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  • Andropov, Yury Vladimirovich (president of Soviet Union)

    Yury Andropov, head of the Soviet Union’s KGB (State Security Committee) from 1967 to 1982 and his country’s leader as general secretary of the Communist Party’s Central Committee from November 1982 until his death 15 months later. The son of a railway worker, Andropov was a telegraph operator,

  • Ándros (Greece)

    Ándros: Its principal town is Ándros, on the east coast.

  • Ándros (island and province, Greece)

    Ándros, island, perifereiakí enótita (regional unit), and dímos (municipality), South Aegean (Modern Greek Nótio Aigaío) periféreia (region), Greece. It is the most northerly and second largest of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) group of Greek Aegean Islands. Its principal town is Ándros, on

  • Andros Island (island, The Bahamas)

    Andros Island, largest island of The Bahamas, West Indies. It lies 25 miles (40 km) west of New Providence Island and about 125 miles (200 km) east-southeast of the U.S. state of Florida. A flat, heavily forested island, Andros extends about 100 miles (160 km) from north to south and spans about 45

  • Andros, Sir Edmund (English colonial official)

    Sir Edmund Andros, English administrator in North America who made an abortive attempt to stem growing colonial independence by imposing a kind of supercolony, the Dominion of New England. Andros grew up as a page in the royal household, and his fidelity to the crown during its exile after the

  • Androsch, Hannes (Austrian statesman)

    Austria: Restoration of sovereignty: …of finance and political heir-apparent, Hannes Androsch. In particular, the dubious link between Androsch’s tax-consulting firm and the contractors building Vienna’s new general hospital began a series of setbacks for the Socialist Party; these were aggravated by the troubles of the nationalized industries.

  • Androscoggin (county, Maine, United States)

    Androscoggin, county, southwestern Maine, U.S. Its topography includes lowlands in the south and a hilly upland region in the north. The county is bisected from north to south by the Androscoggin River. Lewiston Falls on the Androscoggin separates Auburn, the county seat, on the west from Lewiston

  • Androscoggin River (river, United States)

    Androscoggin River, river in northeastern New Hampshire and southern Maine, U.S. It flows south from Umbabog Lake to Gorham, N.H., east to Jay, Maine, and then south again to the Atlantic Ocean. In its 175-mile (280-kilometre) course, the river descends more than 1,245 feet (379 m), the two

  • androstane (chemistry)

    steroid: Steroid numbering system and nomenclature: For example, androstane, common to a number of natural and synthetic steroids, exists in two forms (2 and 3), in which the A/B ring fusions are called cis and trans, respectively.

  • androstenedione (hormone)

    steroid: Sex hormones: Testosterone and androstenedione are the principal androgens of the testes. Testosterone is more potent than androstenedione, but in the sexual tissues it appears to be converted to 5α-dihydrotestosterone, an even more potent androgen.

  • androsterone (hormone)

    testosterone: …an androgen (male hormone) called androsterone, which was isolated from urine in 1931. However, testosterone proved to be more potent than androsterone, which was later shown to be a biochemical product (a metabolite) of testosterone.

  • Androuet du Cerceau family (French family)

    Du Cerceau family, renowned French family of architects and decorators who constituted a virtual dynasty in architecture and decoration from the 16th century until the end of the 17th century. Jacques Androuet du Cerceau (b. c. 1520, Paris, France—d. c. 1585, Annecy), the first member of the

  • Andru, Ross (American artist)

    the Defenders: …writer Roy Thomas and artist Ross Andru. The group—which was more of a loose temporary affiliation than a traditional superhero squad—had its first appearance in Marvel Feature no. 1 (December 1971).

  • Andrus, Ethel Percy (American teacher)

    American Association of Retired Persons: …1958 by a retired teacher, Ethel Percy Andrus, with the goal of helping older Americans remain physically and intellectually active by serving others. In 1982 the AARP merged with the National Retired Teachers Association (NRTA), an organization that Andrus had founded in 1947 to obtain pension and health insurance benefits…

  • Andrus, Major Leonard (American manufacturer)

    John Deere: …joined in a partnership with Major Leonard Andrus.

  • Andrusovo, Treaty of (Russia-Poland [1667])

    Truce of Andrusovo, (Jan. 30 [Feb. 9, New Style], 1667), long-lasting treaty that ended the Thirteen Years’ War (1654–67) between Russia and Poland for control of Ukraine. In 1654 the Russian government accepted the Pereyaslav Agreement, a proposal to annex Ukraine made by the hetman (military

  • Andrusovo, Truce of (Russia-Poland [1667])

    Truce of Andrusovo, (Jan. 30 [Feb. 9, New Style], 1667), long-lasting treaty that ended the Thirteen Years’ War (1654–67) between Russia and Poland for control of Ukraine. In 1654 the Russian government accepted the Pereyaslav Agreement, a proposal to annex Ukraine made by the hetman (military

  • Andruszow, Truce of (Russia-Poland [1667])

    Truce of Andrusovo, (Jan. 30 [Feb. 9, New Style], 1667), long-lasting treaty that ended the Thirteen Years’ War (1654–67) between Russia and Poland for control of Ukraine. In 1654 the Russian government accepted the Pereyaslav Agreement, a proposal to annex Ukraine made by the hetman (military

  • Andrzejewski, Jerzy (Polish author)

    Jerzy Andrzejewski, Polish novelist, short-story writer, and political dissident noted for his attention to moral issues important in 20th-century Poland and for his realistic fiction. Andrzejewski was born into a middle-class family, and the young writer studied Polish language and literature at

  • Andsnes, Leif Ove (Norwegian musician)

    Leif Ove Andsnes, Norwegian musician who drew international notice beginning in the 1990s for his lyric approach to music and his varied piano repertoire. Andsnes was the son of music teachers. Though he studied piano, as a child he was more interested in playing in the school band and on the

  • Andújar (Spain)

    Andújar, city, Jaén provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain, northwest of Jaén city, on the Guadalquivir River. Called Isturgi, or Ilurgia, by the Celto-Iberians, it was besieged and captured by the Roman general Scipio Africanus the Elder

  • Andújar, Joaquín (Dominican baseball player)

    Joaquín Andújar, Dominican baseball player (born Dec. 21, 1952, San Pedro de Macorís, Dom.Rep.—died Sept. 8, 2015, Santo Domingo, Dom.Rep.), was a right-handed pitcher who helped lead MLB’s St. Louis Cardinals to a World Series championship (1982), earning credit for three of the team’s eight

  • Anduo (region, China)

    A-mdo, one of three historical regions of Central Asia (the other two being Dbus-Gtsang and Khams) into which Tibet was once divided. Between the 7th and 9th centuries ce, the Tibetan kingdom was extended until it reached the Tarim Basin to the north, China to the east, India and Nepal to the

  • Andvökur (work by Stephansson)

    Icelandic literature: Poetry: …bitter poet, although the collection Andvökur, 6 vol. (1909–38; “Sleepless Nights”), reveals a sensitive spirit.

  • Andy Capp (comic strip)

    comic strip: Europe: Pop, together with Reginald Smythe’s Andy Capp (begun 1957), were among the very few European strips to be exported to the United States. For all its satire on the working class, Andy Capp, with its work-shy title character, surprisingly also ran in the Russian daily newspaper Izvestiya. A notably original…

  • Andy Griffith Show, The (American television program)

    The Andy Griffith Show, American television comedy series that aired on the Columbia Broadcasting System (now CBS Corporation) from 1960 to 1968. During its entire run, the show rated no worse than seventh in the seasonal Nielsen ratings and held the number one spot when it ended. The Andy Griffith

  • Andy Hardy (film series)

    Mickey Rooney: …wisecracking title character in the Andy Hardy series of films, the short-statured puckish performer established himself as a solid character actor as an adult.

  • Andy Hardy Gets Spring Fever (film by Van Dyke [1939])

    W.S. Van Dyke: Powell and Loy, Eddy and MacDonald: Van Dyke was then assigned Andy Hardy Gets Spring Fever (1939), which was not a very prestigious project for a director of his stature. However, his films of the previous year or two had been uneven, and that might have been an attempt to get him back on track. Whatever…

  • Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts (American arts foundation)

    Andy Warhol: ” The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts was established in 1987.

  • Andy Warhol Museum, The (museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Andy Warhol: …work is featured in the Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh. In his will, the artist dictated that his entire estate be used to create a foundation for “the advancement of the visual arts.” The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts was established in 1987.

  • Ane (people)

    Aného: …the late 17th century by Ane peoples fleeing from Asante attacks in Elmina (now in Ghana), Aného developed as a slave port and commercial centre. It was the capital of German Togoland from 1885 to 1887 and of the French occupation from 1914 to 1920. Aného remains an important intellectual…

  • Âne, L’  (work by Chraïbi)

    Driss Chraïbi: …more allegorical political expression in L’Âne (1956; “The Donkey”) and La Foule (1961; “The Crowd”); both confront the inadequacies of the newly independent Third World countries, as well as the failings of European civilization. The weaknesses of Western values appear most noticeably in Un Ami viendra vous voir (1966; “A…

  • Anecdota (work by Procopius)

    Procopius: The Secret History purports to be a supplement to the Wars, containing explanations and additions that the author could not insert into the latter work for fear of Justinian and Theodora. It is a vehement invective against these sovereigns, with attacks on Belisarius and his wife,…

  • Anecdotes of Painting in England (work by Walpole)

    Horace Walpole: …a work on art history, Anecdotes of Painting in England, 4 vol. (1762–71).

  • Anécho (Togo)

    Aného, town, southern Togo, lying on the Gulf of Guinea near the border of Benin. Founded in the late 17th century by Ane peoples fleeing from Asante attacks in Elmina (now in Ghana), Aného developed as a slave port and commercial centre. It was the capital of German Togoland from 1885 to 1887 and

  • anechoic chamber

    Anechoic chamber, sound laboratory designed so as to minimize sound reflections as well as external noise. External sound is excluded by physical isolation of the structure, by elaborate acoustical filters in the ventilating ducts, and by thick masonry walls. Interior surfaces are covered with

  • Anegada (island, British Virgin Islands)

    Anegada, one of the British Virgin Islands and the northernmost of the Lesser Antilles, a chain separating the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. It lies about 80 miles (130 km) east-northeast of Puerto Rico. Annual rainfall averages a moderate 50 inches (1,275 mm). Unlike the other Virgin Islands,

  • Anegada Passage (channel, West Indies)

    Anegada Passage, channel in the West Indies, connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Caribbean Sea; it is 40 miles (65 km) wide and separates the British Virgin Islands (west) from the Leeward Islands (southeast). It has the greatest depth (more than 7,550 feet [2,300 m]) of any channel in the

  • Aného (Togo)

    Aného, town, southern Togo, lying on the Gulf of Guinea near the border of Benin. Founded in the late 17th century by Ane peoples fleeing from Asante attacks in Elmina (now in Ghana), Aného developed as a slave port and commercial centre. It was the capital of German Togoland from 1885 to 1887 and

  • Aneides (amphibian genus)

    Caudata: Locomotion: Species of the genus Aneides have arboreal (tree-dwelling) tendencies, and their long legs and digits, expanded toe tips, and prehensile (grasping) tails make them effective climbers. Some salamanders of the genera Ixalotriton, Nyctanolis, Dendrotriton, Pseudoeurycea, and Chiropterotriton, found in the New World tropics, are similarly adapted. Others, members of…

  • Aneirin (Welsh poet)

    Aneirin, one of five poets renowned among the Welsh in the 6th century, according to the Historia Brittonum (written c. 830). (The other poets are Taliesin, Talhaearn Tad Awen, Blwchbardd, and Cian, whose works are unknown.) Aneirin’s reputation rests on a single work, Y Gododdin, preserved in a

  • Aneityum (island, Vanuatu)

    Anatom, southernmost inhabited island of Vanuatu, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. Volcanic in origin, it has a circumference of 35 miles (56 km) and an area of 25 square miles (65 square km). It rises from a fertile coastal plain and valleys to a height of 2,795 feet (852 metres). Anatom was a

  • Anej (African language)

    Nilo-Saharan languages: The diffusion of Nilo-Saharan languages: Gule (or Anej), a Komuz language of Sudan, is now extinct, and the people speak Arabic.

  • anekantavada (Jainism)

    Anekantavada, (Sanskrit: “non-one-sidedness” or “many-sidedness”) in Jainism, the ontological assumption that any entity is at once enduring but also undergoing change that is both constant and inevitable. The doctrine of anekantavada states that all entities have three aspects: substance (dravya),

  • Anemia (fern genus)

    fern: Annotated classification: …thickened cells; 1 genus (Anemia) with about 100 species, mostly in the Neotropics. Order Salviniales Family Salviniaceae (floating ferns) Plants heterosporous; stems usually relatively short, mostly appearing dichotomously branched, sometimes lacking roots; leaves

  • anemia (disease)

    Anemia, condition in which the red blood cells (erythrocytes) are reduced in number or volume or are deficient in hemoglobin, their oxygen-carrying pigment. The most noticeable outward symptom of anemia is usually pallor of the skin, mucous membranes, and nail beds. Symptoms of tissue oxygen

  • anemia, equine infectious (pathology)

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA), disease of horses that is caused by a non-oncogenic (non-cancer-causing) retrovirus. Bloodsucking insects, especially horseflies, transmit the disease. Signs, which appear about two weeks after exposure, include fever, progressive weakness, weight loss, edema, and

  • anemia, sickle cell (pathology)

    Sickle cell anemia, hereditary disease that destroys red blood cells by causing them to take on a rigid “sickle” shape. The disease is characterized by many of the symptoms of chronic anemia (fatigue, pale skin, and shortness of breath) as well as susceptibility to infection, jaundice and other eye

  • Anemic Cinema (film by Duchamp)

    Marcel Duchamp: Farewell to art: …led to a short film, Anemic Cinema (1926). With these and other products, including “optical phonograph records,” he acted as a kind of amateur engineer. The modesty of his results, however, was a way by which he could ridicule the ambitions of industry. The rest of the time he was…

  • anemic hypoxia (medical condition)

    hypoxia: …saturate the hemoglobin; (2) the anemic type, in which the amount of functional hemoglobin is too small, and hence the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen is too low; (3) the stagnant type, in which the blood is or may be normal but the flow of blood to the…

  • anemochory

    seed: Dispersal by wind: …the Alps is 60 percent anemochorous; that of the Mediterranean garrigue (a scrubland region) is 50 percent. By making certain assumptions (e.g., for average wind velocity and turbulence), the “average limits of dispersal”—that is, the distance that 1 percent of the seeds or diaspores can reach—can be calculated for dispersal…

  • anemometer (instrument)

    Anemometer, device for measuring the speed of airflow in the atmosphere, in wind tunnels, and in other gas-flow applications. Most widely used for wind-speed measurements is the revolving-cup electric anemometer, in which the revolving cups drive an electric generator. The output of the generator

  • anemone (plant)

    Anemone, (genus Anemone), any of more than 100 species of perennial plants in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). Many colourful varieties of the tuberous poppylike anemone, A. coronaria, are grown for the garden and florist’s trade. Popular spring-flowering anemones, especially for naturalizing,

  • Anemone (plant)

    Anemone, (genus Anemone), any of more than 100 species of perennial plants in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). Many colourful varieties of the tuberous poppylike anemone, A. coronaria, are grown for the garden and florist’s trade. Popular spring-flowering anemones, especially for naturalizing,

  • Anemone coronaria (plant)

    anemone: …of the tuberous poppylike anemone, A. coronaria, are grown for the garden and florist’s trade. Popular spring-flowering anemones, especially for naturalizing, are A. apennina, A. blanda, and A. pavonina. Other species, such as the Japanese anemone (A. hupehensis, or A. japonica), are favourite border plants for autumn flowering. Some species…

  • anemone fish (animal)

    Anemone fish, (genus Amphiprion), any of about 30 species of Indo-Pacific fishes constituting the genus Amphiprion of the family Pomacentridae (order Perciformes), noted for their association with large sea anemones. Anemone fishes live and shelter among the tentacles of the anemones, swimming in

  • Anemone hupehensis (plant)

    anemone: Other species, such as the Japanese anemone (A. hupehensis, or A. japonica), are favourite border plants for autumn flowering. Some species whose fruits bear a long plumose structure are placed in a separate section, Pulsatilla, often given the rank of genus. Anemones are distributed throughout the world but occur most…

  • Anemone japonica (plant)

    anemone: Other species, such as the Japanese anemone (A. hupehensis, or A. japonica), are favourite border plants for autumn flowering. Some species whose fruits bear a long plumose structure are placed in a separate section, Pulsatilla, often given the rank of genus. Anemones are distributed throughout the world but occur most…

  • Anemone nemorosa (plant)

    anemone: >A. nemorosa, which bears white flowers, causes blistering of the skin and was formerly used as an ingredient in medicines. In North America, wood anemone refers to A. quinquefolia, a delicate plant with deeply cut leaves. Windflower, the English version of the Greek-derived anemone, refers…

  • Anemone quinquefolia (plant)

    anemone: …America, wood anemone refers to A. quinquefolia, a delicate plant with deeply cut leaves. Windflower, the English version of the Greek-derived anemone, refers to the fact that the flowers appear to be blown open by the wind. According to a Greek myth, as Adonis died, red anemones (A. coronaria) sprang…

  • anemone, sea (invertebrate)

    Sea anemone, any member of the invertebrate order Actiniaria (class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria), soft-bodied, primarily sedentary marine animals resembling flowers. They are found from the tidal zone of all oceans to depths of more than 10,000 metres (about 33,000 feet). Some live in brackish water.

  • anemotaxis

    mechanoreception: Water and air currents: …move against the wind (anemotaxis) until the source of the chemical stimulus is found. Several types of air-current receptors (true mechanoreceptors) on the heads of insects enhance such chemoreceptive behaviour. In flying locusts, an air current directed appropriately toward the head elicits compensatory reflex flight movements. The receptors involved…

  • anencephaly (birth defect)

    cephalic disorder: Anencephaly: Anencephaly occurs when significant portions of the brain and skull are missing. The condition results from a failure of the upper region of the neural tube to close in early embryonic development, specifically within the first month of pregnancy. (The neural tube is the…

  • Anencletus, Saint (pope)

    Saint Anacletus, ; feast day April 26), second pope (76–88 or 79–91) after St. Peter. According to St. Epiphanius and the priest Tyrannius Rufinus, he directed the Roman Church with St. Linus, successor to St. Peter, during Peter’s lifetime. He died, probably a martyr, during the reign of

  • Anerio, Felice (Italian composer)

    Felice Anerio, one of the leading Roman composers of his time, who succeeded his master, Palestrina, as composer to the Papal Chapel in 1594. Most of Anerio’s early works are secular, but he began to concentrate on sacred music after his appointment as papal composer. In general, he modeled his

  • aneroid barometer (measurement instrument)

    atmospheric pressure: …is also measured using an aneroid barometer, in which the sensing element is one or more hollow, partially evacuated, corrugated metal disks supported against collapse by an inside or outside spring; the change in the shape of the disk with changing pressure can be recorded using a pen arm and…

  • Anesaki Chōfū (Japanese scholar)

    Anezaki Masaharu, Japanese scholar who pioneered in various fields of the history of religions. After graduating from Tokyo Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo), Anezaki went to India and Europe for further studies (1900–03). Returning to Japan, he was appointed to the chair of s

  • Anesaki Masaharu (Japanese scholar)

    Anezaki Masaharu, Japanese scholar who pioneered in various fields of the history of religions. After graduating from Tokyo Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo), Anezaki went to India and Europe for further studies (1900–03). Returning to Japan, he was appointed to the chair of s

  • anesthesia (medicine)

    Anesthesia, loss of physical sensation, with or without loss of consciousness, as artificially induced by the administration of drugs, inhalant gases, or other agents. The use of anesthetic gases in surgery was first proposed by British chemist Sir Humphrey Davy in 1798, following his observation

  • anesthesia (pathology)

    conversion disorder: …through hyperesthesias (hypersensitivity) to complete anesthesias (loss of sensation). They may involve the total skin area or any fraction of it, but the disturbances generally do not follow any anatomic distribution of the nervous system. In medieval times in Europe and as late as the end of the 17th century,…

  • anesthesiology (medicine)

    Anesthesiology, medical specialty dealing with anesthesia and related matters, including resuscitation and pain. The development of anesthesiology as a specialized field came about because of the dangers of anesthesia, which involves the use of carefully graduated doses of strong poisons to deaden

  • anesthetic (medicine)

    Anesthetic, any agent that produces a local or general loss of sensation, including pain. Anesthetics achieve this effect by acting on the brain or peripheral nervous system to suppress responses to sensory stimulation. The unresponsive state thus induced is known as anesthesia. General anesthesia

  • anestrus (reproductive cycle)

    dog: Reproductive cycle: She then enters anestrus, which is the time frame between the end of the last cycle and the beginning of the next proestrus.

  • Anet, Château d’ (château, Anet, France)

    Western architecture: Mannerism: …to design her château at Anet. The original château (about 1547–52) formed three sides of a court closed at the front by a screen wall and entrance gateway. Much of the château has been destroyed; only the left wing of the house, the screen wall, and the chapel that formed…

  • Anethum graveolens (herb)

    Dill, (Anethum graveolens), fennellike annual or biennial herb of the parsley family (Apiaceae, or Umbelliferae) or its dried, ripe fruit, or seeds, and leafy tops; these are used to season foods, particularly in eastern Europe and Scandinavia. Native to Mediterranean countries and southeastern

  • Aneto Peak (mountain, Spain)

    Huesca: …highest point in the Pyrenees, Aneto Peak (11,169 feet [3,404 metres]). Above 8,000 feet (2,440 metres) there is alpine vegetation, giving way at lower elevations to fir and pine and then to beech, chestnut, and oak. This isolated, sparsely settled region provides summer pasturage for livestock. Ordesa and Mount Perdido…

  • Aneto, Pico de (mountain, Spain)

    Huesca: …highest point in the Pyrenees, Aneto Peak (11,169 feet [3,404 metres]). Above 8,000 feet (2,440 metres) there is alpine vegetation, giving way at lower elevations to fir and pine and then to beech, chestnut, and oak. This isolated, sparsely settled region provides summer pasturage for livestock. Ordesa and Mount Perdido…

  • aneuploidy (genetics)

    heredity: Aneuploids: Some cells have an abnormal number of chromosomes that is not a whole multiple of the haploid number. This condition is called aneuploidy. Most aneuploids arise by nondisjunction, a failure of homologous chromosomes to separate at meiosis. When a gamete of this type is…

  • Aneurophyton (fossil plant genus)

    Aneurophyton, genus of extinct plants that lived during the Middle and Late Devonian epochs (about 398 to 359 million years ago) and is commonly considered a basal member of the progymnosperms—the probable ancestors of seed plants. The progymnosperms also included Archaeopteris, which was probably

  • aneurysm (pathology)

    Aneurysm, widening of an artery that develops from a weakness or destruction of the medial layer of the blood vessel. Because of the constant pressure of the circulating blood within the artery, the weakened part of the arterial wall becomes enlarged, leading ultimately to serious and even fatal

  • aneurysmal bone cyst (pathology)

    bone cyst: Aneurysmal bone cysts usually occur in young males and consist of cystic bloody tissue that causes an expansion of bone. Swelling and pain are present; this type of bone cyst usually requires excision.

  • Áñez, Jeanine (Bolivian politician)

    Bolivia: Bolivia in the 21st century: Jeanine Áñez, the deputy leader of the Chamber of Senators, became interim president in the wake of the resignations of the vice president and the leaders of the Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies, allies of Morales.

  • Anezaki Chōfū (Japanese scholar)

    Anezaki Masaharu, Japanese scholar who pioneered in various fields of the history of religions. After graduating from Tokyo Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo), Anezaki went to India and Europe for further studies (1900–03). Returning to Japan, he was appointed to the chair of s

  • Anezaki Masaharu (Japanese scholar)

    Anezaki Masaharu, Japanese scholar who pioneered in various fields of the history of religions. After graduating from Tokyo Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo), Anezaki went to India and Europe for further studies (1900–03). Returning to Japan, he was appointed to the chair of s

  • Anfänge der christlichen Kirche und ihrer Verfassung, Die (work by Rothe)

    Richard Rothe: …the church and its polity, Die Anfänge der christlichen Kirche und ihrer Verfassung (“The Beginnings of the Christian Church and Its Constitution”). In this work Rothe discussed the relationship between church and state, contending that the state needs the church to reach its goal of demonstrating moral conduct in everyday…

  • Anfao, Battle of (African history)

    Muḥammad I Askia: Rise to power: In the Battle of Anfao on April 12, 1493, Muḥammad’s forces, though inferior in number, were victorious. Traditional religions tinged with the esoteric Songhai Islam of the Sonnis gave way to an Islamic state whose civil code was the Qurʾān and whose official writing was Arabic. After…

  • Anfinsen, Christian B. (American biochemist)

    Christian B. Anfinsen, American biochemist who, with Stanford Moore and William H. Stein, received the 1972 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for research clarifying the relationship between the molecular structure of proteins and their biological functions. Anfinsen received a doctorate in biochemistry

  • Anfinsen, Christian Boehmer (American biochemist)

    Christian B. Anfinsen, American biochemist who, with Stanford Moore and William H. Stein, received the 1972 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for research clarifying the relationship between the molecular structure of proteins and their biological functions. Anfinsen received a doctorate in biochemistry

  • ANFO (explosive)

    explosive: Ammonium nitrate–fuel oil mixtures: In 1955 it was discovered that mixtures of ammonium nitrate and fine coal dust would give very satisfactory blasting results in the large (about 22.5-centimetre, 9-inch) holes used in open-pit coal mines to remove the rock and soil covering the coal.…

  • Ang (Khmer royal title)

    Ang, in the Khmer language, a person of royal blood, usually translated “prince” or “princess.” For articles on such persons, see the personal name; e.g., for Ang Duong, see

  • Ang-ch’ü (river, China)

    Tibet: Drainage and soils: …southern Qinghai as two rivers—the Ang and Zha—which join near the Tibet border; the river then flows through eastern Tibet and western Yunnan and enters Laos and Thailand. The source of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) rises in southern Qinghai, near the Tibet border; after flowing through southern Qinghai, the…

  • aṅgā (Buddhist scripture)

    Aṅgā, (Pāli and Sanskrit: “limb,” or “division”) any of several categories into which Buddhist canonical writings were divided in early times, beginning before the Abhidhamma (scholastic) works were added to the canon. The system, based on a combination of form and content, originally categorized

  • Aṅga (historical region, India)

    India: Location: … (Patna and Gaya districts) and Anga (northwest of the delta) were also interested in controlling the river and soon made their presence felt. The conflict eventually drew in the Vrijji state (Behar and Muzaffarpur districts). For a while, Videha (modern Tirhut), with its capital at Mithila, also remained powerful. References…

  • Aṅga (Jaina canon)

    Jaina canon: …divided as follows: (1) 11 Aṅgas, the main texts—a 12th has been lost for at least 14 centuries; (2) 12 Upāṅgas, or subsidiary texts; (3) 10 Prakīrṇakas, or assorted texts; (4) 6 Cheda-sutras on the rules of ascetic life; (5) 2 Cūlikā-sutras on cognition and epistemology; and (6) 4 Mūla-sutras…

  • Angad (Sikh Guru)

    Angad, second Sikh Guru and standardizer of the Punjabi script, Gurmukhi, in which many parts of the Adi Granth, the sacred book of the Sikhs, are written. While on a pilgrimage to the shrine of a Hindu goddess, Angad met the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak, whom he resolved to follow.

  • angakok (Eskimo shaman)

    shamanism: The American Arctic: …prerogatives of the shaman (angakok; plural angákut) are healing and trance-based underwater journeys to the Mother of Animals for the purpose of assuring an abundance of game and aiding childless women in conception. Sickness is brought on by the violation of a taboo or results from the capture of…

  • Angami (people)

    Nagaland: Cultural life: …the democratic structures of the Angamis, Aos, Lothas, and Rengmas. A prominent village institution is the morung (a communal house or dormitory for young unmarried men), where skulls and other trophies of war formerly were hung. The pillars are still carved with striking representations of tigers, hornbills, and human and…

  • Angara River (river, Russia)

    Angara River, river in southeast central Russia. It is the outlet for Lake Baikal and a major tributary of the Yenisey River, which it joins near Yeniseysk. The river flows for 1,105 miles (1,779 km) across the southern part of the Central Siberian Plateau and drains over 400,000 square miles

  • Angaran platform (geological region, Asia)

    Asia: Chronological summary: …the Precambrian outcrops of the Angaran and Indian platforms and in the North China paraplatform. They consist of primitive island-arc magmatic and sparse sedimentary rocks sandwiched between younger basaltic and ultrabasic rocks, exposed along what are called greenstone belts. The basement of the Angaran platform was largely formed by about…

  • Angaran Shield (geological region, Asia)

    continental shield: In Asia the name Angaran Shield is applied to a large stable block bounded by the Lena and Yenisey rivers on the east and west and by the Arctic Ocean and Lake Baikal to the north and south. An area in China and North Korea is sometimes designated the…

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