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  • Anhinga rufa (bird)

    darter: novaehollandiae, and A. rufa).

  • Anhingidae (bird)

    Darter, any of two to four species of bird of the family Anhingidae (order Pelecaniformes or Suliformes). The American species, Anhinga anhinga, is widely acknowledged as distinct, but there is debate regarding whether the darters that appear in Africa, Asia, and Oceania constitute one species (A.

  • anhua (pottery)

    pottery: Overglaze colours: …the bodiless ware and the anhua (literally “secret language”). The latter, copied from a traditional Yongle (1402–24) type, has designs lightly incised or painted with white slip. The body is white, and the whole is covered with clear glaze. The decoration can only be seen plainly if light is allowed…

  • Anhui (province, China)

    Anhui, sheng (province), eastern China. It is one of the country’s smallest provinces, stretching for some 350 miles (570 km) from north to south. Landlocked, it is bounded by the provinces of Jiangsu to the northeast, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, and Hubei and Henan to the

  • Anhui School (Chinese painters)

    Chinese painting: Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12): …or Huizhou district of southeastern Anhui province and that drew on the famed landscape of the nearby Huang Mountains. The group of artists now known as the Anhui school (including Ding Yunpeng, Xiao Yuncong, Mei Qing, Zha Shibiao, and Dai Benxiao) mostly pursued an emotional extreme opposite from Gong Xian…

  • Anhwei (province, China)

    Anhui, sheng (province), eastern China. It is one of the country’s smallest provinces, stretching for some 350 miles (570 km) from north to south. Landlocked, it is bounded by the provinces of Jiangsu to the northeast, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, and Hubei and Henan to the

  • anhydride (chemical compound)

    Anhydride, any chemical compound obtained, either in practice or in principle, by the elimination of water from another compound. Examples of inorganic anhydrides are sulfur trioxide, SO3, which is derived from sulfuric acid, and calcium oxide, CaO, derived from calcium hydroxide. Sulfur trioxide

  • anhydrite (mineral)

    Anhydrite, an important rock-forming mineral, anhydrous calcium sulfate (CaSO4). It differs chemically from gypsum (to which it alters in humid conditions) by having no water of crystallization. Anhydrite occurs most often with salt deposits in association with gypsum, as in the cap rock of the

  • anhydrous ammonia (chemical compound)

    agricultural technology: Methods of application: …fertilizers is growing, particularly of anhydrous ammonia, which is handled as a liquid under pressure but changes to gas when released to atmospheric pressure. Anhydrous ammonia, however, is highly corrosive, inflammable, and rather dangerous if not handled properly; thus, application equipment is quite specialized. Typically, the applicator is a chisel-shaped…

  • anhydrous lanolin (chemical compound)

    Lanolin, purified form of wool grease or wool wax (sometimes erroneously called wool fat), used either alone or with soft paraffin or lard or other fat as a base for ointments, emollients, skin foods, salves, superfatted soaps, and fur dressing. Lanolin, a translucent, yellowish-white, soft,

  • Ani (historical city, Armenia)

    Ani, ancient city site in extreme eastern Turkey. Ani lies east of Kars and along the Arpaçay (Akhuryan) River, which forms the border with Armenia to the east. Situated along a major east-west caravan route, Ani first rose to prominence in the 5th century ad and had become a flourishing town by

  • ani (bird)

    Ani, any of three species of big-billed, glossy black birds of the genus Crotophaga of the cuckoo family (Cuculidae), of tropical America. These insect eaters forage on the ground in close and noisy flocks, often in fields with cattle. The bill is high-arched, bladelike, and hook-tipped; the tail

  • Ani papyrus (ancient Egyptian book)

    death: Ancient Egypt: …judgment scene depicted in the Ani papyrus and elsewhere. After the deceased had enumerated the many sins he had not committed (the so-called negative confession), the heart was weighed against the feather of Maʿat (i.e., against what was deemed right and true). It had to prove itself capable of achieving…

  • Ani svati, ani andělé (novel by Klíma)

    Ivan Klíma: …Ani svatí, ani andělé (2001; No Saints or Angels), about cultural and personal havoc in contemporary Prague. His biography of Čapek, The Life and Work of Karel Čapek, was published in 2002.

  • ʿĀnī, Yusuf al- (Iraqi playwright)

    Arabic literature: Modern Arabic drama: …among 20th-century Iraqi playwrights was Yūsuf al-ʿĀnī, whose Anā ummak yā Shākir (1955; “Shākir, I’m Your Mother”) graphically portrays the misery of the Iraqi people in the period before the downfall of the monarchy in the revolution of 1958. Elsewhere in the Arabian Gulf, theatre remained, where it existed at…

  • Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve (national monument, Alaska, United States)

    Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve, large wilderness area in southwestern Alaska, U.S., on the southern shore of the Alaska Peninsula, about 450 miles (720 km) south of Anchorage. Proclaimed a national monument in 1978, the area underwent boundary changes in 1980 when the national preserve

  • Aniakchak River (river, Alaska, United States)

    Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve: …drain, the flow forming the Aniakchak River. Access to the area is by float plane; raft trips also are made on the Aniakchak, which is designated a national wild river.

  • Aniara (work by Martinson)

    Harry Martinson: …social outcasts; and Aniara (1956; Aniara, A Review of Man in Time and Space), an epic poem about space travel that was turned into a successful opera in 1959 by Karl Birger Blomdahl. Martinson’s language is lyrical, unconstrained, innovative, and sometimes obscure; his imagery, sensuous; his style, often starkly realistic…

  • Aniara, A Review of Man in Time and Space (work by Martinson)

    Harry Martinson: …social outcasts; and Aniara (1956; Aniara, A Review of Man in Time and Space), an epic poem about space travel that was turned into a successful opera in 1959 by Karl Birger Blomdahl. Martinson’s language is lyrical, unconstrained, innovative, and sometimes obscure; his imagery, sensuous; his style, often starkly realistic…

  • anicca (Buddhism)

    Anicca, (Pali: “impermanence”) in Buddhism, the doctrine of impermanence. Anicca, anatta (the absence of an abiding self), and dukkha (“suffering”) together make up the ti-lakkhana, the three “marks” or basic characteristics of all phenomenal existence. That the human body is subject to change is

  • Anicetus, Saint (pope)

    Saint Anicetus, ; feast day April 17), pope from approximately 155 to approximately 166. Possibly a Syrian, Anicetus, the tenth successor to St. Peter, laboured to combat the errors of the heresies of Valentine and Marcion and to prevent heresies, working particularly against the Marcionites and

  • Anicius Olybrius (Roman emperor)

    Olybrius, Western Roman emperor from April to November 472. Before he became head of state, Olybrius was a wealthy senator; he married Placidia, the daughter of Valentinian III (Western emperor 425–455). Gaiseric, king of the Vandals, a Germanic people who maintained a kingdom in North Africa,

  • aniconic symbol (religion)

    Aniconism, in religion, opposition to the use of icons or visual images to depict living creatures or religious figures. Such opposition is particularly relevant to the Jewish, Islāmic, and Byzantine artistic traditions. The biblical Second Commandment (part of the First Commandment to Roman

  • aniconism (religion)

    Aniconism, in religion, opposition to the use of icons or visual images to depict living creatures or religious figures. Such opposition is particularly relevant to the Jewish, Islāmic, and Byzantine artistic traditions. The biblical Second Commandment (part of the First Commandment to Roman

  • Anie Peak (mountain, Spain)

    Spain: Relief: …those of the west, including Anie Peak at 8,213 feet (2,503 metres), are not much lower. The mountains fall steeply on the northern side but descend in terraces to the Ebro River trough in the south. The outer zones of the Pyrenees are composed of sedimentary rocks. Relief on the…

  • Anielewicz, Mordecai (Polish hero)

    Mordecai Anielewicz, hero and principal leader of armed Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto during World War II. Anielewicz was born into a working-class family and attended a Hebrew academic secondary school. As a boy he joined Betar, a Zionist youth organization that among other things

  • Aniello, Tommaso (Italian agitator)

    Masaniello, leader of a popular insurrection in Naples against Spanish rule and oppression by the nobles. Masaniello was a young fisherman in 1647 when he was chosen to lead a protest against a new tax on fruit, levied by the nobility to raise money to pay the tribute demanded by Spain. The

  • Aniene River (river, Italy)

    Aniene River, major tributary of the Tiber (Tevere) River in central Italy. It rises from two springs in the Simbruini Mountains near Subiaco, southeast of Rome, flows through a narrow valley past Tivoli, and meanders through the Campagna di Roma (territory) to join the Tiber north of Rome. It is 6

  • Aniki-bóbó (film by Oliveira [1942])

    Manoel de Oliveira: …his feature filmmaking debut with Aniki-bóbó, a naturalistic tale of children in Porto that was later seen as a forerunner of Italian Neorealist cinema. Although the film eventually emerged as a national favourite, it performed poorly at the box office upon its release. Furthermore, its underlying critique of social conditions…

  • Anikulapo-Kuti, Fela (Nigerian musician and activist)

    Fela Kuti, Nigerian musician and activist who launched a modern style of music called Afro-beat, which fused American blues, jazz, and funk with traditional Yoruba music. Kuti was the son of feminist and labour activist Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti. As a youth he took lessons in piano and percussion

  • Anikulapo-Kuti, Funmilayo (Nigerian feminist and political leader)

    Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti, Nigerian feminist and political leader who was the leading advocate of women’s rights in her country during the first half of the 20th century. Her parents were Christians of Yoruba descent. She was the first female student at the Abeokuta Grammar School (a secondary

  • Anil’s Ghost (novel by Ondaatje)

    Canadian literature: Fiction: …wracked by civil war (Anil’s Ghost, 2000), Ondaatje’s lyrical, elliptical narratives spotlight a small coterie of people drawn together by a mystery that shapes the story and governs their lives.

  • Anilaeus (Jewish brigand)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Parthian period: …the Jewish brigands Asinaeus and Anilaeus set up a free state north of Ctesiphon that lasted 15 years before it was overcome by the Parthians. With the end of cuneiform records and with the attention of classical sources turned to the wars between the Romans and the Parthians, information about…

  • Aniliidae (snake family)

    Aniliidae, family of harmless burrowing snakes with primitive features such as a vestigial pelvic girdle, an external claw on each side of the anal opening, and two lungs. The false coral snake (Anilius scytale), the family’s only living member, is South American. It has red and black rings, grows

  • aniline (chemical compound)

    Aniline, an organic base used to make dyes, drugs, explosives, plastics, and photographic and rubber chemicals. Aniline was first obtained in 1826 by the destructive distillation of indigo. Its name is taken from the specific name of the indigo-yielding plant Indigofera anil (Indigofera

  • aniline blue (dye)

    dye: Triphenylmethane dyes: …resulted in the discovery of aniline blue, a promising new dye, although it had poor water solubility. From the molecular formulas of these dyes, Hofmann showed that aniline blue was fuchsine with three more phenyl groups (―C6H5), but the chemical structures were still unknown. In a careful study, the British…

  • aniline dye (chemical compound)

    history of technology: Pharmaceuticals and medical technology: …in 1856 of the first aniline dye had been occasioned by a vain attempt to synthesize quinine from coal tar derivatives. Greater success came in the following decades with the production of the first synthetic antifever drugs and painkilling compounds, culminating in 1899 in the conversion of salicylic acid into…

  • aniline green (drug and dye)

    Malachite green, triphenylmethane dye used medicinally in dilute solution as a local antiseptic. Malachite green is effective against fungi and gram-positive bacteria. In the fish-breeding industry it has been used to control the fungus Saprolegnia, a water mold that kills the eggs and young fry.

  • aniline ink

    flexography: …inks used in flexography are aniline inks (aniline dyes dissolved in alcohol or some other volatile solvent), polyamide inks, acrylic inks, and water-based inks. These are superior to oil-based printing inks because they adhere to the surface of the material, while oil-based inks must be absorbed into the material.

  • aniline printing (printing)

    Flexography, form of rotary printing in which ink is applied to various surfaces by means of flexible rubber (or other elastomeric) printing plates. The inks used in flexography dry quickly by evaporation and are safe for use on wrappers that come directly in contact with foods. In flexography,

  • aniline purple (chemical compound)

    Tyrian purple, naturally occurring dye highly valued in antiquity. It is closely related to indigo

  • Anilius scytale (reptile)

    Aniliidae: The false coral snake (Anilius scytale), the family’s only living member, is South American. It has red and black rings, grows to 75 cm (30 inches), and eats other snakes and lizards.

  • Anilowitz, Mordechai (Polish hero)

    Mordecai Anielewicz, hero and principal leader of armed Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto during World War II. Anielewicz was born into a working-class family and attended a Hebrew academic secondary school. As a boy he joined Betar, a Zionist youth organization that among other things

  • anima (philosophy)

    Lucretius: Argument of the poem: …has two connected parts: the anima distributed throughout the body, which is the cause of sensation, and the animus in the breast, the central consciousness. The soul is born and grows with the body, and at death it is dissipated like “smoke.”

  • animal (organism)

    Animal, (kingdom Animalia), any of a group of multicellular eukaryotic organisms (i.e., as distinct from bacteria, their deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is contained in a membrane-bound nucleus). They are thought to have evolved independently from the unicellular eukaryotes. Animals differ from

  • Animal Aggregations (work by Allee)

    Warder Clyde Allee: …of papers under the title Animal Aggregations. Eight years later, he summarized his knowledge in a book of the same name. The results of his research demonstrated the existence of an unconscious drive among many species of animals for their fellow individuals, thus proving that undercrowding was detrimental to some…

  • animal behaviour

    Animal behaviour, the concept, broadly considered, referring to everything animals do, including movement and other activities and underlying mental processes. Human fascination with animal behaviour probably extends back millions of years, perhaps even to times before the ancestors of the species

  • animal bite

    plesiosaur: …thought to have produced a bite force of 33,000 psi (pound-force per square inch), perhaps the largest bite force of any known animal.

  • animal breeding

    Animal breeding, controlled propagation of domestic animals in order to improve desirable qualities. Humanity has been modifying domesticated animals to better suit human needs for centuries. Selective breeding involves using knowledge from several branches of science. These include genetics,

  • Animal Breeding Research Organisation (research centre, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Dolly: …Wilmut and colleagues of the Roslin Institute, near Edinburgh, Scotland. The announcement in February 1997 of Dolly’s birth marked a milestone in science, dispelling decades of presumption that adult mammals could not be cloned and igniting a debate concerning the many possible uses and misuses of mammalian cloning technology.

  • animal camouflage (biology)

    Concealing coloration, in animals, the use of biological coloration to mask location, identity, and movement, providing concealment from prey and protection from predators. Background matching is a type of concealment in which an organism avoids recognition by resembling its background in

  • animal cannibalism (animal behaviour)

    Cannibalism, in zoology, the eating of any animal by another member of the same species. Cannibalism frequently serves as a mechanism to control population or to ensure the genetic contribution of an individual. In certain ants, injured immatures are regularly consumed. When food is lacking, the

  • animal charcoal (charcoal)

    Bone black, a form of charcoal produced by heating bone in the presence of a limited amount of air. It is used in removing coloured impurities from liquids, especially solutions of raw sugar. Bone black contains only about 12 percent elemental carbon, the remainder being made up principally of

  • animal communication

    Animal communication, process by which one animal provides information that other animals can incorporate into their decision making. The vehicle for the provision of this information is called a signal. The signal may be a sound, colour pattern, posture, movement, electrical discharge, touch,

  • Animal Communities in Temperate America (work by Shelford)

    Victor Ernest Shelford: His Animal Communities in Temperate America (1913) was one of the first books to treat ecology as a separate science.

  • animal control (community service)
  • Animal Crackers (film by Heerman [1930])

    Marx Brothers: …as the letter-writing routine in Animal Crackers) indicate that he too had a sound sense of comic timing.

  • animal cruelty

    Cruelty to animals, willful or wanton infliction of pain, suffering, or death upon an animal or the intentional or malicious neglect of an animal. Perhaps the world’s first anticruelty law, which addressed the treatment of domesticated animals, was included in the legal code of the Massachusetts

  • animal development

    Animal development, the processes that lead eventually to the formation of a new animal starting from cells derived from one or more parent individuals. Development thus occurs following the process by which a new generation of organisms is produced by the parent generation. In multicellular

  • animal diet

    livestock farming: Basic dietary requirements: Pigs have the same basic nutritional requirements as humans, which include water, various vitamins and minerals, protein for growth and repair, carbohydrates for energy, and fat to supply essential fatty acids that are not synthesized in adequate quantities. Water is often a forgotten

  • animal disease (non-human)

    Animal disease, an impairment of the normal state of an animal that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. Concern with diseases that afflict animals dates from the earliest human contacts with animals and is reflected in early views of religion and magic. Diseases of animals remain a concern

  • animal dispersal in rainforests

    Numerous plants depend on animal dispersers to transport seeds either internally or externally. Birds generally disperse seeds internally by eating the fruits, which are often small and red and the numerous seeds of which easily pass through the birds’ digestive systems. Some seeds actually have

  • Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour (work by Wynne-Edwards)

    group selection: …reemerged with the publication of Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour (1962), a work by British zoologist V.C. Wynne-Edwards. Wynne-Edwards argued that individual subordination of selfish interests to promote group well-being could not be explained by individual selection. This was particularly so, he believed, for altruistic behaviours such as…

  • Animal Dreams (novel by Kingsolver)

    Barbara Kingsolver: In Animal Dreams (1990) a disconnected woman finds purpose and moral challenges when she returns to live in her small Arizona hometown. Pigs in Heaven (1993), a sequel to her first novel, deals with the protagonist’s attempts to defend her adoption of her Native American daughter.…

  • Animal Drive and the Learning Process (work by Holt)

    Edwin B. Holt: …completed the first volume of Animal Drive and the Learning Process (1931). This work contributed to the development of dynamic psychology, or the psychology of human nature, and sought to explain the significance of radical empiricism for psychology.

  • Animal Ecology (work by Elton)

    Charles Elton: Establishment of ecology: Elton’s first book, Animal Ecology, published in 1927, was a landmark not only for his brilliant treatment of animal communities but also because the main features of his discussion have remained as leading principles of the subject ever since: food chains and the food cycle, the size of…

  • Animal Ecology and Evolution (work by Elton)

    Charles Elton: Establishment of ecology: …1930 appeared his provocative book Animal Ecology and Evolution, in which he said that “the balance of nature does not exist and perhaps never has existed.” Moreover, “in periods of stress it is a common thing for animals to change their habitats and usually this change involves migration.” And again,…

  • Animal Enterprise Protection Act (United States [1992])

    ecoterrorism: …passage in 1992 of the Animal Enterprise Protection Act (AEPA). The act defined a new legal category of “animal enterprise terrorism” as the intentional “physical disruption” of an animal enterprise (e.g., a factory farm, a slaughterhouse, an animal experimentation laboratory, or a rodeo) that causes economic damage (including loss of…

  • Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act (United States [2006])

    ecoterrorism: In 2005 the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act (AETA) expanded the definition of animal enterprise terrorism to include “interfering with” the operations of an animal enterprise, extended protection to third-party enterprises having a relationship to or transactions with an animal enterprise, expanded the definition of animal enterprise to include…

  • animal experimentation (biology)

    animal disease: Animals in research: the biomedical model: …more than 1,200,000 species of animals thus far identified, only a few have been utilized in research, even though it is likely that, for every known human disease, an identical or similar disease exists in at least one other animal species. Veterinary medicine plays an ever-increasing role in the health…

  • Animal Farm (novel by Orwell)

    Animal Farm, anti-utopian satire by George Orwell, published in 1945. One of Orwell’s finest works, it is a political fable based on the events of Russia’s Bolshevik revolution and the betrayal of the cause by Joseph Stalin. The book concerns a group of barnyard animals who overthrow and chase off

  • Animal Farm (cartoon by Halas and Batchelor)

    John Halas and Joy Batchelor: …of the George Orwell novel Animal Farm, England’s first full-length colour feature cartoon. Their other projects included The History of the Cinema (1956); Automania 2000 (1963); Dilemma (1982), the first fully digitized film; and more than 2,000 other animated films. Many later cartoons, documentaries, and educational shorts were commissioned specifically…

  • animal fat

    fat: Physical and chemical properties: …oils) may be divided into animal and vegetable fats according to source. Further, they may be classified according to their degree of unsaturation as measured by their ability to absorb iodine at the double bonds. This degree of unsaturation determines to a large extent the ultimate use of the fat.

  • animal feed (agriculture)

    Feed, food grown or developed for livestock and poultry. Modern feeds are produced by carefully selecting and blending ingredients to provide highly nutritional diets that both maintain the health of the animals and increase the quality of such end products as meat, milk, or eggs. Ongoing

  • animal fibre (raw material)

    natural fibre: Classification and properties: The animal, or protein-base, fibres include wool, mohair, and silk. An important fibre in the mineral class is asbestos.

  • animal glue (glue)

    adhesive: Animal glue: The term animal glue usually is confined to glues prepared from mammalian collagen, the principal protein constituent of skin, bone, and muscle. When treated with acids, alkalies, or hot water, the normally insoluble collagen slowly becomes soluble. If the original protein is pure…

  • Animal Health, World Organisation for (intergovernmental organization)

    World Organisation for Animal Health, intergovernmental organization established to gather and disseminate information about animal diseases around the world and to create health standards to protect international trade in animals and their products. It was founded in 1924 as the Office

  • animal husbandry (agriculture)

    Animal husbandry, Controlled cultivation, management, and production of domestic animals, including improvement of the qualities considered desirable by humans by means of breeding. Animals are bred and raised for utility (e.g., food, fur), sport, pleasure, and research. See also beekeeping, dairy

  • Animal Intelligence (work by Thorndike)

    Edward L. Thorndike: …was published in 1911 as Animal Intelligence. He regarded adaptive changes in animal behaviour as analogous to human learning and suggested that behavioral associations (connections) could be predicted by application of the two laws. The law of effect stated that those behavioral responses that were most closely followed by a…

  • animal interlace (calligraphy)

    Animal interlace, in calligraphy, rich, fanciful decorative motif characteristic of work by the Hiberno-Saxon book artists of the early Middle Ages in the British Isles. Its intertwined, fantastic animal and bird forms are often densely and minutely detailed—an example in the Book of Kells (c.

  • Animal Kingdom (American periodical)

    Bronx Zoo: …are published in its popular Wildlife Conservation (formerly Animal Kingdom) magazine as well as in technical journals. The zoo, managed by the Wildlife Conservation Society (formerly, until 1993, the New York Zoological Society), is financed by the society and the city.

  • animal learning (zoology)

    Animal learning, the alternation of behaviour as a result of individual experience. When an organism can perceive and change its behaviour, it is said to learn. That animals can learn seems to go without saying. The cat that runs to its food dish when it hears the sound of the cupboard opening; the

  • Animal Legal Defense Fund (American organization)

    animal rights: The modern animal rights movement: …law and animal rights; the Animal Legal Defense Fund had created an even greater number of law-student chapters in the United States; and at least three legal journals—Animal Law, Journal of Animal Law, and Journal of Animal Law and Ethics—had been established. Legal scholars were devising and evaluating theories by…

  • Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals (book by Singer)

    animal rights: The modern animal rights movement: Singer, whose book Animal Liberation (1975) is considered one of the movement’s foundational documents, argues that the interests of humans and the interests of animals should be given equal consideration. A utilitarian, Singer holds that actions are morally right to the extent that they maximize pleasure or minimize…

  • animal magnetism (psychology)

    Animal magnetism, a presumed intangible or mysterious force that is said to influence human beings. The term was used by the German physician Franz Anton Mesmer to explain the hypnotic procedure that he used in the treatment of patients. (See hypnosis.) Mesmer believed that it was an occult force

  • Animal Man (comic book)

    Grant Morrison: …or unpopular superheroes, notably in Animal Man and Doom Patrol. He used Animal Man as a way to discuss animal rights, Doom Patrol as a forum to explore issues of madness and disability, and both to continue his postmodern decontructions of the superhero genre. However, it was in 1989, with…

  • animal mask (art)

    mask: Social and religious uses: Animal masks, their features elongated and formalized, are common in western Africa. Dried grass, woven palm fibres, coconuts, and shells, as well as wood are employed in the masks of New Guinea, New Ireland, and New Caledonia. Represented are fanciful birds, fishes, and animals with…

  • animal migration (animal)

    Migration, in ethology, the regular, usually seasonal, movement of all or part of an animal population to and from a given area. Familiar migrants include many birds; hoofed animals, especially in East Africa and in the Arctic tundra; bats; whales and porpoises; seals; and fishes, such as salmon.

  • Animal Mind, The (work by Washburn)

    Margaret Floy Washburn: …professional journals and two books, The Animal Mind (1908) and Movement and Mental Imagery (1916). The former is a summary of studies that is of lasting importance, and the latter is a development of Washburn’s dualistic motor theory of mental activity, an attempt to find a compromise between the opposed…

  • Animal Planet (American cable channel)

    Television in the United States: The 1990s: the loss of shared experience: …documentaries (Discovery Channel), animals (Animal Planet), and a host of other interests. The Golf Channel and the Game Show Network were perhaps the most emblematic of how far target programming could go during this era. By the end of the decade, almost 80 percent of American households had access…

  • animal poison (poison)

    poison: Animal poisons (zootoxins): Poisonous animals are widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom; the only major group that seems to be exempt is the birds.

  • Animal Population, Bureau of (research centre, Oxford, England, United Kingdom)

    Charles Elton: Establishment of ecology: …Elton established his Bureau of Animal Population at Oxford. It became both a world centre for the collection of data on variations in animal numbers and a research institute in terrestrial ecology. It attracted workers from many countries, providing training for younger individuals who carried the Elton tradition to distant…

  • animal rights

    Animal rights, moral or legal entitlements attributed to nonhuman animals, usually because of the complexity of their cognitive, emotional, and social lives or their capacity to experience physical or emotional pain or pleasure. Historically, different views of the scope of animal rights have

  • animal sacrifice (religion)

    Sacrifice, a religious rite in which an object is offered to a divinity in order to establish, maintain, or restore a right relationship of a human being to the sacred order. It is a complex phenomenon that has been found in the earliest known forms of worship and in all parts of the world. The

  • animal sentinel (biology and environment)

    metabolomics: Metabolomics in agriculture and environmental monitoring: Sentinel species, which readily accumulate pollutants and therefore serve as indicators of ecosystem health, have been evaluated for different environments, including terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats. Examples of sentinel species in each of those environments include earthworms, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and water fleas, and…

  • Animal Serenade (album by Reed)

    Lou Reed: It was followed by Animal Serenade (2004), an excellent live recording that echoed Reed’s landmark 1974 concert album Rock ’n’ Roll Animal. In 2006 Reed celebrated New York City in a book, Lou Reed’s New York, which collected his photography.

  • animal shelter

    R. Dale Hylton: …new humane-education headquarters and model animal shelter in Waterford, Va. His activities included investigating and leading instruction in humane methods of animal euthanasia at Waterford. He also conceived and produced monthly publications for the Kindness Club, a humane-education program for children ages 6 to 16.

  • animal training (animal science)

    Carl Hagenbeck: …hot irons then used in animal training were both cruel and unnecessary. In 1889 he introduced a lion act in which, as a finale, three lions pulled him around the cage in a chariot. After some years, the Hagenbeck system gradually replaced harsher training methods used in circuses and expositions…

  • animal transportation

    Europe: Animal transport: Animal transport has minimal importance yet survives locally, often appealing to visitors from more prosperous regions, where the simple technology disappeared long ago. The horse-drawn cart may still be seen in east-central Europe, and the ox-drawn plow and the loaded ass, mule, and…

  • animal virus (microbiology)

    virus: Host range and distribution: The hosts of animal viruses vary from protozoans (single-celled animal organisms) to humans. Many viruses infect either invertebrate animals or vertebrates, and some infect both. Certain viruses that cause serious diseases of animals and humans are carried by arthropods. These vector-borne viruses multiply in both the invertebrate vector…

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