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  • Amis language

    Austronesian languages: Formosan: … (spoken in the northern mountains), Amis (spoken along the narrow east coast), and Paiwan (spoken near the southern tip of the island); only superficial descriptions are available for most of the other Formosan languages.

  • Amis, Kingsley (British author)

    Kingsley Amis, novelist, poet, critic, and teacher who created in his first novel, Lucky Jim, a comic figure that became a household word in Great Britain in the 1950s. Amis was educated at the City of London School and at St. John’s College, Oxford (B.A., 1949). His education was interrupted

  • Amis, Martin (British author)

    Martin Amis, English satirist known for his virtuoso storytelling technique and his dark views of contemporary English society. As a youth, Amis, the son of the novelist Kingsley Amis, thrived literarily on a permissive home atmosphere and a “passionate street life.” He graduated from Exeter

  • Amish (North American religious group)

    Amish, member of a Christian group in North America, primarily the Old Order Amish Mennonite Church. The church originated in the late 17th century among followers of Jakob Ammann. Jakob Ammann (c. 1644–c. 1730) was a Mennonite leader whose controversial teachings caused a schism among his

  • Amish Mennonite (North American religious group)

    Amish, member of a Christian group in North America, primarily the Old Order Amish Mennonite Church. The church originated in the late 17th century among followers of Jakob Ammann. Jakob Ammann (c. 1644–c. 1730) was a Mennonite leader whose controversial teachings caused a schism among his

  • AMISOM

    al-Shabaab: …African Union peacekeeping force (AMISOM) authorized by the UN Security Council in February 2007. The death of Ayro in a U.S. air strike in 2008 did little to slow al-Shabaab’s insurgency. In October 2008 the TFG signed a power-sharing agreement with members of the former SSICC, providing for the…

  • Amistad (slave ship)

    John Quincy Adams: Second career in Congress: …arrested aboard the slave ship Amistad—slaves who had mutinied and escaped from their Spanish owners off the coast of Cuba and had wound up bringing the ship into United States waters near Long Island, New York. Adams defended them as freemen before the Supreme Court in 1841 against efforts of…

  • Amistad (film by Spielberg [1997])

    Steven Spielberg: The 1990s: Amistad (1997) found Spielberg in social historian mode. The film centres on the slave revolt that took place aboard the Spanish slave ship Amistad in 1839 and the subsequent trial in the United States for which the slaves were tried for insurrection on the high…

  • Amistad Dam (dam, United States-Mexico)

    Rio Grande: The economy: The international Amistad Dam, below the confluence of Devils River, was completed in 1969 under terms of a U.S.-Mexico treaty. Considerable amounts of hydroelectricity are produced within the basin.

  • Amistad mutiny (North American-African history)

    Amistad mutiny, (July 2, 1839), slave rebellion that took place on the slave ship Amistad near the coast of Cuba and had important political and legal repercussions in the American abolition movement. The mutineers were captured and tried in the United States, and a surprising victory for the

  • Amistad, Puente de la (bridge, Brazil-Paraguay)

    Ciudad del Este: …Puente de la Amistad (“Friendship Bridge”; opened 1964), and its association with the nearby Itaipú Dam on the Paraguay-Brazil border, which is one of the largest hydroelectric facilities in the world. Because of the presence of smugglers and the Islamic militant group Hezbollah in the region in the early…

  • Amisus (Turkey)

    Samsun, city, capital of Samsun il (province), northern Turkey. The largest city on the southern coast of the Black Sea, Samsun lies between the deltas of the Kızıl and Yeşil rivers. Amisus, which stood on a promontory just northwest of the modern city centre, was founded in the 7th century bce;

  • Amit, Meir (Israeli military leader, intelligence chief, and politician)

    Meir Amit, (Meir Slutzky), Israeli military leader, intelligence chief, and politician (born March 17, 1921, Tiberias, British Palestine—died July 17, 2009, Israel), was the only person in Israel’s history to lead the foreign intelligence agency Mossad and military intelligence simultaneously; he

  • Amitabh Bachchan Corporation Ltd. (Indian company)

    Amitabh Bachchan: He later headed Amitabh Bachchan Corporation Ltd., an entertainment venture that specialized in film production and event management. The business was plagued by financial difficulties, however, and Bachchan eventually returned to performing. His later movies included the crime drama Hum (1991); Mohabbatein (2000; Love Stories), a musical that…

  • Amitabha (sculpture by Jōchō)

    Jōchō: The Amida (Amitabha) of the Hōō-dō (Phoenix Hall), of the Byōdō Temple at Uji, near Kyōto, is his only extant work. Carved in 1053, it embodies tranquillity and gracefulness, effects achieved by Jōchō’s brilliant use of the joined-wood technique.

  • Amitabha (Buddhism)

    Amitabha, (Sanskrit: “Infinite Light”) in Mahayana Buddhism, and particularly in the so-called Pure Land sects, the great saviour buddha. As related in the Sukhavati-vyuha-sutras (the fundamental scriptures of the Pure Land sects), many ages ago a monk named Dharmakara made a number of vows, the

  • Amitābha Triad (Japanese art)

    Japanese art: Painting: One fresco depicting an Amida (Amitabha) Triad shows graceful figures rendered with comparative naturalism and defined with consistent, unmodulated brush lines known as “wire lines” (tessen-byō). Like the Hōryū pagoda sculptures, the wall paintings suggest the influence of Tang style.

  • Amitāyur-dhyāna-sūtra (Buddhist text)

    Amitāyur-dhyāna-sūtra, (Sanskrit: “Discourse Concerning Meditation on Amitāyus”), one of three texts basic to Pure Land Buddhism. Together with the larger and smaller Sukhāvatī-vyūha-sūtras (Sanskrit: “Description of the Western Paradise Sutras”), this text envisions rebirth in the celestial Pure

  • Amitayus (Buddhism)

    Amitabha, (Sanskrit: “Infinite Light”) in Mahayana Buddhism, and particularly in the so-called Pure Land sects, the great saviour buddha. As related in the Sukhavati-vyuha-sutras (the fundamental scriptures of the Pure Land sects), many ages ago a monk named Dharmakara made a number of vows, the

  • Amitāyus-vipaśyana-sūtra (Buddhist text)

    Pure Land Buddhism: …on three Sanskrit scriptures: the Amitāyus-vipaśyana-sūtra (“Discourse Concerning Meditation on Amitāyus”) and the “larger” and “smaller” Pure Land sutras (Sukhāvatī-vyūha-sūtras [“Description of the Western Paradise Sutras”]). These texts relate the story of the monk Dharmakara, the future Amitayus, or Amitabha, who made a series of vows that were meant to…

  • Amitermes meridionalis (insect)

    termite: Nest types: In northern Australia Amitermes meridionalis builds wedge-shaped mounds, called compass or magnetic mounds, that are 3 to 4 metres (9.8 to 13.1 feet) high, 2.5 metres (8.1 feet) wide, and 1 metre (3.2 feet) thick at the base. The long axis is always directed north-south, and the broad…

  • Amiternum (ancient town, Italy)

    Amiternum, in ancient Italy, a Sabine town 5 miles (8 km) north of present L’Aquila in the Aterno (ancient Aternus) River valley. It was stormed by the Romans in 293 bc, but the fertility of its fields helped it to regain its prosperity as a Roman municipality (municipium), especially under the

  • amitraksar (Indian poetry)

    Michael Madhusudan Datta: …it was he who introduced amitraksar (a form of blank verse with run-on lines and varied caesuras), the Bengali sonnet—both Petrarchan and Shakespearean—and many original lyric stanzas.

  • amitriptyline (drug)

    antidepressant: The tricyclics include imipramine, amitriptyline, desipramine, nortriptyline, and a number of other compounds. These drugs relieve symptoms in a high proportion (more than 70 percent) of depressed patients. As with the MAOIs, the antidepressant action of tricyclic drugs may not become apparent until two to four weeks after treatment…

  • Amitrochates (Mauryan emperor)

    Bindusara, second Mauryan emperor, who ascended the throne about 297 bce. Greek sources refer to him as Amitrochates, Greek for the Sanskrit amitraghata (“destroyer of foes”). The name perhaps reflects his successful campaign in the Deccan. Chandragupta—Bindusara’s father and founder of the Mauryan

  • Amity Commerce and Navigation, Treaty of (United States-Great Britain [1794])

    Jay Treaty, (Nov. 19, 1794), agreement that assuaged antagonisms between the United States and Great Britain, established a base upon which America could build a sound national economy, and assured its commercial prosperity. Negotiations were undertaken because of the fears of Federalist leaders

  • Amityville Horror, The (film by Rosenberg [1979])

    Stuart Rosenberg: Films of the 1970s: …Rosenberg found box-office success with The Amityville Horror (1979). The thriller was based on Jay Anson’s nonfiction book about a Long Island house that was allegedly possessed by demons. James Brolin and Margot Kidder starred as the homeowners, and Rod Steiger was the priest who tries to exorcize the forces…

  • Amizade Bridge (bridge, Brazil-Paraguay)

    Ciudad del Este: …Puente de la Amistad (“Friendship Bridge”; opened 1964), and its association with the nearby Itaipú Dam on the Paraguay-Brazil border, which is one of the largest hydroelectric facilities in the world. Because of the presence of smugglers and the Islamic militant group Hezbollah in the region in the early…

  • Amizhou (China)

    Kaiyuan, city, southern Yunnan sheng (province), southwestern China. It was established in 1276 as Amizhou prefecture during the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368). In 1913 it was made a county under the same name. It was renamed Kaiyuan in 1931 and has been a county-level city since 1981. Kaiyuan is the

  • Amkhadzhyr (work by Chanba)

    Samson Chanba: …the first original Abkhazian play, Amkhadzhyr. It recounts the exodus, forced by tsarist Russia during the 19th century, of Abkhazians to the Ottoman Empire. He went on to write several more plays in Russian and Abkhaz, including Lady Abkhazia (1923) and From Past Days (1929). His major work of the…

  • AML (pathology)

    blood disease: Leukemia: In acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the predominant cells are the youngest recognizable precursors (myeloblasts) of the neutrophils of the blood. In a third and the least common variety, acute monocytic leukemia, the immature cells appear to be precursors of the monocytes of the blood. Myelogenous and…

  • AML (Algerian organization)

    Ferhat Abbas: …et de la Liberté (AML; Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty), which envisioned an Algerian autonomous republic federated to a renewed, anti-colonial France. After the suppression of the AML and a year’s imprisonment, in 1946 he founded the Union Démocratique du Manifeste Algérien (UDMA; Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto),…

  • Amleth (work by Saxo Grammaticus)

    Saxo Grammaticus: His legend of Amleth is thought to be the source of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet; his Toke, the archer, the prototype of William Tell. Saxo incorporated also myths of national gods whom tradition claimed as Danish kings, as well as myths of foreign heroes. Three heroic poems are especially…

  • AMLO (president of Mexico)

    Andrés Manuel López Obrador, centre-left populist Mexican politician who was elected president of Mexico in July 2018. He served as head of the Federal District government (2000–05) and ran unsuccessfully for president in 2006 and 2012. López Obrador was born into a provincial middle-class family.

  • ʿAmm (Arabian deity)

    Arabian religion: South Arabia: …Sabaʾ the national god was Almaqah (or Ilmuqah), a protector of artificial irrigation, lord of the temple of the Sabaean federation of tribes, near the capital Maʾrib. Until recently Almaqah was considered to be a moon god, under the influence of a now generally rejected conception of a South Arabian…

  • Amma (Dogon god)

    Amma, the supreme creator god in the religion of the Dogon people of West Africa. The notion of a creator god named Amma or Amen is not unique to the Dogon but can also be found in the religious traditions of other West African and North African groups. It may be reflected in the name Amazigb,

  • Amma’s Egg (religion)

    Amma: …refer to this body as Amma’s Egg and characterize it as a conical, somewhat quadrangular structure with a rounded point and as filled with unrealized potentiality; its corners prefigure the four future cardinal points of the universe to come. According to Dogon myth, some undefined impulse caused this egg to…

  • ʿAmmān (national capital, Jordan)

    Amman, capital and largest city of Jordan. It is the residence of the king and the seat of government. The city is built on rolling hills at the eastern boundary of the ʿAjlūn Mountains, on the small, partly perennial Wadi ʿAmmān and its tributaries. Amman’s focus of settlement throughout history

  • Amman (national capital, Jordan)

    Amman, capital and largest city of Jordan. It is the residence of the king and the seat of government. The city is built on rolling hills at the eastern boundary of the ʿAjlūn Mountains, on the small, partly perennial Wadi ʿAmmān and its tributaries. Amman’s focus of settlement throughout history

  • Amman, Jost (German engraver)

    Jost Amman, painter and printmaker, one of the most prolific and skilled book illustrators of the 16th century. Amman was educated in Zürich and worked for a short time in Basel, where he designed glass paintings for prominent families. About 1560–61 he moved to Nürnberg but retained his

  • Ammann, Jakob (Swiss religious leader)

    Amish: …17th century among followers of Jakob Ammann.

  • Ammann, Othmar Herman (American engineer)

    Othmar Herman Ammann, engineer and designer of numerous long suspension bridges, including the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge over New York harbour, at its completion (1965) the longest single span in the world. In 1904 Ammann immigrated to the United States, where he helped design railroad bridges.

  • Ammann, Simon (Swiss ski jumper)

    Simon Ammann, Swiss ski jumper who won the individual normal hill and the individual large hill gold medals at both the 2002 and 2010 Olympic Winter Games, becoming the first man to sweep the individual ski jumping events at two Olympics. Ammann began ski jumping at age 11, learning the sport at a

  • Ammannati, Bartolommeo (Italian sculptor and architect)

    Bartolommeo Ammannati, Italian sculptor and architect whose buildings mark the transition from the classicizing Renaissance to the more exuberant Baroque style. Ammannati began his career as a sculptor, carving statues in various Italian cities in the 1530s and ’40s. He trained first under Baccio

  • Ammassalik (Greenland)

    Tasiilaq, town, southeastern Greenland, on the south coast of Ammassalik Island. The island is 25 miles (40 km) long and 12–20 miles (19–32 km) wide, with a high point of 4,336 feet (1,322 metres). Although Europeans landed as early as 1472, the region was not explored until 1884, when Gustav Holm,

  • ʿamme ha-aretz (Judaism)

    Talmud and Midrash: Legend and folklore: …those in the countryside (the ʿam ha-aretz, or “people of the land”). The rabbis realized the great danger involved in this situation and developed their own folk material. They adopted the dramatic and artistic parts of these stories but rejected the unwanted elements, replacing them with their own ideas. Thus…

  • Ammers-Küller, Jo van (Dutch author)

    Jo van Ammers-Küller, Dutch writer best known for her historical novels. Van Ammers-Küller began her writing career as a playwright. Her first successful novels, Het huis der vreugden (1922; The House of Joy) and Jenny Huysten (1923; Jenny Huysten’s Career), deal with life in and around the theatre

  • Ammers-Küller, Johanna van (Dutch author)

    Jo van Ammers-Küller, Dutch writer best known for her historical novels. Van Ammers-Küller began her writing career as a playwright. Her first successful novels, Het huis der vreugden (1922; The House of Joy) and Jenny Huysten (1923; Jenny Huysten’s Career), deal with life in and around the theatre

  • ammeter (measurement instrument)

    Ammeter, instrument for measuring either direct or alternating electric current, in amperes. An ammeter can measure a wide range of current values because at high values only a small portion of the current is directed through the meter mechanism; a shunt in parallel with the meter carries the

  • Ammianus Marcellinus (Roman historian)

    Ammianus Marcellinus, last major Roman historian, whose work continued the history of the later Roman Empire to 378. Ammianus was born of a noble Greek family and served in the army of Constantius II in Gaul and Persia under the general Ursicinus, who was dismissed after he allowed the Persians to

  • Ammiṣaduqa (king of Babylonia)

    history of Mesopotamia: Babylonian law: Ammiṣaduqa (c. 1646–c. 1626 bce) comes a century and a half after Hammurabi. His edict, already referred to, lists, among others, the following social and economic factors: private debts in silver and grain, if arising out of loans, were canceled; also canceled were back taxes…

  • ammocoete (zoology)

    chordate: Digestion and nutrition: …the vertebrates in the “ammocoetes” larva stage of the primitive jawless fish called the lamprey. The difference is that the food consists of somewhat larger particles that have been deposited on the bottom (detritus), and, instead of the feeding current being driven by cilia, the pharyngeal musculature pumps water…

  • Ammodorcas clarkei (mammal)

    Dibatag, (Ammodorcas clarkei), a rare member of the gazelle tribe (Antilopini, family Bovidae), indigenous to the Horn of Africa. The dibatag is sometimes mistaken for the related gerenuk. A selective browser with a narrow, pointed snout, the dibatag is long-legged and long-necked. It stands 80–88

  • Ammodramus savannarum (bird)

    finch: …monotonously unmusical notes of the grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Many kinds of finches are kept as cage birds.

  • Ammókhostos (Cyprus)

    Famagusta, a major port in the Turkish Cypriot-administered portion of northern Cyprus. It lies on the island’s east coast in a bay between Capes Greco and Eloea and is about 37 miles (55 km) east of Nicosia. The port possesses the deepest harbour in Cyprus. Famagusta is a Frankish corruption of

  • Ammon (Egyptian god)

    Amon, Egyptian deity who was revered as king of the gods. Amon may have been originally one of the eight deities of the Hermopolite creation myth; his cult reached Thebes, where he became the patron of the pharaohs by the reign of Mentuhotep I (2008–1957 bce). At that date he was already identified

  • ammonal (chemical compound)

    ammonium nitrate: …an oxidizing agent in the ammonals, which are mixtures of ammonium nitrate and powdered aluminum.

  • Ammonas (Christian hermit)

    patristic literature: Monastic literature: …in the Egyptian desert, and Ammonas (flourished c. 350), his successor as leader of his colony of anchorites (hermits), wrote numerous letters; a handful from the pen of each is extant, almost entirely in Greek or Latin translation of the Coptic originals. Those of Ammonas are particularly valuable for the…

  • ammonia (chemical compound)

    Ammonia (NH3), colourless, pungent gas composed of nitrogen and hydrogen. It is the simplest stable compound of these elements and serves as a starting material for the production of many commercially important nitrogen compounds. The major use of ammonia is as a fertilizer. In the United States,

  • ammonia dynamite (explosive)

    ammonium nitrate: …as nitroglycerin in the so-called ammonia dynamites, or as an oxidizing agent in the ammonals, which are mixtures of ammonium nitrate and powdered aluminum.

  • ammonia maser (device)

    maser: …maser used a beam of ammonia molecules that passed along the axis of a cylindrical cage of metal rods, with alternate rods having positive and negative electric charge. The nonuniform electric field from the rods sorted out the excited from the unexcited molecules, focusing the excited molecules through a small…

  • ammonia-beam maser (device)

    maser: …maser used a beam of ammonia molecules that passed along the axis of a cylindrical cage of metal rods, with alternate rods having positive and negative electric charge. The nonuniform electric field from the rods sorted out the excited from the unexcited molecules, focusing the excited molecules through a small…

  • ammonia-soda process (chemical process)

    Ammonia-soda process, modern method of manufacturing the industrial alkali sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash. The process was devised and first put to commercial use by Ernest Solvay, who built a plant in 1865 in Couillet, Belg., and was improved in the 1870s by the German-born British c

  • ammonia-stripping (chemical process)

    wastewater treatment: Removal of plant nutrients: A physicochemical process called ammonia stripping may be used to remove ammonia from sewage. Chemicals are added to convert ammonium ions into ammonia gas. The sewage is then cascaded down through a tower, allowing the gas to come out of solution and escape into the air. Stripping is less…

  • ammonification (biology)

    biosphere: The nitrogen cycle: …organic nitrogen into ammonia (ammonification), providing a constant supply of ammonia to be used in the process of nitrification. Although the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is an essential part of the nitrogen cycle, ammonification and nitrification are the predominant methods by which organic nitrogen is prevented from returning to…

  • ammonite (fossil cephalopod)

    Ammonoid, any of a group of extinct cephalopods (of the phylum Mollusca), forms related to the modern pearly nautilus (Nautilus), that are frequently found as fossils in marine rocks dating from the Devonian Period (began 419 million years ago) to the Cretaceous Period (ended 66 million years ago).

  • Ammonite (people)

    Ammonite, any member of an ancient Semitic people whose principal city was Rabbath Ammon, in Palestine. The “sons of Ammon” were in perennial, though sporadic, conflict with the Israelites. After a long period of seminomadic existence, the Ammonites established a kingdom north of Moab in the 13th

  • Ammonite scroll border (pottery ornament)

    pottery: Turkish: …pattern, which was called the Ammonite scroll border because it was thought to resemble the coiled shell of the fossil ammonite but which is certainly a debased version of the Ming Rock of Ages pattern. This scroll border appears often; a slightly later and even more debased version, which incorporates…

  • ammonium alum (chemical compound)

    alum: Ammonium alum is produced by the evaporation of a water solution containing ammonium sulfate and aluminum sulfate. It can also be obtained by treating a mixture of aluminum sulfate and sulfuric acid with ammonia. Alums occur naturally in various minerals. Potassium alum, for example, is…

  • ammonium aluminum sulfate (chemical compound)

    alum: Ammonium alum is produced by the evaporation of a water solution containing ammonium sulfate and aluminum sulfate. It can also be obtained by treating a mixture of aluminum sulfate and sulfuric acid with ammonia. Alums occur naturally in various minerals. Potassium alum, for example, is…

  • ammonium chloride (chemical compound)

    Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), the salt of ammonia and hydrogen chloride. Its principal uses are as a nitrogen supply in fertilizers and as an electrolyte in dry cells, and it is also extensively employed as a constituent of galvanizing, tinning, and soldering fluxes to remove oxide coatings from

  • ammonium cyanate (chemical compound)

    urea: …German chemist Friedrich Wöhler from ammonium cyanate in 1828 was the first generally accepted laboratory synthesis of a naturally occurring organic compound from inorganic materials. Urea is now prepared commercially in vast amounts from liquid ammonia and liquid carbon dioxide. These two materials are combined under high pressures and elevated…

  • ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (chemical compound)

    electricity: Piezoelectricity: …quartz, 5 × −10−11 for ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, and 3 × 10−10 for lead zirconate titanate.

  • ammonium hydrosulfide (chemical compound)

    Jupiter: Cloud composition: …they probably consist of condensed ammonium hydrosulfide and that their colour may be caused by other ammonia-sulfur compounds such as ammonium polysulfides. Sulfur compounds are invoked as the likely colouring agents because sulfur is relatively abundant in the cosmos and hydrogen sulfide is notably absent from Jupiter’s atmosphere above the…

  • ammonium hydroxide (chemical compound)

    Ammonium hydroxide, solution of ammonia gas in water, a common commercial form of ammonia. It is a colourless liquid with a strong characteristic odour. In concentrated form, ammonium hydroxide can cause burns on contact with the skin; ordinary household ammonia, used as a cleanser, is dilute a

  • ammonium ion (chemical ion)

    acid–base reaction: The Brønsted–Lowry definition: …ions (cations), such as the ammonium ion (NH4+), which can be derived by the addition of a proton to a molecular base, in this case ammonia (NH3). The hydronium ion (H3O+), which is the hydrogen ion in aqueous solution, also belongs to this class. The charge of these ionic acids,…

  • ammonium molybdate (chemical compound)

    molybdenum processing: Chemically pure molybdic oxide: …suitable for the manufacture of ammonium molybdate (ADM) and sodium molybdate, which are starting materials for all sorts of molybdenum chemicals. These compounds are obtained by reacting chemically pure MoO3 with aqueous ammonia or sodium hydroxide. Ammonium molybdate, in the form of white crystals, assays 81 to 83 percent MoO3,…

  • ammonium nitrate (chemical compound)

    Ammonium nitrate, (NH4NO3), a salt of ammonia and nitric acid, used widely in fertilizers and explosives. The commercial grade contains about 33.5 percent nitrogen, all of which is in forms utilizable by plants; it is the most common nitrogenous component of artificial fertilizers. Ammonium nitrate

  • ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture (explosive)

    explosive: Ammonium nitrate–fuel oil mixtures: In 1955 it was discovered that mixtures of ammonium nitrate and fine coal dust would give very satisfactory blasting results in the large (about 22.5-centimetre, 9-inch) holes used in open-pit coal mines to remove the rock and soil covering the coal.…

  • ammonium paratungstate (chemical compound)

    tungsten processing: Ammonium paratungstate: Tungsten ores frequently occur in association with sulfides and arsenides, which can be removed by roasting in air for two to four hours at 800° C (1,450° F). In order to produce ammonium paratungstate (APT), an intermediate compound in production of the pure…

  • ammonium picrate (chemical compound)

    chemical industry: Nitric acid: Another explosive ingredient is ammonium picrate, derived from picric acid, the relationship of which appears more clearly in its systematic name, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol.

  • ammonium polysulfide (chemical compound)

    Jupiter: Cloud composition: …other ammonia-sulfur compounds such as ammonium polysulfides. Sulfur compounds are invoked as the likely colouring agents because sulfur is relatively abundant in the cosmos and hydrogen sulfide is notably absent from Jupiter’s atmosphere above the clouds.

  • ammonium sulfate (chemical compound)

    chromium processing: Chromium metal: …based on a solution of ammonium sulfate recycled from a later stage in the process, and sulfuric acid. The resultant slurry is cooled, and silica and other undissolved solids are filtered from the solution. The iron forms crude ferrous ammonium sulfate crystals, which also are filtered out. The mother liquor…

  • ammonium thiosulfate (chemical compound)

    technology of photography: Fixing: …contains a chemical (sodium or ammonium thiosulfate) that converts the silver halide into soluble, complex silver salts that dissolve in the fixer. During this process the film loses its original silver halide milkiness overlaying the image and becomes clear. The fixer also contains a weak acid (to halt the development…

  • Ammonius Hermiae (Greek philosopher)

    Ammonius Hermiae, Greek philosopher whose thinking was primarily oriented toward logic and the sciences. He spent a good part of his intellectual life in writing critical works on Aristotle. As a student, he worked closely with Proclus and, later in life, was appointed the head of the Alexandrian

  • Ammonius Saccas (Neoplatonic philosopher)

    Origen: Life: …Origen attended lectures given by Ammonius Saccas, the founder of Neoplatonism. A letter of Origen mentions his “teacher of philosophy,” at whose lectures he met Heraclas, who was to become his junior colleague, then his rival, and who was to end as bishop of Alexandria refusing to hold communion with…

  • ammonoid (fossil cephalopod)

    Ammonoid, any of a group of extinct cephalopods (of the phylum Mollusca), forms related to the modern pearly nautilus (Nautilus), that are frequently found as fossils in marine rocks dating from the Devonian Period (began 419 million years ago) to the Cretaceous Period (ended 66 million years ago).

  • Ammonoida (cephalopod subclass)

    mollusk: Annotated classification: …groups and 3–5 recent species); Ammonoida (fossils); and Coleoida (fossils and 4 recent orders). Many aspects of molluscan classification remain unsettled, particularly for gastropods and bivalves. The Amphineura, the former name for a group made up of the Polyplacophora (chitons) and Aplacophora (caudofoveates and solenogasters) within one subphylum,…

  • Ammonoida (fossil cephalopod)

    Ammonoid, any of a group of extinct cephalopods (of the phylum Mollusca), forms related to the modern pearly nautilus (Nautilus), that are frequently found as fossils in marine rocks dating from the Devonian Period (began 419 million years ago) to the Cretaceous Period (ended 66 million years ago).

  • Ammonoidea (fossil cephalopod)

    Ammonoid, any of a group of extinct cephalopods (of the phylum Mollusca), forms related to the modern pearly nautilus (Nautilus), that are frequently found as fossils in marine rocks dating from the Devonian Period (began 419 million years ago) to the Cretaceous Period (ended 66 million years ago).

  • Ammons, A. R. (American poet)

    A.R. Ammons, American poet who was one of the leading late 20th-century exponents of the Transcendentalist tradition. A 1949 graduate of Wake Forest College (now University), Ammons worked as an elementary school principal and as a glass company executive before turning his full attention to

  • Ammons, Albert (American musician)

    boogie-woogie: …with inventing the term itself, Albert Ammons, Pete Johnson, and Meade “Lux” Lewis.

  • Ammons, Archie Randolph (American poet)

    A.R. Ammons, American poet who was one of the leading late 20th-century exponents of the Transcendentalist tradition. A 1949 graduate of Wake Forest College (now University), Ammons worked as an elementary school principal and as a glass company executive before turning his full attention to

  • Ammons, Eugene (American musician)

    Gene Ammons, American jazz tenor saxophonist, noted for his big sound and blues-inflected, “soulful” improvising. The son of outstanding boogie-woogie pianist Albert Ammons, Gene Ammons grew up in Chicago and first became nationally known as a member of Billy Eckstine’s innovative bebop big band

  • Ammons, Gene (American musician)

    Gene Ammons, American jazz tenor saxophonist, noted for his big sound and blues-inflected, “soulful” improvising. The son of outstanding boogie-woogie pianist Albert Ammons, Gene Ammons grew up in Chicago and first became nationally known as a member of Billy Eckstine’s innovative bebop big band

  • Ammons, Jug (American musician)

    Gene Ammons, American jazz tenor saxophonist, noted for his big sound and blues-inflected, “soulful” improvising. The son of outstanding boogie-woogie pianist Albert Ammons, Gene Ammons grew up in Chicago and first became nationally known as a member of Billy Eckstine’s innovative bebop big band

  • Ammophila (plant)

    Beach grass, (genus Ammophila), genus of two species of sand-binding plants in the grass family (Poaceae). American beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata) grows along the Atlantic coast and in the Great Lakes region of North America. European beach grass (A. arenaria) is native to temperate coasts

  • Ammophila arenaria (plant)

    beach grass: European beach grass (A. arenaria) is native to temperate coasts in Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia and has been introduced in many places as a dune stabilizer. While native beach grass is protected by law in some areas, both species are considered invasive species…

  • Ammophila breviligulata (plant)

    beach grass: American beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata) grows along the Atlantic coast and in the Great Lakes region of North America. European beach grass (A. arenaria) is native to temperate coasts in Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia and has been introduced in many places as a…

  • Ammospermophilus (rodent)

    ground squirrel: Nontropical ground squirrels: …populated by five species of antelope ground squirrel (genus Ammospermophilus). The white-tailed antelope squirrel (A. leucurus) of the southwestern United States is one of the smallest of all ground squirrels, weighing 96 to 117 grams (3.4 to 4 ounces) and having a body up to 17 cm (6.7 inches) long…

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