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  • aquatic leech (annelid)

    annelid: Food and feeding: Marine leeches attach to, and feed directly from, the gills of fish. Other leeches are carnivorous and feed on oligochaetes and snails.

  • aquatic locomotion

    Aquatic locomotion, in animals, movement through water either by swimming or by progression in contact with the substrate (i.e., the bottom or other surfaces). Free-swimming locomotion is found in animals ranging from protozoans to whales. For effective swimming the animal controls its buoyancy

  • aquatic plant (botany)

    tree: Tree roots: Hydrophytic trees have various modifications that facilitate their survival and growth in the aqueous environment. Some species produce a high frequency of lenticels on the bark that facilitate gas exchange. Others exhibit greater permeation of oxygen through the bark and into the cambium at lower…

  • aquatint (printmaking)

    Aquatint, a variety of etching widely used by printmakers to achieve a broad range of tonal values. The process is called aquatint because finished prints often resemble watercolour drawings or wash drawings. The technique consists of exposing a copperplate to acid through a layer of melted

  • aquavit (liquor)

    Aquavit, flavoured, distilled liquor, clear to pale yellow in colour, dry in flavour, and ranging in alcohol content from about 42 to 45 percent by volume. It is distilled from a fermented potato or grain mash, redistilled in the presence of flavouring agents, filtered with charcoal, and usually

  • aquavite (liquor)

    Aquavit, flavoured, distilled liquor, clear to pale yellow in colour, dry in flavour, and ranging in alcohol content from about 42 to 45 percent by volume. It is distilled from a fermented potato or grain mash, redistilled in the presence of flavouring agents, filtered with charcoal, and usually

  • Aquaviva, Claudio (Jesuit leader)

    Claudio Aquaviva, fifth and youngest general of the Society of Jesus, considered by many to have been the order’s greatest leader. The youngest son of the Duke of Atri, he joined the order in 1567. Shortly after completing his studies he was appointed provincial superior of Naples and then of Rome.

  • aqueduct (engineering)

    Aqueduct, (from Latin aqua + ducere, “to lead water”), conduit built to convey water. In a restricted sense, aqueducts are structures used to conduct a water stream across a hollow or valley. In modern engineering, however, aqueduct refers to a system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and

  • Aqueduct Bridge (bridge, New York, United States)

    John Bloomfield Jervis: …Reservoir as well as the Aqueduct Bridge, which was built on 15 stone arches and crossed the Harlem River. In 1846 Jervis served as the consulting engineer for the Boston water-supply system.

  • Aquem-os-Montes (historical province, Portugal)

    Minho, historical provincia, northwesternmost Portugal. It was originally called Entre Douro e Minho, the region between the Minho and Douro rivers. The area was occupied by both the Celts and the Romans, the former having left numerous ruins called castra, or hill forts. There is a narrow coastal

  • Aquen, Jerome van (Netherlandish painter)

    Hiëronymus Bosch, brilliant and original northern European painter whose work reveals an unusual iconography of a complex and individual style. He was recognized as a highly imaginative “creator of devils” and a powerful inventor of seeming nonsense full of satirical and moralizing meaning. Bosch

  • aqueous humor (physiology)

    Aqueous humour, optically clear, slightly alkaline liquid that occupies the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye (the space in front of the iris and lens and the ringlike space encircling the lens). The aqueous humour resembles blood plasma in composition but contains less protein and glucose

  • aqueous humour (physiology)

    Aqueous humour, optically clear, slightly alkaline liquid that occupies the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye (the space in front of the iris and lens and the ringlike space encircling the lens). The aqueous humour resembles blood plasma in composition but contains less protein and glucose

  • aquiculture (fishery)

    Aquaculture, an approximate equivalent in fishing to agriculture—that is, the rearing of fish, shellfish, and some aquatic plants to supplement the natural supply. Fish are reared under controlled conditions all over the world. Fish may be confined in earth ponds, concrete pools, barricaded coastal

  • Aquidneck Island (island, Rhode Island, United States)

    Rhode Island, island, largest in Narragansett Bay, eastern Rhode Island, U.S., occupying an area of 44 square miles (114 square km). Aquidneck is the Indian name for what was later called Rhode Island. The source of the modern name is unclear: it either was given by colonist Roger Williams,

  • aquifer (hydrology)

    Aquifer, in hydrology, rock layer that contains water and releases it in appreciable amounts. The rock contains water-filled pore spaces, and, when the spaces are connected, the water is able to flow through the matrix of the rock. An aquifer also may be called a water-bearing stratum, lens, or

  • Aquifoliaceae (plant family)

    Aquifoliaceae, the holly family, in the order Aquifoliales, found worldwide, comprising two genera and about 400 species of shrubs and trees, best known for the genus Ilex (see holly). Four species of Byronia are in the Polynesian and Australian area, and only one species of mountain holly

  • Aquifoliales (plant order)

    Aquifoliales, holly order of flowering plants, containing more than 536 species in five families, mainly Aquifoliaceae. Aquifoliales belongs to the core asterid clade (organisms with a single common ancestor), or sympetalous lineage of flowering plants, in the euasterid II group of the Angiosperm

  • Aquila (ancient biblical scholar)

    Aquila, scholar who in about ad 140 completed a literal translation into Greek of the Old Testament; it replaced the Septuagint (q.v.) among Jews and was used by the Church Fathers Origen in the 3rd century and St. Jerome in the 4th and 5th centuries. St. Epiphanius (c. 315—403) preserved in his

  • Aquila (constellation)

    Aquila, (Latin: “Eagle”) constellation in the northern sky, at about 20 hours right ascension and on the celestial equator in declination. The brightest star in Aquila is Altair (Arabic: “Flying Eagle”), the 12th brightest star in the sky. With the nearby bright stars Deneb and Vega, Altair forms

  • Aquila audax (bird)

    kangaroo: Common features: The wedge-tailed eagle (Aquila audax) is one of the macropodids’ few natural predators.

  • Aquila chrysaetos (bird)

    Golden eagle, (Aquila chrysaetos), dark brown eagle of the family Accipitridae, characterized by golden lanceolate nape feathers (hackles), dark eyes, yellow cere, gray beak, fully feathered legs, large yellow feet, and great talons. Its wingspread reaches 2.3 metres (almost 8 feet). It is the

  • Aquila verreauxii (bird)

    eagle: Verreaux’s eagle (Aquila verreauxii) is an uncommon bird of eastern and southern Africa. It is black with white rump and wing patches. It reaches about 80 cm (31 inches) in length, and it subsists mainly on hyraxes.Seebateleur; golden eagle.

  • Aquila, Juan del (Spanish commander)

    Hugh Roe O'Donnell: …support of the Spanish commander, Juan del Aquila, who counseled an immediate attack against the advice of the more cautious O’Neill, may well have brought about the crushing defeat that may be regarded as the death blow of the old Gaelic Ireland. O’Donnell then went to Spain, where he died…

  • Aquila, L’ (Italy)

    L’Aquila, city, capital of Abruzzi region, central Italy. It is situated on a hill above the Aterno River, northeast of Rome. The area was settled by the Sabini, an ancient Italic tribe, after their town Amiternum was destroyed by the Romans and later by the barbarians. The city was founded about

  • Aquila, Lex (Roman law)

    delict: …they were superseded by the Lex Aquila in the early 3rd century bc. This law covered slaves and animals as well as buildings. If a slave or a grazing animal was unlawfully killed, the damages were equal to the highest value of the slave or animal in the preceding year;…

  • Aquilegia (plant)

    Columbine, any of approximately 100 species of perennial herbaceous plants constituting the genus Aquilegia of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) native to Europe and North America. Several species of columbine and a number of hybrids are cultivated for their attractive flowers. Columbines are

  • Aquilegia caerulea (plant)

    columbine: From A. caerulea and A. chysantha, both native to the Rocky Mountains, have been developed many garden hybrids with showy long-spurred flowers in a variety of colours ranging from white to yellow, red, and blue. The wild columbine of North America (A. canadensis) grows in woods…

  • Aquilegia chysantha (plant)

    columbine: caerulea and A. chysantha, both native to the Rocky Mountains, have been developed many garden hybrids with showy long-spurred flowers in a variety of colours ranging from white to yellow, red, and blue. The wild columbine of North America (A. canadensis) grows in woods and on rocky…

  • Aquilegia vulgaris (plant)

    columbine: The common European columbine (A. vulgaris) grows 45–75 cm (18–30 inches) tall along roadsides and woodland edges. The species and its several hybrids, which are known for their nodding flowers with short incurved spurs, are cultivated widely in North America. From A. caerulea and A. chysantha, both…

  • Aquileia (Italy)

    Aquileia, formerly a city of the Roman Empire and a patriarchate of the Roman Catholic Church; it is now a village in the Friuli–Venezia Giulia region in northeastern Italy, on the Natisone River near the Adriatic coast, northwest of Trieste. Founded as a Roman colony in 181 bc to prevent barbarian

  • Aquileia, Battle of (Roman Empire)

    mystery religion: Mystery religions and Christianity: …crushed in battle at the Frigidus River (now called the Vipacco River in Italy and the Vipava in Slovenia).

  • Aquilia (Italy)

    Acireale, town and episcopal see, eastern Sicily, Italy, on terraces above the Ionian Sea at the foot of Mount Etna, 7 miles (11 km) northeast of Catania. Known as Aquilia by the Romans, the town was called Reale by Philip IV of Spain in 1642. The first part of its name is derived from the ancient

  • Aquin, Hubert (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: Contemporary trends: …the brilliantly convoluted novels of Hubert Aquin that followed his Prochain épisode (1965; “Next Episode”; Eng. trans. Prochain Episode). Marie-Claire Blais’s Une Saison dans la vie d’Emmanuel (1965; A Season in the Life of Emmanuel), which won the Prix Médicis, presented a scathing denunciation of Quebec rural life, and Godbout’s…

  • Aquinas (Italian Christian theologian and philosopher)

    St. Thomas Aquinas, ; canonized July 18, 1323; feast day January 28, formerly March 7), Italian Dominican theologian, the foremost medieval Scholastic. He developed his own conclusions from Aristotelian premises, notably in the metaphysics of personality, creation, and Providence. As a theologian,

  • Aquinas, Thomas, Saint (Italian Christian theologian and philosopher)

    St. Thomas Aquinas, ; canonized July 18, 1323; feast day January 28, formerly March 7), Italian Dominican theologian, the foremost medieval Scholastic. He developed his own conclusions from Aristotelian premises, notably in the metaphysics of personality, creation, and Providence. As a theologian,

  • Aquincum (ancient settlement, Hungary)

    Aquincum, important town in the Roman province of Pannonia; its ruins have been excavated in northern Budapest, Hung., near the west bank of the Danube River. At its peak, the civilian settlement reached as far as the military camp that was situated in what today is the district of Óbuda, just over

  • Aquino (Italy)

    Aquino, town, Lazio regione, south-central Italy, southeast of Frosinone city. The ancient town (the site of which is nearby) prospered from its position on the Roman road, Via Latina, until it was laid waste by Totila, a Gothic king, in the mid-6th century and abandoned for the more fertile

  • Aquino, Benigno III (president of Philippines)

    Benigno Aquino III, Filipino politician who served as president of the Philippines (2010–16) and was the scion of a famed political family. He was the son of Corazon Aquino, who served as president of the Philippines (1986–92), and political leader Benigno Simeon Aquino, Jr.—themselves the children

  • Aquino, Benigno Simeon Cojuangco III (president of Philippines)

    Benigno Aquino III, Filipino politician who served as president of the Philippines (2010–16) and was the scion of a famed political family. He was the son of Corazon Aquino, who served as president of the Philippines (1986–92), and political leader Benigno Simeon Aquino, Jr.—themselves the children

  • Aquino, Benigno Simeon, Jr. (Filipino politician)

    Benigno Aquino, Jr., the chief opposition leader during the era of martial law in the Philippines (1972–81) under Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos. Aquino’s assassination in 1983 galvanized popular opposition to the Marcos government and brought his widow, Corazon Aquino, to the political forefront. The

  • Aquino, Benigno, Jr. (Filipino politician)

    Benigno Aquino, Jr., the chief opposition leader during the era of martial law in the Philippines (1972–81) under Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos. Aquino’s assassination in 1983 galvanized popular opposition to the Marcos government and brought his widow, Corazon Aquino, to the political forefront. The

  • Aquino, Corazon (president of Philippines)

    Corazon Aquino, Philippine political leader who served as the first female president (1986–92) of the Philippines, restoring democratic rule in that country after the long dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. Corazon Cojuangco was born into a wealthy, politically prominent family based in Tarlac

  • Aquino, Maria Corazon (president of Philippines)

    Corazon Aquino, Philippine political leader who served as the first female president (1986–92) of the Philippines, restoring democratic rule in that country after the long dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. Corazon Cojuangco was born into a wealthy, politically prominent family based in Tarlac

  • Aquino, Ninoy (Filipino politician)

    Benigno Aquino, Jr., the chief opposition leader during the era of martial law in the Philippines (1972–81) under Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos. Aquino’s assassination in 1983 galvanized popular opposition to the Marcos government and brought his widow, Corazon Aquino, to the political forefront. The

  • Aquino, Noynoy (president of Philippines)

    Benigno Aquino III, Filipino politician who served as president of the Philippines (2010–16) and was the scion of a famed political family. He was the son of Corazon Aquino, who served as president of the Philippines (1986–92), and political leader Benigno Simeon Aquino, Jr.—themselves the children

  • Aquinos of Tarlac: An Essay on History of Three Generations, The (work by Joaqiun)

    Nick Joaquin: The Aquinos of Tarlac: An Essay on History as Three Generations (1983) presents a biography of Benigno Aquino, the assassinated presidential candidate. The action of the novel Cave and Shadows (1983) occurs in the period of martial law under Ferdinand Marcos. Joaquin’s other works include…

  • Aquinum (Italy)

    Aquino, town, Lazio regione, south-central Italy, southeast of Frosinone city. The ancient town (the site of which is nearby) prospered from its position on the Roman road, Via Latina, until it was laid waste by Totila, a Gothic king, in the mid-6th century and abandoned for the more fertile

  • Aquiri River (river, Brazil)

    Acre River, river, chiefly in western Brazil, rising on the Peruvian border, along which it continues eastward to form part of the Brazil–Bolivia border. Turning north at Brasiléia, the remainder of its 400-mi (645-km) course flows in a north-northeasterly direction, through the Brazilian states o

  • Aquisgranum (Germany)

    Aachen, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. Its municipal boundaries coincide on the west with the frontiers of Belgium and the Netherlands. It was a royal residence of the emperor Charlemagne, and it served as the principal coronation site of Holy Roman emperors and of

  • Aquitaine (former region, France)

    Aquitaine, former région of France. As a région, it encompassed the southwestern départements of Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, and Pyrénées-Atlantiques. In 2016 the Aquitaine région was joined with the régions of Poitou-Charentes and Limousin to form the new administrative entity of

  • Aquitaine Basin (plains, France)

    France: The Aquitaine Basin: The Loire countryside links with the Aquitaine Basin of southwestern France through the gap known as the Gate of Poitou. The Aquitaine Basin is much smaller than the Paris Basin, and, while it is bounded in the south by the Pyrenees, in the…

  • Aquitaine, John of Gaunt, duc d’ (English prince)

    John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, English prince, fourth but third surviving son of the English king Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut; he exercised a moderating influence in the political and constitutional struggles of the reign of his nephew Richard II. He was the immediate ancestor of the

  • Aquitania (ship)

    ocean liner: …ribbon for transatlantic speed; the “Aquitania,” also a Cunarder, the last four-funnelled vessel; the German “Vaterland,” seized in New York in 1917 and renamed “Leviathan,” for many years the largest ship afloat; the 80,000-ton “Queen Mary” and “Queen Elizabeth,” giant Cunarders of the 1940s and 1950s; the French Line’s “Normandie,”…

  • Aquitanian Stage (stratigraphy)

    Aquitanian Stage, earliest and lowermost division of Miocene rocks, representing all rocks deposited worldwide during the Aquitanian Age (23 million to 20.4 million years ago) of the Neogene Period (23 million to 2.6 million years ago). The stage is named for exposures in the region of Aquitaine in

  • Ar (chemical element)

    Argon (Ar), chemical element, inert gas of Group 18 (noble gases) of the periodic table, terrestrially the most abundant and industrially the most frequently used of the noble gases. Colourless, odourless, and tasteless, argon gas was isolated (1894) from air by the British scientists Lord Rayleigh

  • AR-15 (firearm)

    M16 rifle, assault rifle developed as the AR-15 by American engineer Eugene Stoner of ArmaLite Inc. in the late 1950s. The rifle received high marks for its light weight, its accuracy, and the volume of fire that it could provide. The AR-15 was developed as a more portable alternative to the

  • AR-18 (British rifle)

    ArmaLite rifle: ArmaLite’s AR-18 rifle resembled and operated like the AR-15, but it was carefully redesigned to be easily manufactured with unsophisticated equipment in less-developed countries—although no such arrangement was actually made.

  • Ar-Rahad (river, Africa)

    Rahad River, tributary of the Blue Nile, rising in the Ethiopian highlands, west of Lake Tana. It flows more than 300 miles (480 km) northwest into the eastern part of Sudan to join the Blue Nile above Wad Madani. Although waterless during the dry season, it has a large flow during the flood season

  • ārā (Jainism)

    Jainism: Time and the universe: …wheel with 12 spokes (ara), the equivalent of ages, six of which form an ascending arc and six a descending one. In the ascending arc (utsarpini) humans progress in knowledge, age, stature, and happiness, while in the descending arc (avasarpini) they deteriorate. The two cycles joined together make one…

  • ARA (American organization)

    20th-century international relations: Allied approaches to the Bolsheviks: (In 1921 the American relief commission nonetheless began distribution of food that saved countless Russians from starvation.)

  • Ara (India)

    Ara, city, western Bihar state, northeastern India. It is situated on a tributary of the Ganges (Ganga) River, about 30 miles (50 km) west of Patna. The city is a major rail and road junction. Agricultural trade and oilseed milling are carried on there. It is the site of several colleges affiliated

  • Ara (constellation)

    Ara, (Latin: “Altar”) constellation in the southern sky, at about 17 hours right ascension and 55° south in declination. Ara has no bright stars; the brightest, Beta Arae, has a visual magnitude of 2.83. The constellation represents the altar on which Zeus and other Greek gods swore their

  • Ara ambiguus (bird)

    macaw: …glaucogularis) of northern Bolivia, the great green macaw (Ara ambiguus) of northern Colombia and Central America, and Lear’s macaw (Anodorhynchus leari) of Brazil. The most recent confirmed sighting of a non-captive Spix’s macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii)—the bird that inspired the popular children’s films Rio (2011) and Rio 2 (2014)—occurred in 2000,…

  • Ara ararauna (bird)

    macaw: One species, the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna), has been recorded eating at least 20 species of plants, including many toxic to humans. In Manú National Park in Peru, the members of five macaw species converge by the hundreds at mineral-rich riverbanks to eat the clay there, which may…

  • Ara glaucogularis (bird)

    macaw: …risk of extinction include the blue-throated macaw (Ara glaucogularis) of northern Bolivia, the great green macaw (Ara ambiguus) of northern Colombia and Central America, and Lear’s macaw (Anodorhynchus leari) of Brazil. The most recent confirmed sighting of a non-captive Spix’s macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii)—the bird that inspired the popular children’s films…

  • Ara Jovis (Spain)

    Aranjuez, town, Madrid provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), central Spain, on the southern bank of the Tagus River near its confluence with the Jarama. The town, which has existed since Roman times, was the headquarters of the Knights of Santiago (1387–1409) and

  • Ara macao (bird)

    macaw: The scarlet macaw (Ara macao) is probably the best-known New World parrot. Its brilliant red, yellow, and blue plumage contrasts with a bare white face that may blush when the bird is excited. Flying with distinctive slow wingbeats and their long tails trailing, scarlet macaws are…

  • Ara Maxima (ancient Roman altar)

    Cacus and Caca: …Roman place of worship, the Ara Maxima, in the Forum Boarium (Cattle Market), whose name is believed to commemorate these events.

  • Ara Metua (road, Rarotonga, Cook Islands)

    Avarua: A second, inner road, Ara Metua, said to have been built by an ancient Polynesian chief, passes alongside the ring road near the town and, like Ara Tapu, also reaches most of the island’s periphery. Rarotonga Airport, located about 2.5 miles (4 km) west of Avarua, is the entry…

  • Ara Pacis (shrine, Rome, Italy)

    Ara Pacis, shrine consisting of a marble altar in a walled enclosure erected in Rome’s Campus Martius (Field of Mars) in honour of the emperor Augustus and dedicated on Jan. 30, 9 bce. The dedication was recorded in Ovid’s Fasti as well as by Augustus himself in his “Res Gestae Divi Augusti”

  • Ara Pacis Augustae (shrine, Rome, Italy)

    Ara Pacis, shrine consisting of a marble altar in a walled enclosure erected in Rome’s Campus Martius (Field of Mars) in honour of the emperor Augustus and dedicated on Jan. 30, 9 bce. The dedication was recorded in Ovid’s Fasti as well as by Augustus himself in his “Res Gestae Divi Augusti”

  • ara-mitama (Japanese religious spirit)

    tama: Among them are the ara-mitama (with the power of ruling), the kushi-mitama (with the power of transforming), the nigi-mitama (with the power of unifying, or harmonizing), and the saki-mitama (with the power of blessing). Some shrines pay homage to a particular mitama of a deity, such as the separate…

  • ʿArab (people)

    Arab, one whose native language is Arabic. (See also Arabic language.) Before the spread of Islam and, with it, the Arabic language, Arab referred to any of the largely nomadic Semitic inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula. In modern usage, it embraces any of the Arabic-speaking peoples living in

  • Arab (people)

    Arab, one whose native language is Arabic. (See also Arabic language.) Before the spread of Islam and, with it, the Arabic language, Arab referred to any of the largely nomadic Semitic inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula. In modern usage, it embraces any of the Arabic-speaking peoples living in

  • Arab American (people)

    civil rights: Civil rights movements across the globe: More recently, Arab Americans and the LGBTQ community took centre stage in the struggle to achieve equal protection and equal opportunity in American society. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Arab Americans suffered from heightened levels of discrimination and hate crimes and had to conform…

  • Arab Art, Museum of (museum, Cairo, Egypt)

    Museum of Islamic Art, museum in Cairo, one of the largest in the world dedicated to Islamic art and artifacts. The museum was founded in 1881, and its collection spans from the 7th-century Umayyad dynasty to the 19th-century Ottoman Empire. In 1903 the museum moved to its current building. The

  • Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (international finance)

    Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa, bank created by the Arab League summit conference in Algiers in November 1973 to finance development projects in Africa. In 1975 BADEA began operating by supplying African countries, excluding members of the Arab League, with technical assistance, which

  • Arab Bureau (French colonial administration)

    Algeria: Colonial rule: …by military officers organized into Arab Bureaus, whose members were officers with an intimate knowledge of local affairs and of the language of the people but with no direct financial interest in the colony. The officers, therefore, often sympathized with the outlook of the people they administered rather than with…

  • Arab Bureaus (French colonial administration)

    Algeria: Colonial rule: …by military officers organized into Arab Bureaus, whose members were officers with an intimate knowledge of local affairs and of the language of the people but with no direct financial interest in the colony. The officers, therefore, often sympathized with the outlook of the people they administered rather than with…

  • Arab Deterrent Force (Middle Eastern military force)

    Palestine: Palestinians and the civil war in Lebanon: …the creation of a 30,000-member Arab Deterrent Force (ADF), a cease-fire throughout the country, withdrawal of forces to positions held before April 1975, and implementation of a 1969 agreement limiting Palestinian guerrilla operations in Lebanon.

  • Arab Economic Unity, Council of (Arab organization)

    Council of Arab Economic Unity, Arab economic organization established in June 1957 by a resolution of the Arab Economic Council of the Arab League. Its first meeting was held in 1964. Members include Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO),

  • Arab Executive (Palestinian Arab organization)

    Palestine: World War I and after: …executive committee (known as the Arab Executive) to act as the representative of the Arabs. It was never formally recognized by the British and was dissolved in 1934. However, the platform of the Haifa congress, which set out the position that Palestine was an autonomous Arab entity and totally rejected…

  • Arab Feminist Union (Arab organization)

    Arab Feminist Union (AFU), transnational organization of feminist associations from Arab countries, which first convened in 1944. The Arab Feminist Union (AFU) focused on achieving social and political gender equality while promoting Arab nationalism. The Egyptian Feminist Union (EFU) and its

  • Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (international aid program)

    Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, Arab League fund designed to promote economic and social development of Arab countries. Established in May 1968, the fund commenced operations in 1972 and serves 20 Arab countries and the Palestine Liberation Organization. By financing development p

  • Arab Higher Committee (Palestinian political organization)

    Palestine: The Arab Revolt: …Arab political parties formed an Arab Higher Committee presided over by the mufti of Jerusalem, Amīn al-Ḥusaynī. It called for a general strike, nonpayment of taxes, and the closing of municipal governments (although government employees were allowed to stay at work) and demanded an end to Jewish immigration, a ban…

  • Arab integration (pan-Arab movement)

    Arab integration, efforts aimed at achieving closer cooperation and assimilation between different Arab countries and subregions. Depending on the context in which the concept is used, integration could be meant as political, economic, or institutional. The term has been used in various frameworks,

  • Arab Language Academy (school, Damascus, Syria)

    Damascus: Cultural life: The prestigious Arabic Language Academy of Damascus (1919) is a bastion of Arabic language, working both to preserve and modernize the language. The National Museum, established in 1936, boasts an extraordinary collection of artifacts from across the country, representing six millennia of civilization. A military museum occupies…

  • Arab League

    Arab League, regional organization of Arab states in the Middle East and parts of Africa, formed in Cairo on March 22, 1945, as an outgrowth of Pan-Arabism. The founding member states were Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Transjordan (now Jordan), Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Other members are Libya

  • Arab Legion (Jordanian history)

    Arab Legion, police force raised in 1923 by British Lieut. Col. Frederick Gerard Peake (who had served with T.E. Lawrence’s Arab forces in World War I), in what was then the British protectorate of Transjordan, to keep order among Transjordanian tribes and to safeguard Transjordanian villagers from

  • Arab Liberation Flag (flag)

    flag of Egypt: The 1952 revolt established the Arab Liberation Flag, which had red-white-black horizontal stripes and a gold eagle. That flag was often flown beside the national flag but did not itself have official status; nevertheless, its design was reflected in the official 1958 national flag of the United Arab Republic, where…

  • Arab Liberation Movement (Syrian political party)

    Adib al-Shishakli: …August 1952 he launched the Arab Liberation Movement, which was to be a mass-based political party under his leadership. No politicians of importance joined this organization, and most united against it. Thus weakened, Shishakli was overthrown by a military revolt that drove him into exile in February 1954.

  • Arab Maghreb Union (international organization)

    Algeria: Relations in North Africa: The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), established in 1989, not only improved relations between the Maghreb states—Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia—but also underscored the need for concerted policies. The AMU sought to bring the countries closer together by creating projects of shared interests. Initially there was…

  • Arab Maghrib Union (international organization)

    Algeria: Relations in North Africa: The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), established in 1989, not only improved relations between the Maghreb states—Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia—but also underscored the need for concerted policies. The AMU sought to bring the countries closer together by creating projects of shared interests. Initially there was…

  • Arab Monetary Fund (international aid program)

    Arab Monetary Fund, fund that aims to assist its participants, nearly all of the members of the Arab League, by developing their capital markets, balancing payment difficulties, and helping with foreign-exchange rates. Established in April 1976, the agreement entered into force in February 1977. D

  • Arab oil embargo (international relations [1973])

    Arab oil embargo, temporary cessation of oil shipments from the Middle East to the United States and the Netherlands, imposed by oil-producing Arab countries in October 1973 in retaliation for U.S. and Dutch support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War; it was lifted in March 1974. The Arab oil

  • Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Organization of (Arab organization)

    Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Arab organization formed in January 1968 to promote international economic cooperation within the petroleum industry. Chairmanship rotates annually; meetings occur twice yearly. Member countries include Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait,

  • Arab rebellion (1936–1939)

    Israel: Immigration and conflict: …the mandate, culminating in the Arab Revolt of 1936–39. This period also marked the birth of local Jewish defense forces. The largest and most widely representative of the various militias, the Haganah (“Defense”) was a branch of the Jewish Agency, the organization most responsible for bringing Jews to Israel.

  • Arab Republic of Egypt

    Egypt, country located in the northeastern corner of Africa. Egypt’s heartland, the Nile River valley and delta, was the home of one of the principal civilizations of the ancient Middle East and, like Mesopotamia farther east, was the site of one of the world’s earliest urban and literate

  • Arab revolt (1936–1939)

    Israel: Immigration and conflict: …the mandate, culminating in the Arab Revolt of 1936–39. This period also marked the birth of local Jewish defense forces. The largest and most widely representative of the various militias, the Haganah (“Defense”) was a branch of the Jewish Agency, the organization most responsible for bringing Jews to Israel.

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