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  • area rule (physics)

    Area rule, aircraft design principle formulated by American engineer Richard Whitcomb which stated that the drag on an airplane flying at high speed is a function of the aircraft’s entire cross-sectional area. Bodies which pass through the so-called transonic zone—the zone separating speeds below

  • area sampling (statistics)

    statistics: Sample survey methods: …of cluster sampling is called area sampling, where the clusters are counties, townships, city blocks, or other well-defined geographic sections of the population.

  • area strip mining

    coal mining: Mining methods: …(1) contour strip mining, (2) area strip mining, (3) open-pit mining, and (4) auger mining.

  • area studies (social research)

    Area studies, multidisciplinary social research focusing on specific geographic regions or culturally defined areas. The largest scholarly communities in this respect focus on what are loosely defined as Asian, African, Latin American, or Middle Eastern studies, together with a variety of subfields

  • area, culture (anthropological concept)

    Culture area, in anthropology, geography, and other social sciences, a contiguous geographic area within which most societies share many traits in common. Delineated at the turn of the 20th century, it remains one of the most widely used frameworks for the description and analysis of cultures.

  • Area, the

    Law of the Sea: …seas is known as the International Seabed Area (also known as “the Area”), for which the 1982 convention established a separate and detailed legal regime. In its original form this regime was unacceptable to developed countries, principally because of the degree of regulation involved, and was subsequently modified extensively by…

  • Areas and Volumes of the Great Lakes

    The combined area of the Great Lakes (some 94,250 square miles [244,106 square km]) represents the largest surface of fresh water in the world. The lakes—Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario—are located in east-central North America and provide a natural border between Canada and the United

  • areas, law of (astronomy)

    geometry: The world system: Kepler’s second law states that a planet moves in its ellipse so that the line between it and the Sun placed at a focus sweeps out equal areas in equal times. His astronomy thus made pressing and practical the otherwise merely difficult problem of the…

  • Areca catechu

    betel: …seed of the areca, or betel, palm (Areca catechu), family Arecaceae, and the betel leaf is from the betel pepper, or pan plant (Piper betle), family Piperaceae. Betel chewing is a habit of an estimated one-tenth of the world’s population, and betel is the fourth most common psychoactive drug in…

  • areca nut (fruit)

    betel: The betel nut is the seed of the areca, or betel, palm (Areca catechu), family Arecaceae, and the betel leaf is from the betel pepper, or pan plant (Piper betle), family Piperaceae. Betel chewing is a habit of an estimated one-tenth of the world’s population, and…

  • areca palm

    betel: …seed of the areca, or betel, palm (Areca catechu), family Arecaceae, and the betel leaf is from the betel pepper, or pan plant (Piper betle), family Piperaceae. Betel chewing is a habit of an estimated one-tenth of the world’s population, and betel is the fourth most common psychoactive drug in…

  • Areca triandra (plant)

    palm: Characteristic morphological features: …may rarely be 3 (Areca triandra, Geonoma triandra, Nypa fruticans) or more numerous, ranging from 6 to 36 in Heterospathe, to more than 200 in such groups as Caryota, Phytelephas, and Veitchia. Sterile stamens may differ only slightly from fertile stamens, or they may consist of a filament alone…

  • Arecaceae (tree)

    Palm, any member of the Arecaceae, or Palmae, the single family of monocotyledonous flowering plants of the order Arecales. The great centres of palm distribution are in America and in Asia from India to Japan and south to Australia and the islands of the Pacific and Indian oceans, with Africa and

  • Arecales (plant order)

    Arecales, order of flowering plants that contains only one family, Arecaceae (also known as Palmae), which comprises the palms. Nearly 2,400 species in 189 genera are known. The order includes some of the most important plants in terms of economic value. The members of the Arecales are distinctive

  • Arecibo (Puerto Rico)

    Arecibo, town, northern Puerto Rico. It lies on a small inlet near the mouth of the Arecibo River. One of the oldest municipalities in the commonwealth, it was authorized in 1537 by the Spanish crown and settled in 1556. In 1616 it was chartered as a town and in 1778 received the royal title villa.

  • Arecibo Observatory (observatory, Arecibo, Puerto Rico)

    Arecibo Observatory, astronomical observatory located 16 km (10 miles) south of the town of Arecibo in Puerto Rico. It was the site of the world’s largest single-unit radio telescope until FAST in China began observations in 2016. This instrument, built in the early 1960s, employs a 305-metre

  • Arecibo River (river, Puerto Rico)

    Arecibo River, river in west-central Puerto Rico. The Arecibo River rises in the Cordillera Central just east of Mount Guilarte. It flows north-northeast about 40 miles (65 km) through a coffee-growing region and descends across the northern coastal plain to empty into the Atlantic Ocean just e

  • Arecomici (people)

    Volcae: …around Tolosa (Toulouse), and the Arecomici, of the right bank of the Rhône River with their centre at Nemausus (Nîmes). Both areas were included in the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul (later Narbonensis) in 121 bce.

  • Arecuna (people)

    Native American religions: Forms of religious authority: Among the Arecuna and Taulipang, Cariban groups of Venezuela and Brazil, the shamanic novitiate is reported to last from 10 to 20 years. In other traditions, by contrast, knowledge might be transmitted to the novice in relatively brief but intense periods of ecstasy. The knowledge imparted may…

  • ʿĀref Qazvīnī (Persian author)

    Islamic arts: Persian literatures: …they printed were several by ʿĀref Qazvīnī (died 1934), one of the first truly modern writers. They also published the first short stories of Muhammad ʿAli Jamalzadah (died 1997), whose outspoken social criticism and complete break with the traditional inflated and pompous prose style inaugurated a new era of modern…

  • ʿĀrefī (Persian author)

    Islamic arts: Parodies of classic forms: …o-chowgān (“Ball and Polo-stick”) by ʿĀrefī (died 1449); the latter work is an elaboration of the cliché that the lover is helpless before the will of his beloved, just as the ball is subject to the will of the polo-stick (“the head of the lover in the polo-stick of the…

  • Areilza, José Maria de (Spanish minister)

    Spain: Franco’s Spain, 1939–75: … and the new foreign minister, José Maria de Areilza, who wished to “open” the regime by limited democratization from above, and the “bunker” mentality of nostalgic Francoists. Although Arias Navarro promised liberalization in a February 1974 speech, he eventually sided with the hard-line Francoists, and his Law of Associations proved…

  • Areios Pagos (Greek government)

    Greece: Justice: …are the Supreme Court (Areios Pagos), which deals with civil and criminal cases, and the Council of State (Symvoulion Epikrateias), which is responsible for administration disputes. A Court of State Auditors has jurisdiction in a number of financial matters. A Special Supreme Tribunal deals with disputes over the interpretation…

  • areithiau (Welsh literary genre)

    Celtic literature: The Middle Ages: …stylistics presaged the later decadent areithiau (“rhetorics”), which were in part parodies of the Mabinogion. Three of the Mabinogion tales, “Owain” (or “The Lady of the Fountain”), “Geraint and Enid,” and “Peredur Son of Efrawg,” represented a transition from purely native tales to those composed under Norman influence. These romances…

  • areito (ceremony)

    Latin American music: Pre-Columbian patterns: …Spanish observers reported that the areito music-dance ceremony in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico involved the performance of chants in call-and-response style, accompanied by rattles of the maracas type, scrapers (güiro), and a hollow slit drum (known as a mayohuacán). Any possibility of musical continuity

  • Arelate (France)

    Arles, city, Bouches-du-Rhône département, Provence–Alpes–Côte d’Azur région, southeastern France. It is situated on the Camargue plain where the Rhône River divides to form its delta, northwest of Marseille. Already important in the days of the Ligurian tribes, Arles became a leading city of the

  • Aremorica (ancient region, France)

    Armorica, (from Celtic ar, “on,” and mor, “sea”), Latin name for the northwestern extremity of Gaul, now Brittany. In Celtic, Roman, and Frankish times Armorica also included the western part of what later became Normandy. In Julius Caesar’s time it was the home of five principal tribes, the most

  • arena (amphitheatre)

    Arena, central area of an amphitheatre

  • ARENA (political party, Brazil)

    Brazil: Political parties: …a single government party, the National Renewal Alliance, and a lone opposition party, the Brazilian Democratic Movement. The government abolished these two organizations in 1979 and allowed more parties to participate but still under restrictive regulations. After civilian government was restored in 1985, Brazil again legalized all political parties, and…

  • ARENA (political party, El Salvador)

    El Salvador: Civil war: …a new political organization, the Nationalist Republican Alliance (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista; Arena), led by retired major Roberto D’Aubuisson Arrieta.

  • Arena behaviour (animal courtship)

    animal social behaviour: Social interactions involving sex: …at communal display sites (leks), and a wide variety of insects species whose mating is brief and pairing is transient.

  • Arena Chapel (chapel, Padua, Italy)

    Arena Chapel, (consecrated March 25, 1305) small chapel built in the first years of the 14th century in Padua, Italy, by Enrico Scrovegni and containing frescoes by the Florentine painter Giotto (see photograph). A “Last Judgment” covers the entire west wall. The rest of the chapel is covered with

  • Arena Football League (sports)

    gridiron football: Showmanship on the field: …League (1983–85)—and invested in the Arena Football League (an indoor version of the sport that was played on a shortened field during the NFL’s off-season from 1987 to 2008 and again from 2010 in a new incarnation) and expanded into Europe in 1991 with the World League of American Football…

  • arena polo (sport)

    polo: Indoor, or arena, polo.: The indoor game was introduced in the United States and is played predominantly there, thus allowing polo in winter. The field is 100 yards long and 50 yards wide, with wooden boards 4–4 12 feet (1.2–1.4 m) high to keep the…

  • Arena Stage (theatre, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    directing: Directorial styles: Pioneering theatres such as the Arena Stage in Washington, D.C., and the Alley Theatre in Houston, Texas, provided forums not only for a wide repertoire of world theatre but also for new playwrights and directors. As Broadway continued its decline, the regional theatres continued to grow in importance; “schools” of…

  • arena stage

    Theatre-in-the-round, form of theatrical staging in which the acting area, which may be raised or at floor level, is completely surrounded by the audience. It has been theorized that the informality thus established leads to increased rapport between the audience and the actors.

  • Arenacum (ancient city, Netherlands)

    Arnhem: …of the Roman settlement of Arenacum, it was first mentioned in 893. Chartered and fortified in 1233 by Otto II, count of Geldern, it joined the Hanseatic League in 1443. As the residence of the dukes of Geldern, it was often attacked by their Burgundian rivals and in 1543 fell…

  • Arenado, Nolan (American baseball player)

    Colorado Rockies: …led by star third baseman Nolan Arenado, added 12 wins to its previous season’s total to qualify for a spot in the NL Wild Card Game, which resulted in a loss. Colorado qualified for the postseason for two consecutive seasons for the first time in 2018, and the team bettered…

  • Arenal Volcano (volcano, Costa Rica)

    Cordillera de Guanacaste: The Arenal Volcano erupted in 1968, covering the area with hot ash, destroying pasture, wiping out two villages, and forcing the slaughter of about 100,000 head of cattle. The volcano is still active but less threatening. A visitor’s centre in Arenal Volcano National Park offers the…

  • Arenaria (bird)

    Turnstone, either of two species of shorebirds (genus Arenaria) that constitute the subfamily Arenariinae (family Scolopacidae). The birds use their short, flattened bills, which are slightly recurved (upturned at the tip), to overturn pebbles and shells in search of food. Turnstones grow to a

  • Arenaria interpres (bird)

    Ruddy turnstone, shorebird species of the genus Arenaria. See

  • Arenaria melanocephala (bird)

    turnstone: The black turnstone (A. melanocephala), which breeds in Arctic Alaska and winters as far south as Mexico, has a black and white wing pattern but is otherwise dark.

  • Arenas, Gilbert (American basketball player)

    Washington Wizards: …by the play of All-Stars Gilbert Arenas, Antawn Jamison, and Caron Butler, but fell back to the lower echelons of the league in the 2008–09 season and traded most of their star players over the following years.

  • Arenas, Reinaldo (Cuban writer)

    Reinaldo Arenas, Cuban-born writer of extraordinary and unconventional novels who fled persecution and immigrated to the United States. As a teenager Arenas joined the revolution that brought Fidel Castro to power in 1959. He moved to Havana in 1961 and became a researcher in the José Martí

  • Arenaviridae (virus group)

    Arenavirus, any virus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. The name of the family is derived from the Latin arenosus, meaning “sandy,” which describes the grainy appearance of arenavirus ribosomes (protein-synthesizing particles). Arenaviruses have spherical, enveloped virions (virus particles)

  • arenavirus (virus group)

    Arenavirus, any virus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. The name of the family is derived from the Latin arenosus, meaning “sandy,” which describes the grainy appearance of arenavirus ribosomes (protein-synthesizing particles). Arenaviruses have spherical, enveloped virions (virus particles)

  • Arenavirus (virus genus)

    arenavirus: …consists of a single genus, Arenavirus, which contains more than 20 different species. Arenaviruses are widely distributed in animals and can cause serious disease in humans. The arenaviruses are evolutionarily adapted to specific rodent hosts, which generally show no signs of viral infection and thus act as reservoirs for the…

  • Arend-Roland, Comet (astronomy)

    Comet Arend-Roland, long-period comet remarkable for its anomalous second tail, which projected toward rather than away from the Sun. It was one of the brightest naked-eye comets of the 20th century. It was discovered photographically on the night of November 8–9, 1956, by Sylvain Arend and Georges

  • Arendal (Norway)

    Arendal, town and port, southern Norway. Its excellent harbour is on Tromøy Sound, a protected sound sheltered by the offshore island of Tromøy. A port since the 14th century, Arendal had the largest fleet in Norway before the steamship era. From the 16th century it prospered from timber exports.

  • Arendt, Hannah (American political scientist)

    Hannah Arendt, German-born American political scientist and philosopher known for her critical writing on Jewish affairs and her study of totalitarianism. Arendt grew up in Hannover, Germany, and in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). Beginning in 1924 she studied philosophy at the

  • arene (chemical compound)

    hydrocarbon: Arenes: These compounds are hydrocarbons that contain a benzene ring as a structural unit. In addition to benzene, other examples include toluene and naphthalene.

  • Arenga (plant genus)

    palm: Ecology: …civets (Paradoxurus) devour fruits of Arenga and Caryota in Asia. Studies of fruit dispersal are in their infancy, but a large number of interesting associations have been noted.

  • Arenga pinnata (plant)

    palm: Economic importance: …of the sugar palm (Arenga pinnata), the palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer), the wild date (Phoenix sylvestris), the toddy palm (Caryota urens), the nipa palm, and the gebang and talipot palms (Corypha elata and C. umbraculifera). Wine is made from species of the

  • Arenga saccharifera (plant)

    palm: Economic importance: …of the sugar palm (Arenga pinnata), the palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer), the wild date (Phoenix sylvestris), the toddy palm (Caryota urens), the nipa palm, and the gebang and talipot palms (Corypha elata and C. umbraculifera). Wine is made from species of the

  • Arenicola (polychaete genus)

    Lugworm, (genus Arenicola), any of several marine worms (class Polychaeta, phylum Annelida) that burrow deep into the sandy sea bottom or intertidal areas and are often quite large. Fishermen use them as bait. Adult lugworms of the coast of Europe (e.g., A. marina) attain lengths of about 23 cm (9

  • Arenicola cristata (annelid)

    lugworm: …the coasts of North America (A. cristata) ranges in length from 7.5 to 30 cm.

  • Arenicola marina (polychaete genus)

    Lugworm, (genus Arenicola), any of several marine worms (class Polychaeta, phylum Annelida) that burrow deep into the sandy sea bottom or intertidal areas and are often quite large. Fishermen use them as bait. Adult lugworms of the coast of Europe (e.g., A. marina) attain lengths of about 23 cm (9

  • Arenicola maxina (annelid)

    lugworm: , A. marina) attain lengths of about 23 cm (9 inches). The lugworm of the coasts of North America (A. cristata) ranges in length from 7.5 to 30 cm.

  • arenite (rock)

    Arenite, any sedimentary rock that consists of sand-sized particles (0.06–2 millimetres [0.0024–0.08 inch] in diameter), irrespective of composition. More formal nomenclature of such rocks is based on composition, particle size, and mode of origin—e.g., sandstone, quartzite, lithic arenite, and

  • Arenosol (FAO soil group)

    Arenosol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Arenosols are sandy-textured soils that lack any significant soil profile development. They exhibit only a partially formed surface horizon (uppermost layer) that is low in humus, and

  • Arensberg, Walter (American poet and collector)

    art criticism: Avant-garde art comes to America: ” Yet the millionaire Walter Arensberg supported Duchamp, a gesture that was a harbinger of the coziness that would develop between art and money, fueled in part by the possibilities of speculation in the unregulated art market. Major private collections of avant-garde art emerged—perhaps most noteworthily that of Albert…

  • Arensen, Liv (Norwegian explorer)

    Ann Bancroft: …she and Norwegian polar explorer Liv Arensen became the first women to complete a transcontinental crossing there. Their roughly 1,700-mile (2,750-km) journey skiing and sailing took 94 days. In recognition of her achievements, she was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 1995, and she also received several…

  • Arensky, Anton (Russian composer)

    Anton Arensky, Russian composer known especially for his chamber music and songs. Although he was a composition student under Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Arensky’s work was more akin to that of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; the predominant moods of his music are lyrical and elegiac. Of his three operas

  • Arensky, Anton Stepanovich (Russian composer)

    Anton Arensky, Russian composer known especially for his chamber music and songs. Although he was a composition student under Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Arensky’s work was more akin to that of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; the predominant moods of his music are lyrical and elegiac. Of his three operas

  • Arent de Gelder (Dutch painter)

    Aert de Gelder, the only Dutch artist of the late 17th and early 18th century to paint in the tradition of Rembrandt’s late style. De Gelder spent his life in Dordrecht, except for a period of time about 1661 when he was Rembrandt’s pupil in Amsterdam. His biblical paintings—e.g., Scenes from the

  • areola (anatomy)

    pregnancy: Breasts: …the lightly pigmented area (areola) around each nipple becomes first florid or dusky in colour and then appreciably darker; during the later months the areola takes on a hue that is deep bronze or brownish black, depending on the woman’s natural pigmentation. The veins beneath the skin over the…

  • areole (plant anatomy)

    cactus: Physical characteristics: …plants by the presence of areoles, small cushionlike structures with trichomes (plant hairs) and, in almost all species, spines or barbed bristles (glochids). Areoles are modified branches, from which flowers, more branches, and leaves (when present) may grow.

  • Areopagite Council (Greek council)

    Areopagus, earliest aristocratic council of ancient Athens. The name was taken from the Areopagus (“Ares’ Hill”), a low hill northwest of the Acropolis, which was its meeting place. The Areopagite Council probably began as the king’s advisers. Early in the Archaic period it exercised a general and

  • Areopagitica (pamphlet by Milton)

    Areopagitica, pamphlet by John Milton, published in 1644 to protest an order issued by Parliament the previous year requiring government approval and licensing of all published books. Four earlier pamphlets by the author concerning divorce had met with official disfavour and suppressive measures.

  • Areopagitica: A Speech of Mr John Milton for the Liberty of Unlicenc’d Printing, to the Parliament of England (pamphlet by Milton)

    Areopagitica, pamphlet by John Milton, published in 1644 to protest an order issued by Parliament the previous year requiring government approval and licensing of all published books. Four earlier pamphlets by the author concerning divorce had met with official disfavour and suppressive measures.

  • Areopagus (hill, Athens, Greece)

    Athens: Other notable buildings: On the Hill of Ares, the god of war, to the right of the descent from the Propylaea, a legendary jury of gods spared Ares from execution for the murder of the sea god Poseidon’s son. Trials for homicide continued to be heard on this hill through…

  • Areopagus (Greek council)

    Areopagus, earliest aristocratic council of ancient Athens. The name was taken from the Areopagus (“Ares’ Hill”), a low hill northwest of the Acropolis, which was its meeting place. The Areopagite Council probably began as the king’s advisers. Early in the Archaic period it exercised a general and

  • arepa (food)

    Arepa, a flat round cornmeal cake popular in Central and South America, particularly Colombia and Venezuela. Arepas resemble English muffins and are made with various toppings or fillings, including cheese, butter, or meat. The preparation varies widely. In Venezuela they are often grilled or

  • Arequipa (Peru)

    Arequipa, city, southern Peru, in the Chili River valley of the Andes Mountains. Arequipa lies at more than 7,550 feet (2,300 metres) above sea level, at the foot of the dormant cone of Misti Volcano, which reaches an elevation of 19,098 feet (5,821 metres). Flanking Misti are Mounts Chachani and

  • Arequipa, Volcán de (volcano, Peru)

    Misti Volcano, volcano of the Andes mountains of southern Peru. It is flanked by Chachani and Pichupichu volcanoes and rises to 19,098 feet (5,821 m) above sea level, towering over the city of Arequipa. Its perfect, snowcapped cone is thought to have had religious significance for the Incas and

  • Ares (Greek mythology)

    Ares, in Greek religion, god of war or, more properly, the spirit of battle. Unlike his Roman counterpart, Mars, he was never very popular, and his worship was not extensive in Greece. He represented the distasteful aspects of brutal warfare and slaughter. From at least the time of Homer, who

  • Ares (United States launch vehicles)

    Ares, family of two launch vehicles, Ares I and Ares V, for the proposed Constellation program, the crewed U.S. spaceflight program that was scheduled to succeed the space shuttle program and focus on missions to the Moon and Mars. In June 2006 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  • Ares (planet)

    Mars, fourth planet in the solar system in order of distance from the Sun and seventh in size and mass. It is a periodically conspicuous reddish object in the night sky. Mars is designated by the symbol ♂. Sometimes called the Red Planet, Mars has long been associated with warfare and slaughter. It

  • Ares, Hill of (hill, Athens, Greece)

    Athens: Other notable buildings: On the Hill of Ares, the god of war, to the right of the descent from the Propylaea, a legendary jury of gods spared Ares from execution for the murder of the sea god Poseidon’s son. Trials for homicide continued to be heard on this hill through…

  • Areschoug, Johan Erhard (Swedish botanist)

    Pelagophycus: Swedish botanist Johan Erhard Areschoug described it in 1876 as Nereocystis gigantea, based on a specimen collected at Santa Catalina Island by Swedish-born scientist Gustav Eisen. In 1881, however, having recognized elk kelp as distinct from other Nereocystis, Areschoug renamed it Pelagophycus giganteus, thereby introducing the genus…

  • Aretaeus of Cappadocia (Greek physician)

    Aretaeus Of Cappadocia, Greek physician from Cappadocia who practiced in Rome and Alexandria, led a revival of Hippocrates’ teachings, and is thought to have ranked second only to the father of medicine himself in the application of keen observation and ethics to the art. In principle he adhered to

  • aretalogy (religious literature)

    biblical literature: Form criticism: …stories about him comprised an aretalogy (from aretē, “virtue”; also manifestation of divine power, miracle). Aretalogies were frequently used to represent the essential creed and belief of a religious or philosophical movement. The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, a Neo-Pythagorean philosopher and wonder-worker (transmitted by the Greek writer Philostratus), was…

  • Aretas (king of Ghassān)

    Ghassān: The Ghassānid king al-Ḥārith ibn Jabalah (reigned 529–569) supported the Byzantines against Sāsānian Persia and was given the title patricius in 529 by the emperor Justinian. Al-Ḥārith was a miaphysite Christian; he helped to revive the miaphysite Syrian church and supported miaphysite development despite the disapproval of Orthodox…

  • Aretas III (Nabataean king)

    Nabataean: …after 85 bc their king Aretas III ruled Damascus and Coele Syria (Lebanon). Upon the Roman general Pompey’s entry into Palestine (63 bc), Aretas became a Roman vassal, retaining Damascus and his other conquests; Damascus, however, was later annexed by the Roman emperor Nero (reigned ad 54–68).

  • Aretas IV (Nabataean king)

    Arabian religion: North and central Arabia: …greatest wealth and power, under Aretas IV (8 bc–40 ad), their territory extended from Al-Ḥijr in the south, northward past Petra, along the northern route east of the Jordan River as far as the Ḥawrān region south of Damascus. The Nabataean territory—except for its southern part—was incorporated into the Roman…

  • aretē (philosophy)

    education: Origins: In addition, the idea of aretē was becoming central to Greek life. The epics of Hesiod and Homer glorified physical and military prowess and promoted the ideal of the cultivated patriot-warrior who displayed this cardinal virtue of aretē—a concept difficult to translate but embodying the virtues of military skill, moral…

  • arete (philosophy)

    education: Origins: In addition, the idea of aretē was becoming central to Greek life. The epics of Hesiod and Homer glorified physical and military prowess and promoted the ideal of the cultivated patriot-warrior who displayed this cardinal virtue of aretē—a concept difficult to translate but embodying the virtues of military skill, moral…

  • arête (glacial landform)

    Arête, (French: “ridge”), in geology, a sharp-crested serrate ridge separating the heads of opposing valleys (cirques) that formerly were occupied by Alpine glaciers. It has steep sides formed by the collapse of unsupported rock, undercut by continual freezing and thawing (glacial sapping; see

  • Arethas (Byzantine bishop)

    Apologist: In 914 Arethas, bishop of Caesarea Cappadociae, had a collection of early apologies copied for his library. Many of the later manuscripts were copied in the 16th century, when the Council of Trent was discussing the nature of tradition. The genuine writings of the Apologists were virtually…

  • Arethusa (Greek mythology)

    Arethusa, in Greek mythology, a nymph who gave her name to a spring in Elis and to another on the island of Ortygia, near Syracuse. The river god Alpheus fell in love with Arethusa, who was in the retinue of Artemis. Arethusa fled to Ortygia, where she was changed into a spring. Alpheus, however,

  • Arethusa bulbosa (plant)

    Dragon’s-mouth, (Arethusa bulbosa), species of terrestrial orchid (family Orchidaceae) found only in North American bogs. The plant is the only species in the genus Arethusa. The dragon’s-mouth orchid is a perennial plant with a small corm and a single grasslike leaf. It produces a solitary reddish

  • Aretino, Leonardo (Italian scholar)

    Leonardo Bruni, Italian humanist scholar of the Renaissance. Bruni was secretary to the papal chancery from 1405 and served as chancellor of Florence from 1427 until his death in 1444. His Historiarum Florentini populi libri XII (1610; “Twelve Books of Histories of the Florentine People”) is the

  • Aretino, Pietro (Italian author)

    Pietro Aretino, Italian poet, prose writer, and dramatist celebrated throughout Europe in his time for his bold and insolent literary attacks on the powerful. His fiery letters and dialogues are of great biographical and topical interest. Although Aretino was the son of an Arezzo shoemaker, he

  • Areus I (king of Sparta)

    Antigonus II Gonatas: To avert this danger, King Areus of Sparta and the city of Athens—urged on by Ptolemy II of Egypt—declared a war for the liberation of Greece (the Chremonidean War, 267–261). Although the Egyptian fleet had blockaded the Saronic Gulf, Antigonus defeated Areus near Corinth in 265 and then besieged Athens.…

  • Arevaci (Celtiberian tribe)

    Arevaci, a Celtiberian tribe, thought by Classical writers to have formed from the mingling of pre-Roman Iberians and Celts, who inhabited an area near Numantia and Uxama in what is now Spain. The Celtiberians excelled at horsemanship, fighting, and metalworking. They wore sewn garments made of

  • Arévalo Bermejo, Juan José (president of Guatemala)

    Juan José Arévalo, president of Guatemala (1945–51), who pursued a nationalistic foreign policy while internally encouraging the labour movement and instituting far-reaching social reforms. Arévalo was educated at the University of Guatemala and the University of La Plata (1928–34) in Argentina,

  • Arévalo Martínez, Rafael (Guatemalan writer)

    Rafael Arévalo Martínez, novelist, short-story writer, poet, diplomat, and director of Guatemala’s national library for more than 20 years. Though Arévalo Martínez’s fame has waned, he is still considered important because of his short stories, one in particular. Arévalo Martínez was director of

  • Arévalo, Juan José (president of Guatemala)

    Juan José Arévalo, president of Guatemala (1945–51), who pursued a nationalistic foreign policy while internally encouraging the labour movement and instituting far-reaching social reforms. Arévalo was educated at the University of Guatemala and the University of La Plata (1928–34) in Argentina,

  • Arévalo, Luis de (Spanish architect)

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    Armenian language: …(Arewmtahayerên) and Eastern Armenian (Arewelahayerên)—and many dialects are spoken. About 50 dialects were known before 1915, when the Armenian population of Turkey was drastically reduced by means of massacre and forced exodus; some of these dialects were mutually unintelligible.

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