt)

    Arsinoe II, queen (basilissa) of Thrace and Macedonia and, later, the wife of her younger brother, King Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt, and possibly his coruler. It has been inferred by modern historians that she wielded great power in both roles, though the extent of that power is contested.

  • Arsinoe III (queen of Egypt)

    Arsinoe III, daughter of Queen Berenice II and Ptolemy III Euergetes of Egypt, sister and wife of Ptolemy IV Philopator. Powerless to arrest the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom under her debauched husband’s rule, the popular queen was eventually murdered by the royal ministers. In 217 Arsinoe

  • Arsinoe IV (Egyptian noble)

    Arsinoe IV, youngest daughter of the Macedonian king Ptolemy XII Auletes of Egypt, sister of Cleopatra VII and the kings Ptolemy XIII and XIV. During the Alexandrian war, Arsinoe attempted to lead the native forces against Cleopatra, who had allied herself with Julius Caesar. Upon landing in

  • Arsinoitherium (fossil mammal genus)

    Arsinoitherium, genus of extinct large, primitive, hoofed mammals that have been found as fossils in Egypt in deposits from the Eocene Epoch (56 million to 34 million years ago) and elsewhere in deposits from the Oligocene Epoch (34 million to 23 million years ago). The animal, probably a swamp

  • arsis (prosody)

    Arsis and thesis, in prosody, respectively, the accented and unaccented parts of a poetic foot. Arsis, a term of Greek origin meaning “the act of raising or lifting” or “raising the foot in beating time,” refers in Greek, or quantitative, verse to the lighter or shorter part of a poetic foot, and

  • Arsissa Lacus (lake, Turkey)

    Lake Van, lake, largest body of water in Turkey and the second largest in the Middle East. The lake is located in the region of eastern Anatolia near the border of Iran. It covers an area of 1,434 square miles (3,713 square km) and is more than 74 miles (119 km) across at its widest point. Known to

  • arslan (Turkic tribal title)

    Qarluq confederation: …tribal leader was always called arslan (“lion”), while the western tribal chief, the paramount leader of the Qarluq, held the title of bughra (“camel”).

  • Arslan ibn Toghrïl (Seljuq ruler)

    Eldegüzid dynasty: …stepson, the infant Seljuq prince Arslan. During the next three decades the Eldegüzids, using their position as atabegs of Seljuq princes, expanded their territories in Iran as far south as Isfahan and northward in the Caucasus to the borders of Shīrvān and Georgia. In 1191 the Seljuq sultan Toghrïl III…

  • Arslān, Amīr Shakīb (Lebanese writer)

    Islamic arts: Arab literatures: …rank of Arab intellectuals were Amīr Shakīb Arslān (died 1946), of Druze origin, and Muḥammad Kurd ʿAlī (died 1953), the founder of the Arab Academy of Damascus, each of whom, by encouraging a new degree of awareness, made an important contribution to the education of modern historians and persons of…

  • Arslantepe (Turkey)

    Milid, ancient city near the upper Euphrates River in east-central Turkey, 4 miles (6.5 km) northeast of the town of Malatya. The site was first inhabited in the 4th millennium bc and later became an important city of the Hittites until the dissolution of their empire early in the 12th century bc.

  • Arslantepe-Malatya (ancient site, Turkey)

    Anatolia: Early Bronze Age: A possible temple at Arslantepe-Malatya had a heavily built T-shaped plan and walls decorated with painted and impressed designs. Beycesultan houses had megarons—large central halls with porches at either end—arranged in pairs with circular hearths backed by twin stelae and clay horns, suggesting an affinity with Cretan cults and…

  • arson

    Arson, crime commonly defined by statute as the willful or malicious damage or destruction of property by means of fire or explosion. In English common law, arson referred to the burning of another person’s dwellings under circumstances that endangered human life. Modern statutes have expanded this

  • Arsonval, Arsène d’ (French physician and physicist)

    ocean thermal energy conversion: …the French engineer Jacques-Arsène d’Arsonval. His idea called for a closed-cycle system, a design that has been adapted for most present-day OTEC pilot plants. Such a system employs a secondary working fluid (a refrigerant) such as ammonia. Heat transferred from the warm surface ocean water causes the working fluid…

  • Arsonval, Jacques-Arsène d’ (French physician and physicist)

    ocean thermal energy conversion: …the French engineer Jacques-Arsène d’Arsonval. His idea called for a closed-cycle system, a design that has been adapted for most present-day OTEC pilot plants. Such a system employs a secondary working fluid (a refrigerant) such as ammonia. Heat transferred from the warm surface ocean water causes the working fluid…

  • Arsonval, Jacques-Arsìne d’ (French physician and physicist)

    ocean thermal energy conversion: …the French engineer Jacques-Arsène d’Arsonval. His idea called for a closed-cycle system, a design that has been adapted for most present-day OTEC pilot plants. Such a system employs a secondary working fluid (a refrigerant) such as ammonia. Heat transferred from the warm surface ocean water causes the working fluid…

  • Arsouf, Battle of (Third Crusade)

    Battle of Arsūf, famous victory won by the English king Richard I (Richard the Lion-Heart) during the Third Crusade. Richard, having taken Acre in July 1191, was marching to Joppa (Jaffa), but the Muslim army under Saladin slowed down the Crusaders’ progress when they advanced from Caesarea, which

  • Arsovski, Tome (Macedonian playwright)

    Macedonian literature: …dramatists, such as Kole Čašule, Tome Arsovski, and Goran Stefanovski. Čašule also wrote several novels. A main theme of his work is the defeat of idealists and idealism. His play Crnila (1960; “Black Things”) deals with the early 20th-century murder of a Macedonian national leader by other Macedonians and with…

  • arsphenamine (drug)

    history of medicine: Ehrlich and arsphenamine: …Hata, he conducted tests on arsphenamine, once sold under the commercial name Salvarsan. Their success inaugurated the chemotherapeutic era, which was to revolutionize the treatment and control of infectious diseases. Salvarsan, a synthetic preparation containing arsenic, is lethal to the microorganism responsible for syphilis. Until the introduction of the antibiotic…

  • ARSR (radar technology)

    traffic control: Traffic elements: …aircraft-mounted technologies are supplemented by air route surveillance radar, which monitors aircraft within each designated sector of the air route traffic control system. The radar-based systems form the backbone of the navigation aids for privately owned aircraft and small passenger-carrying planes. Major commercial jets are now supplied with inertial navigation…

  • Arsūf (ancient town, Israel)

    Baybars I: …he received the surrender of Arsūf from the Knights Hospitalers. He occupied ʿAtlit and Haifa, and in July 1266 he received the town of Safed from the Knights Templar garrison after a heavy siege. Two years later, Baybars turned toward Jaffa, which he captured without resistance. The most important town…

  • Arsūf, Battle of (Third Crusade)

    Battle of Arsūf, famous victory won by the English king Richard I (Richard the Lion-Heart) during the Third Crusade. Richard, having taken Acre in July 1191, was marching to Joppa (Jaffa), but the Muslim army under Saladin slowed down the Crusaders’ progress when they advanced from Caesarea, which

  • Arsuk Fjord (fjord, Greenland)

    Ivittuut: …on the 20-mile- (32-km-) long Arsuk Fjord, southeast of Paamiut (Frederikshåb). Nearby is a large open-pit cryolite mine (deposit discovered in 1794), which used to be of major economic importance to Greenland. Although the mine was closed in 1963, the stockpiled cryolite was exported until the late 1980s. The community…

  • Art (play by Reza)

    Yasmina Reza: It was Art however, which premiered in 1994, that brought Reza wide notice. In the play three friends quarrel over a work of modern art—which is, in effect, a blank canvas—thereby showing just how fragile friendship can be. The play was in production on major stages worldwide…

  • Art (work by Bell)

    Clive Bell: …as described in his books Art (1914) and Since Cézanne (1922). He asserted that purely formal qualities—i.e., the relationships and combinations of lines and colours—are the most important elements in works of art. The aesthetic emotion aroused in the viewer by a painting springs primarily from an apprehension of its…

  • art

    Art, a visual object or experience consciously created through an expression of skill or imagination. The term art encompasses diverse media such as painting, sculpture, printmaking, drawing, decorative arts, photography, and installation. The various visual arts exist within a continuum that

  • ART (medical technology)

    Louise Brown: …three decades IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) produced some five million babies globally.

  • Art & Ardor (essays by Ozick)

    Cynthia Ozick: …essays have been collected in Art & Ardor (1983), Metaphor & Memory (1989), Fame & Folly (1996), Quarrel & Quandary (2000), The Din in the Head (2006), and Critics, Monsters, Fanatics, and Other Literary Essays (2016).

  • art academy

    Academy of art, in the visual arts, institution established primarily for the instruction of artists but often endowed with other functions, most significantly that of providing a place of exhibition for students and mature artists accepted as members. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, a

  • Art and Architecture, School of (building, New Haven, Conncecticut, United States)

    Paul Rudolph: His School of Art and Architecture at Yale University (1958–63), with its complex massing of interlocking forms and its variety of surface textures, is typical of the increasing freedom, imagination, and virtuosity of his mature building approach. Considered one of the most defining designs of his…

  • Art and Artifice in Shakespeare (work by Stoll)

    William Shakespeare: Historical criticism: Elmer Edgar Stoll, in Art and Artifice in Shakespeare (1933), stressed the ways in which the plays could be seen as constructs intimately connected with their historical environment. Playacting depends on conventions, which must be understood in their historical context. Costuming signals meaning to the audience; so does the…

  • Art and Crafts, Museum of (museum, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg: Cultural life: …für Kunst und Gewerbe (Museum of Art and Crafts), founded in 1877 by the jurist Justus Brinckmann, has one of the most significant collections of ancient artifacts in Germany and is also famous for its examples of Asian art and of Jugendstil (Art Nouveau). The Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte,…

  • Art and Its Objects (work by Wollheim)

    aesthetics: The ontology of art: …discussed by Richard Wollheim in Art and Its Objects (1968), and again by Goodman in Languages of Art (see above). Wollheim argues that works of art are “types” and their embodiments “tokens.” The distinction here derives from the American philosopher and logician C.S. Peirce, who argued that the letter a,…

  • Art and Lies (novel by Winterson)

    Jeanette Winterson: …Written on the Body (1992); Art and Lies (1994), about dehumanization and the absence of love in society; Gut Symmetries (1997); and The PowerBook (2000). She later published Lighthousekeeping (2004), an exploration of the nature of storytelling told through the tale of an orphaned girl sent to live in a…

  • Art and Objecthood (work by Fried)

    Michael Fried: …latter magazine he published “Art and Objecthood” (1967), a controversial and influential attack on minimalist sculpture that revealed him to be a powerful champion of formalist art. Fried’s objection to what he saw as the theatricality of minimalist art was the emphasis on the situation, the event of the…

  • Art and Revolution (work by Wagner)

    Richard Wagner: Exile: …Kunst und die Revolution (Art and Revolution), Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft (The Art Work of the Future), Eine Mitteilung an meine Freunde (A Communication to My Friends), and Oper und Drama (Opera and Drama). The latter outlined a new, revolutionary type of musical stage work—the vast work, in fact,…

  • Art and Social Life (work by Plekhanov)

    aesthetics: Marxist aesthetics: …Iskusstvo i obshchestvennaya zhizn (1912; Art and Social Life) is a kind of synthesis of early Marxist thought and attempts to recast the practices of art and criticism in a revolutionary mold. The ideology of “art for art’s sake,” Plekhanov argues, develops only in conditions of social decline when artist…

  • Art and the Call for Social Justice

    Chinese artist Ai Weiwei—who defined his position in art as that of an activist for the cause of social justice, compelled “to give a voice to people who might never be heard”—on Jan. 27, 2016, abruptly closed “Ruptures,” an exhibition of his work at the Faurschou Foundation in Copenhagen, to

  • Art and Urban Resources, Institute for (arts centre, New York City, New York, United States)

    P.S. 1, not-for-profit contemporary arts centre, affiliated with the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), located in two facilities within greater New York, N.Y. When it was founded in 1971, the primary function of P.S. 1, then called the Institute for Art and Urban Resources, was to convert unused and

  • Art and Visual Perception (work by Arnheim)

    aesthetics: Form: , Rudolf Arnheim’s Art and Visual Perception (1954), which explores the significance for our understanding of pictures of such well-known Gestalt phenomena as the figure-ground relationship and the perception of completed wholes.

  • Art as Brand

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City unveiled its new logo on March 1, 2016. By replacing the iconic capital “M”—in use since 1971 and based on a letterform in a 1509 woodcut by Luca Pacioli—the museum created a new emblem that reflected an institutional desire to project a fresher,

  • Art as Experience (work by Dewey)

    aesthetics: Expressionism: Along with John Dewey’s Art As Experience (1934), in which aesthetic experience is presented as integral to the organic completion of human nature, these works provide the culminating expression of a now defunct view of aesthetics as central to the understanding not of art alone but of the human…

  • art brut

    Art brut, (French: “raw art”), art of the French painter Jean Dubuffet, who in the 1940s promoted art that is crude, inexperienced, and even obscene. Dubuffet, the most important French artist to emerge after World War II, became interested in the art of the mentally ill in mid-career, after

  • Art Center College of Design (college, Pasadena, California, United States)

    Art Center College of Design, private coeducational institution of higher learning in Pasadena, California, U.S., emphasizing instruction in design and visual arts. The college offers bachelor’s and master’s degree programs in nine major areas: advertising, environmental design, film, fine art,

  • art collecting

    Art collection, an accumulation of works of art by a private individual or a public institution. Art collecting has a long history, and most of the world’s art museums grew out of great private collections formed by royalty, the aristocracy, or the wealthy. A form of art collecting existed in the

  • art collection

    Art collection, an accumulation of works of art by a private individual or a public institution. Art collecting has a long history, and most of the world’s art museums grew out of great private collections formed by royalty, the aristocracy, or the wealthy. A form of art collecting existed in the

  • art conservation and restoration

    Art conservation and restoration, any attempt to conserve and repair architecture, paintings, drawings, prints, sculptures, and objects of the decorative arts (furniture, glassware, metalware, textiles, ceramics, and so on) that have been adversely affected by negligence, willful damage, or, more

  • Art Critic (photomontage by Hausmann)

    Raoul Hausmann: Notable photomontages by Hausmann include Art Critic (1919–20), a satirical image of a man in a suit with a German banknote behind his neck, choking him, and A Bourgeois Precision Brain Incites a World Movement (later known as Dada Triumphs; 1920), a montage and watercolour that conveys with text and…

  • Art Critic (American publication)

    Sadakichi Hartmann: …and ’90s, Hartmann started the Art Critic in 1893, wrote Symbolist dramas, lectured, and became a disciple of the American photographer and art entrepreneur Alfred Stieglitz. His articles appeared regularly in Camera Work, Stieglitz’s revolutionary magazine, where Hartmann wrote about photography with the same zeal he brought to his essays…

  • Art Criticism (American publication)

    Donald Kuspit: …Kuspit to cofound the journal Art Criticism with his colleagues in the art department at the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1979. The journal became a vehicle for dialectical critical writing that was at odds with both Modernist and Marxist schools of thought.

  • art criticism

    Art criticism, the analysis and evaluation of works of art. More subtly, art criticism is often tied to theory; it is interpretive, involving the effort to understand a particular work of art from a theoretical perspective and to establish its significance in the history of art. Many cultures have

  • Art de conserver, pendant plusieurs années, toutes les substances animales et végétales, L’  (work by Appert)

    Nicolas Appert: …which appeared that year as L’Art de conserver, pendant plusieurs années, toutes les substances animales et végétales (The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years). He used the money to establish the first commercial cannery, the House of Appert, at Massy, which operated from…

  • Art de dictier, L’  (work by Deschamps)

    Eustache Deschamps: 1406), poet and author of L’Art de dictier (1392), the first treatise on French versification.

  • Art de la conjecture, L’  (work by Jouvenel)

    futurology: …L’Art de la conjecture (The Art of Conjecture), in which he offered a systematic philosophical rationale for the field. The following year the American Academy of Arts and Sciences formed its Commission on the Year 2000 “to anticipate social patterns, to design new institutions, and to propose alternative programs”;…

  • Art de la cuisine au dix-neuvième siècle, L’  (cookbook by Carême)
  • Art de rhétorique (poetry by Molinet)

    Jean Molinet: His writings also include Art de rhétorique (1492; “Art of Rhetoric,” really concerned with the art of poetry), mysteries, religious poems, occasional verse, and parodies.

  • Art Deco (art movement)

    Art Deco, movement in the decorative arts and architecture that originated in the 1920s and developed into a major style in western Europe and the United States during the 1930s. Its name was derived from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, held in Paris in

  • Art du peintre, doreur, vernisseur, L’  (work by Watin)

    lacquerwork: Europe: …appeared as an appendix to L’Art du peintre, doreur, vernisseur of Jean-Félix Watin (1772), the most precise account of lacquerwork that appeared in the 18th century. In this book Watin examined the recipes of his predecessors and recommended the best formulas for lacquering objects to be used indoors, such as…

  • Art du théâtre, L’  (treatise by Bernhardt)

    Sarah Bernhardt: International success: Bernhardt’s treatise on acting, L’Art du théâtre (1923; The Art of the Theatre), is revealing in its sections on voice training: the actress had always considered voice as the key to dramatic character.

  • art education

    László Moholy-Nagy: …Moholy-Nagy developed the theories of art education for which he is known. He created a widely accepted curriculum that focused on developing students’ natural visual gifts instead of teaching them specialized skills. His dictum was: “Everybody is talented.” At the Bauhaus itself, fine-arts training was abolished in favour of “designing…

  • art embroidery

    embroidery: …and Crafts movement, was “art needlework,” embroidery done on coarse, natural-coloured linen.

  • Art Ensemble of Chicago (American jazz group)

    Art Ensemble of Chicago, American jazz group, innovators of sound, structure, and form in free jazz. They embraced a diversity of African and African American styles and sources in their creation of what they preferred to call “Great Black Music.” In 1966 composer-woodwind player Roscoe Mitchell

  • Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
    Subscribe Today!