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  • architecture, Western

    Western architecture, history of Western architecture from prehistoric Mediterranean cultures to the present. The history of Western architecture is marked by a series of new solutions to structural problems. During the period from the beginning of civilization through ancient Greek culture,

  • Architettura (treatise by Serlio)

    Sebastiano Serlio: …wrote the influential architecture treatise Tutte l’opere d’architettura, et prospetiva (1537–75; “Complete Works on Architecture and Perspective”).

  • architettura della citta, L’  (work by Rossi)

    Aldo Rossi: …publication L’architettura della città (The Architecture of the City), which quickly established him as a leading international theoretician. In the text he argued that, over the course of history, architecture has developed certain continuous forms and ideas, to the point that these are standard types in the collective memory…

  • Architeuthis (mollusk)

    Giant squid, (genus Architeuthis), any member of a genus of large, elusive cephalopods inhabiting deep regions of temperate to subtropical marine waters. Thought to be the largest or second largest living invertebrate, next to the colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni), the giant squid has

  • Architeuthis dux (mollusk)

    cephalopod: General features and importance to humans: The giant squids (Architeuthis species) are the largest living invertebrates; A. dux attains a length of more than 20 metres (60 feet), including the extended tentacles. The smallest cephalopod is the squid Idiosepius, rarely an inch in length. The average octopus usually has arms no longer than 30…

  • architrave

    Architrave, in Classical architecture, the lowest section of the entablature (horizontal member), immediately above the capital of a column. See

  • Archiv für Anthropologie (German journal)

    Karl Ernst von Baer: …the founding of the journal Archiv für Anthropologie. He was also responsible for the founding of the Russian Geographical Society and the Russian Entomological Society, of which he was the first president.

  • Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (journal by Roux)

    Wilhelm Roux: In 1894 Roux founded Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen, the first journal of experimental embryology.

  • Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie, und für klinische Medizin (journal by Virchow and Reinhardt)

    Rudolf Virchow: Early career: …Benno Reinhardt, a new journal, Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie, und für klinische Medizin (“Archives for Pathological Anatomy and Physiology, and for Clinical Medicine”). After Reinhardt’s death in 1852, Virchow continued as sole editor of the journal, later known as Virchows Archiv, until his own death 50 years later.

  • Archive War (United States history)

    Austin: History: …the capital, staged the so-called Archive War, forcibly retaining government records. The government returned to Austin in 1845, the year in which Texas was admitted to the United States. Austin’s pink granite State Capitol (1888), modeled after the U.S. Capitol, succeeded an earlier structure (burned 1881).

  • archives

    Archives, repository for an organized body of records produced or received by a public, semipublic, institutional, or business entity in the transaction of its affairs and preserved by it or its successors. The term archives, which also designates the body of records themselves, derives from the

  • Archives de la tradition basque (work by Bordes)

    Charles Bordes: …of which were published in Archives de la tradition basque (1889–90). As a composer he achieved particular success with his songs. He also wrote piano music, sacred and secular choral works, a Suite basque for flute and string quartet (1887), many sacred and secular songs, and a symphonic poem for…

  • Archives of the Indies (archive, Spain)

    Spain: Libraries and archives: …people outside Spain is Sevilla’s Archives of the Indies, which hold an immense quantity of documentation about Spain’s former empire in the Americas.

  • Archivio glottologico italiano (journal by Ascoli)

    Graziadio Isaia Ascoli: …1873 he founded the journal Archivio glottologico italiano (“Italian Linguistic Archives”), which he edited until 1907. In the first volume he published an essay on neglected Raeto-Romanic dialects and in the eighth his classification of Italian dialects.

  • Archivo General del Reino (building, Simancas, Spain)

    Simancas: This citadel is now the Archivo General del Reino, to which the national archives of Spain were removed by order of Philip II in 1563. It houses important private as well as state documents. Simancas is an agricultural trade centre, and poultry is raised there. Pop. (2007 est.) mun., 4,873.

  • archivolt

    Archivolt, molding running around the face of an arch immediately above the opening. The architectural term is applied especially to medieval and Renaissance buildings, where the archivolts are often decorated with sculpture, as in the archivolts on the west facade of Chartres cathedral

  • archlute (musical instrument)

    Archlute, large 16th-century bass lute provided with additional bass strings, or diapasons, and producing a deeper sound that could be used in orchestral basso continuo parts. The diapasons were tuned according to individual preference, usually in a descending scale from the lowest principal

  • Archon (Gnosticism)

    Archon, in gnosticism, any of a number of world-governing powers that were created with the material world by a subordinate deity called the Demiurge (Creator). Although gnosticism did not constitute a single movement, most gnostics were religious dualists who held that matter is inferior and the

  • archon (ancient Greek magistrate)

    Archon, in ancient Greece, the chief magistrate or magistrates in many city-states. The office became prominent in the Archaic period, when the kings (basileis) were being superseded by aristocrats. At Athens the list of annual archons begins with 682 bc. By the middle of the 7th century bc,

  • archon basileus (ancient Greek official)

    archon: …the kingship survived in the basileus, who, as chief religious officer, presided over the Areopagus (aristocratic council) when it sat as a homicide court. Lastly there were six thesmotetai (“determiners of custom”), who dealt with miscellaneous judicial problems.

  • archontes (ancient Greek magistrate)

    Archon, in ancient Greece, the chief magistrate or magistrates in many city-states. The office became prominent in the Archaic period, when the kings (basileis) were being superseded by aristocrats. At Athens the list of annual archons begins with 682 bc. By the middle of the 7th century bc,

  • Archontonis, Dimitrios (Eastern Orthodox patriarch)

    Bartholomew I, 270th ecumenical patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox church from 1991. After graduating from the patriarchal Seminary of Halki, located near Istanbul, Archontonis was ordained a priest and went on to earn a doctorate in canon law from the Pontifical Institute in Rome. He also studied

  • Archosargus probatocephalus (fish, Archosargus species)

    Sheepshead, (Archosargus probatocephalus), popular edible sport fish in the family Sparidae (order Perciformes), common in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico waters of the southern North American coast. Although once prevalent in the New England to Chesapeake Bay area, the species has inexplicably become

  • archosaur (reptile subclass)

    Archosaur, (subclass Archosauria), any of various reptiles, including all crocodiles and birds and all descendants of their most recent common ancestor. Archosaurs (“ruling reptiles”) are members of a subclass that also includes the dinosaurs, the pterosaurs (flying reptiles), and several groups of

  • Archosauria (reptile subclass)

    Archosaur, (subclass Archosauria), any of various reptiles, including all crocodiles and birds and all descendants of their most recent common ancestor. Archosaurs (“ruling reptiles”) are members of a subclass that also includes the dinosaurs, the pterosaurs (flying reptiles), and several groups of

  • Archosaurus (fossil reptile genus)

    Archosaurus, early genus of reptiles found as fossils in Middle and Late Permian deposits of Europe (265 million to 251 million years ago). Archosaurus typifies the progressive changes occurring in reptilian structure that eventually led to their dominance as the major vertebrates. A clear trend

  • Archostemata (insect suborder)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Suborder Archostemata Hind coxae rarely fused to metasternum; distinct notopleural suture between notum and pleural sclerites. Family Crowsoniellidae 1 species, Crowsoniella relicta. Family Cupesidae (Cupedidae; reticulated beetles)

  • Archy (fictional character)

    Don Marquis: Archy and Mehitabel first appeared in “The Sun Dial.” Archy’s poetic reflections on the world and the racy misadventures of Mehitabel were related in first person and lowercase by Archy, who supposedly could not press down the typewriter’s shift key.

  • Archy and Mehitabel (work by Marquis)

    Archy and Mehitabel, collection of humorous stories by Don Marquis, originally published from 1916 in Marquis’s newspaper columns “The Sun Dial” in the New York Evening Sun and “The Lantern” in the New York Herald Tribune and published in book form in 1927. The stories centre on Archy, a

  • Archytas of Tarentum (Greek mathematician)

    Archytas of Tarentum, Greek scientist, philosopher, and major Pythagorean mathematician. Plato, a close friend, made use of his work in mathematics, and there is evidence that Euclid borrowed from him for the treatment of number theory in Book VIII of his Elements. Archytas was also an influential

  • Arcidae (mollusk)

    Ark shell, any of the species of predominantly marine bivalve mollusks of the family Arcidae. Such clams are characterized by boat-shaped shells with long, straight hinge lines bearing many small, interlocking teeth. The shells are usually coated with a thick, sometimes hairy periostracum (outer

  • Arcila (Morocco)

    Asilah, city on the Atlantic coast of northwestern Morocco, south of Tangier. While some attribute its founding to the Phoenicians, others believe its origins date back to the Roman period; perhaps each account refers to a slightly different location on this busy coastal strip not far from Europe.

  • Arcimboldi, Giuseppe (Italian painter)

    Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Italian Mannerist painter whose grotesque compositions of fruits, vegetables, animals, books, and other objects were arranged to resemble human portraits. In the 20th century these double images were greatly admired by Salvador Dali and other Surrealist painters. Beginning his

  • Arcimboldo, Giuseppe (Italian painter)

    Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Italian Mannerist painter whose grotesque compositions of fruits, vegetables, animals, books, and other objects were arranged to resemble human portraits. In the 20th century these double images were greatly admired by Salvador Dali and other Surrealist painters. Beginning his

  • Arciniega, Claudio de (architect)

    Latin American architecture: Eighteenth-century architecture in Mexico: …in the 16th century by Claudio de Arciniega, is Classical in its layout, with extraordinary fragments of an exuberant Baroque decoration applied on the surface. The cathedral’s Altar of the Kings (1718–37), by Jerónimo de Balbás, began a formal type that would be applied until the end of the 18th…

  • Arciniegas Angueyra, Germán (Colombian writer and diplomat)

    Germán Arciniegas, Colombian historian, essayist, diplomat, and statesman whose long career in journalism and public service strongly influenced the cultural development of his country in the 20th century. His contributions abroad as an educator and diplomat played an important role in introducing

  • arciṣmatī (Buddhism)

    bhūmi: …with the noble doctrine), (4) arciṣmatī (“brilliant,” the rays of his virtue consuming evil passions and ignorance), (5) sudurjayā (“hard to conquer”), (6) abhimukhī (“turning toward” both transmigration and nirvana), (7) dūraṅgamā (“far-going”), (8) acalā (“immovable”), (9) sādhumatī (“good-minded”), and

  • Arcite (fictional character)

    The Two Noble Kinsmen: Palamon and Arcite, two noble nephews of Creon, are captured. As they languish in prison, their protestations of eternal friendship stop the instant they glimpse Emilia through a window, and they quarrel over her. Arcite is unexpectedly released and banished, but he returns in disguise; Palamon escapes…

  • Arcivescovile, Palazzo (building, Udine, Italy)

    Giovanni Battista Tiepolo: Early life: …until the frescoes of the Palazzo Arcivescovile of Udine, executed sometime after 1726, that Tiepolo, then about 30, reached full maturity of expression. In these frescoes, he gave up the chiaroscuro of his early works and greatly brightened his colour, while preserving his form intact. The decoration was commissioned by…

  • ARCO (American oil company)

    Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO), former American petroleum corporation that was headquartered in Los Angeles and was bought in 2000 by the giant BP Amoco (later BP PLC). The Atlantic Richfield Company was created in 1966 by the merger of Richfield Oil Corporation and Atlantic Refining Company.

  • arco (stringed instrument accessory)

    Bow, in music, curved stick with tightly held fibres that produces sound by friction when drawn across the strings of a chordophone, such as a rebab, violin, or erhu. The most common material is rosined horsehair; some African bows used strips cut from rubber inner tubes, and the Korean ajaeng, a

  • Arcoida (bivalve order)

    bivalve: Annotated classification: Order Arcoida Shell solid, elongate or circular-oval, often heavily ribbed; fibrous periostracum with simple crossed-lamellar outer layer and inner complex crossed-lamellar layer, thereby differing from all other pteriomorphs; dimyarian; hinge with vertical denticulations; ctenidia filibranch; mantle margin with uniquely divided outer fold; foot often byssate; marine;…

  • arcology (settlement structure)

    Paolo Soleri: Soleri coined the term arcology (from architecture and ecology) to describe his utopian constructions, which he delineated in drawings of great beauty and imagination. The exhibition of his drawings and models in major American cities in 1970 brought him widespread public notice. Soleri’s Arcology: The City in the Image…

  • Arcos de la Frontera (Spain)

    Arcos de la Frontera, city, Cádiz provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain. It is located on a high rock bounded on three sides by the Guadalete River. Rich in Moorish architecture, the city also contains the Gothic churches of Santa María

  • Arcosanti (Arizona, United States)

    Arizona: Cultural life: …the futuristic, embryonic city of Arcosanti designed by Paolo Soleri are found in Arizona. Among the many structures in the Spanish style, the Heard Museum is outstanding, and the Nogales Public Library synthesizes the Spanish Southwestern and contemporary styles. Probably the most-photographed building in all of Arizona is the San…

  • Arcot (India)

    Arcot, town, northeastern Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India, on the Palar River. It is located at the point where the Palar River valley meets the Coromandel Coast region and commands the inland route from Chennai (Madras) to Bengaluru (Bangalore), between the Mysore Ghat and the Javadi Hills. A

  • Arctic (northernmost region of the Earth)

    Arctic, northernmost region of the Earth, centred on the North Pole and characterized by distinctively polar conditions of climate, plant and animal life, and other physical features. The term is derived from the Greek arktos (“bear”), referring to the northern constellation of the Bear. It has

  • Arctic air mass (atmospheric science)

    air mass: Maritime Polar (mP) air masses develop over the polar areas of both the Northern and the Southern hemispheres. They generally contain considerably more moisture than the cP air masses. As they move inland in middle and high latitudes, heavy precipitation may occur when the air is forced…

  • Arctic Archipelago (islands, Canada)

    Arctic Archipelago, Group of Canadian islands, Arctic Ocean. They lie north of the Canadian mainland and have an area of about 550,000 sq mi (1,424,500 sq km). The southeastern islands are an extension of the Canadian Shield; the balance consists of the Arctic lowlands to the south and the

  • Arctic Basin (geographical feature, Arctic Ocean)

    Atlantic Ocean: Extent: This is because the Arctic basin—which stretches from the Bering Strait across the North Pole to Spitsbergen and Greenland—resembles a semienclosed basin (i.e., it is nearly surrounded by land, receives proportionately large volumes of river discharge and sediments, has an extensive continental margin, and is relatively shallow). In this…

  • Arctic Bay (Nunavut, Canada)

    Admiralty Inlet: Arctic Bay (Ikpiarjuk; pop. [2006] 690; [2011] 823), a mineral exploration and hunting base, is on its northeastern shore.

  • Arctic char (fish)

    char: The Arctic char (S. alpinus), of North America and Europe, inhabits the Arctic and adjacent oceans and enters rivers and lakes to breed. Some populations are restricted to freshwater lakes, which they colonized in glacial times. Like the other chars, the Arctic char is a good…

  • Arctic Circle

    Arctic Circle, parallel, or line of latitude around the Earth, at approximately 66°30′ N. Because of the Earth’s inclination of about 23 12° to the vertical, it marks the southern limit of the area within which, for one day or more each year, the Sun does not set (about June 21) or rise (about

  • Arctic Convergence

    Pacific Ocean: Deepwater circulation: A corresponding Arctic Convergence is prominent in the northeastern Pacific.

  • Arctic Council (intergovernmental body)

    Arctic Council, intergovernmental body that promotes research and facilitates cooperation among Arctic countries on issues related to the environmental protection and sustainable development of the Arctic region. The council was created in Ottawa in 1996 by the Declaration on the Establishment of

  • Arctic Culture Area (anthropology)

    Native American: The Arctic: This region lies near and above the Arctic Circle and includes the northernmost parts of present-day Alaska and Canada. The topography is relatively flat, and the climate is characterized by very cold temperatures for most of the year. The region’s extreme northerly location alters…

  • Arctic Dogs (film by Woodley [2019])

    Alec Baldwin: 30 Rock, SNL, and later films: …The Boss Baby (2017) and Arctic Dogs (2019).

  • Arctic foothills (mountains, United States)

    Alaskan mountains: …the Brooks Range and the Arctic foothills, which extend the Rocky Mountains in an east-west arc from the border with Canada across northern Alaska. Central Alaska is characterized by highlands and basins drained by the great Yukon and Kuskokwim river systems. That area has been likened by some to a…

  • Arctic fox (mammal)

    Arctic fox, (Vulpes lagopus), northern fox of the family Canidae, found throughout the Arctic region, usually on tundra or mountains near the sea. Fully grown adults reach about 50–60 cm (20–24 inches) in length, exclusive of the 30-cm (12-inch) tail, and a weight of about 3–8 kg (6.6–17 pounds).

  • Arctic ground squirrel (rodent)

    dormancy: Causes of dormancy: For example, the Arctic ground squirrel (whose winter period of dormancy is referred to as hibernation), when taken into the laboratory, supplied with adequate amounts of food and water, and exposed to constant temperature and light, exhibits periodic torpor (extreme sluggishness)—an innate behavioral pattern that operates independently of…

  • Arctic Islands (islands, Canada)

    Arctic Archipelago, Group of Canadian islands, Arctic Ocean. They lie north of the Canadian mainland and have an area of about 550,000 sq mi (1,424,500 sq km). The southeastern islands are an extension of the Canadian Shield; the balance consists of the Arctic lowlands to the south and the

  • Arctic loon (bird)

    loon: …but some species, especially the Arctic loon, or black-throated diver (G. arctica), winter or migrate in flocks. The voice is distinctive, including guttural sounds and the mournful, eerie wailing cries that in North America may have given rise to the common name loon. (Some sources suggest it arises from the…

  • Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Alaska, United States)

    Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, vast natural area occupying the northeastern corner of the U.S. state of Alaska. It was established in 1960 as Arctic National Wildlife Range with an area of approximately 13,900 square miles (36,000 square km) and was expanded and renamed Arctic National Wildlife

  • Arctic Ocean

    Arctic Ocean, smallest of the world’s oceans, centring approximately on the North Pole. The Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas—the Chukchi, East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, Barents, White, Greenland, and Beaufort and, according to some oceanographers, also the Bering and Norwegian seas—are the

  • Arctic Oscillation (climatology)

    sea ice: Pack ice drift and thickness: …centre is known as the Arctic Oscillation.

  • Arctic peoples

    Native American: The Subarctic Indians and the Arctic peoples: The European exploration of the Subarctic was for many decades limited to the coasts of the Atlantic and Hudson Bay, an inland sea connected to the Atlantic and the Arctic oceans. The initial European exploration of the bay occurred in 1610. It was…

  • Arctic Polar Front

    Pacific Ocean: Deepwater circulation: A corresponding Arctic Convergence is prominent in the northeastern Pacific.

  • Arctic poppy (plant)

    polar ecosystem: Biota of the Arctic: …conditions include species of the Arctic poppy (Papaver), some rushes (Juncus), small saxifrages (Saxifraga), and a few other rosette-forming herbaceous species. The Arctic poppy and a few of the other flowering herbs adapted to the High Arctic have flowers that are solartropic (turning in response to the Sun). Their parabolic-shaped…

  • Arctic Red River (river, Canada)

    Mackenzie River: The lower course: Where the Arctic Red River enters from the south, the Mackenzie again flows between steep rock walls, which rise up to 200 feet (60 metres) directly from the water.

  • Arctic sea smoke (meteorology)

    fog: …pack ice; hence, the term Arctic sea smoke.

  • Arctic Small Tool tradition (culture)

    Arctic: History of settlement: …bc, when people of the Arctic Small Tool tradition began to replace any Northern Archaic people who were exploiting the largely treeless lands immediately inland from the coasts. Predominantly terrestrial in subsistence orientation—hunting especially caribou and musk ox and taking river and lake fish—the people of the Arctic Small Tool…

  • Arctic sperm oil (whale oil)

    bottlenose whale: Bottlenose oil is very similar to spermaceti and was known as “Arctic sperm oil.” It sold for a lower price and gummed more easily than sperm oil. The bottlenose whale fishery peaked in the 1890s and again in the 1960s.

  • Arctic tern (bird)

    Arctic tern, (Sterna paradisaea), tern species that makes the longest annual migration of any bird. It breeds in the southerly reaches of the Arctic and winters in the Antarctic, making its migration a round-trip of 60,000 to 82,000 km (roughly 37,000 to 51,000 miles). Its appearance—white with a

  • Arctic tundra

    Arctic: Traditional culture: …ecosystems, the taiga and the tundra. The open terrain of the tundra permits the supervision of large herds, and these generally migrate with their herdsmen between winter pastures within the margins of the taiga and summer pastures out on the tundra. Such pastoralism therefore entails fairly extended nomadic movements, sometimes…

  • Arctic Zone

    Arctic: Animal life: …section is from the true Arctic Zone only. On the land, this is the zone north of the tree line; in the sea, it is the area in which the upper water is of Arctic Ocean origin, without admixture of Atlantic or Pacific water. This excludes most of the west…

  • Arctictis binturong (mammal)

    Binturong, (Arctictis binturong), catlike carnivore of the civet family (Viverridae), found in dense forests of southern Asia, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It has long, shaggy hair, tufted ears, and a long, bushy, prehensile tail. The colour generally is black with a sprinkling of whitish hairs. The

  • Arctiidae (insect)

    Tiger moth, (family Arctiidae), any of about 11,000 species of moths (order Lepidoptera), the common name of which is derived from that of one of its most common genera, Grammia, which have dark wings with red or orange spots and white stripes, sometimes displayed in striking geometric patterns.

  • Arctium (plant)

    Burdock, (genus Arctium), a genus of biennial plants in the Asteraceae family, bearing globular flower heads with prickly bracts (modified leaves). Burdock species, native to Europe and Asia, have been naturalized throughout North America. Though regarded as weeds in the United States, they are

  • Arctium minus (plant)

    burdock: Common, or lesser, burdock (Arctium minus) is a weed in North American pastures and hayfields and can be grown as a vegetable. The plant forms a low rosette during its first year and develops a tall branched stem during its second year. The leaves have a wavy…

  • Arctocephalus (mammal)

    fur seal: The eight species of southern fur seals (Arctocephalus) are distributed in the Southern Hemisphere, except for a herd of Guadalupe fur seals (A. townsendi) on Guadalupe Island off the northwest coast of Baja California. Southern fur seals are gray to brown or black in colour with chestnut-coloured underfur. Length…

  • Arctocephalus australis (mammal)

    fur seal: …the late 1970s about 14,000 South American fur seals (A. australis) were being harvested annually. Other species, including the once-numerous New Zealand fur seal (A. forsteri), the Galapagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis), and the Juan Fernandez fur seal (A. philippii), all of which were hunted nearly to the point of…

  • Arctocephalus forsteri (mammal)

    fur seal: Other species, including the once-numerous New Zealand fur seal (A. forsteri), the Galapagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis), and the Juan Fernandez fur seal (A. philippii), all of which were hunted nearly to the point of extinction, have been protected by law.

  • Arctocephalus galapagoensis (mammal)

    fur seal: forsteri), the Galapagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis), and the Juan Fernandez fur seal (A. philippii), all of which were hunted nearly to the point of extinction, have been protected by law.

  • Arctocephalus philippii (mammal)

    fur seal: galapagoensis), and the Juan Fernandez fur seal (A. philippii), all of which were hunted nearly to the point of extinction, have been protected by law.

  • Arctocephalus pusillus (mammal)

    fur seal: …metres (4–6 feet), but the South African, or Cape, fur seal (A. pusillus) and the Australian fur seal (A. pusillus doriferus) grow to lengths and weights of about 2.5 metres (8 feet) and 300 kg in the male, 1.8 metres and 120 kg (265 pounds) in the female. Like the…

  • Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (mammal)

    fur seal: pusillus) and the Australian fur seal (A. pusillus doriferus) grow to lengths and weights of about 2.5 metres (8 feet) and 300 kg in the male, 1.8 metres and 120 kg (265 pounds) in the female. Like the northern form, southern fur seals are gregarious and carnivorous. By…

  • Arctocephalus townsendi (mammal)

    fur seal: …except for a herd of Guadalupe fur seals (A. townsendi) on Guadalupe Island off the northwest coast of Baja California. Southern fur seals are gray to brown or black in colour with chestnut-coloured underfur. Length averages about 1.2–1.8 metres (4–6 feet), but the South African, or Cape, fur seal (A.…

  • Arctocyon (fossil mammal genus)

    Condylarthra: …some condylarths appear almost carnivore-like; Arctocyon, for example, had long canines and triangular premolars.

  • Arctogaea Realm (faunal region)

    biogeographic region: Fauna: Wallace recognized three realms: Megagaea or Arcotogaea, which includes Africa, Eurasia, and North America; Notogaea, including Australia, Oceania, and New Zealand; and Neogaea, including Central and South America. His divisions, although modified, form the basis of the realms recognized today (Figure 2).

  • Arctoidea (mammal)

    carnivore: Critical appraisal: …families into two distinct superfamilies, Canoidea and Feloidea (or Aeluroidea), appears to be a natural arrangement dating back to the works of W.H. Flower and H. Winge in the late 1800s. In Canoidea, as revealed by studies in comparative anatomy and the fossil record, the families Canidae, Ursidae, and Procyonidae…

  • Arctolepis (placoderm genus)

    Arctolepis, extinct genus of placoderms (fishlike animals) present during the early part of the Devonian Period (416 million to 360 million years ago), member of a group known as the arthrodires, or jointed-neck fishes. Arctolepis had a bony head and trunk shield but was unarmoured behind the trunk

  • Arctonoe (polychaete genus)

    annelid: Annotated classification: mouse), Halosydna (common scale worm), Arctonoe. Order Amphinomida Free-moving; prostomium with 1 to 5 antennae, 2 palpi, and a caruncle (posterior ridge) deeply set into anterior segments; parapodia with 2 lobes and branchiae (gills); size, 0.5 to 35 cm; examples of genera: Eurythoe (fireworm), Euphrosyne.

  • Arctonyx collaris (mammal)

    badger: The hog badger (Arctonyx collaris), also called the hog-nosed, or sand, badger, is a pale-clawed species of both lowland and mountainous regions in a range similar to that of ferret badgers. It is gray to black, with a black-and-white-striped head pattern and white throat, ears, and…

  • Arctos (constellation)

    Ursa Major, (Latin: “Greater Bear”) in astronomy, a constellation of the northern sky, at about 10 hours 40 minutes right ascension and 56° north declination. It was referred to in the Old Testament (Job 9:9; 38:32) and mentioned by Homer in the Iliad (xviii, 487). The Greeks identified this

  • Arctostaphylos (plant)

    Manzanita, any of about 50 species of evergreen shrubs and trees of the genus Arctostaphylos, of the heath family (Ericaceae), native to western North America. The leaves are alternate, thick, evergreen, and smooth-edged. The small, urn-shaped flowers are pink or white and are borne in terminal

  • Arctostaphylos manzanita (plant)

    manzanita: manzanita, the common manzanita, and A. stanfordiana, the stanford manzanita—are cultivated for their showy, massive displays of flowers and beautiful smooth bark. The fruit of the manzanita is a smooth brown or red berry that contains one or more stones.

  • Arctostaphylos stanfordiana (plant)

    manzanita: stanfordiana, the stanford manzanita—are cultivated for their showy, massive displays of flowers and beautiful smooth bark. The fruit of the manzanita is a smooth brown or red berry that contains one or more stones.

  • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (plant)

    Bearberry, (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), flowering prostrate evergreen shrubs of the heath family (Ericaceae), occurring widely throughout the northern reaches of Europe, Asia, and North America in rocky and sandy woods and in open areas. It has woody stems that are often 1.5–1.8 metres (5–6 feet)

  • Arcturus (star)

    Arcturus, one of the five brightest stars in the night sky, and the brightest star in the northern constellation Boötes, with an apparent visual magnitude of −0.05. It is an orange-coloured giant star 36.7 light-years from Earth. It lies in an almost direct line with the tail of Ursa Major (the

  • Arcturus the Hunting Hound and Other Stories (work by Kazakov)

    children's literature: Russia/Soviet Union: …nature and animal tales in Arcturus the Hunting Hound and Other Stories (1968) by Yury Kazakov. But one can only record, without judging, the vast production of such popular children’s writers as Samuil Marshak, Sergey Mikhalkov, Lev Kassil, and N. Nosov. Especially notable is the popularity of poetry, whether it…

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