Question: Henry VIII’s marriage to which woman led to his break with the Roman Catholic Church?
Answer: Anne Boleyn was the second wife of King Henry VIII of England and mother of Queen Elizabeth I. The events surrounding the annulment of Henry’s marriage to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, and his marriage to Anne in his quest to produce a male heir led him to break with the Roman Catholic Church and brought about the English Reformation.
Question: The teachings of which Roman Catholic saint were condemned in 1277 by the university masters of Paris?
Answer: In 1277 the masters of Paris, the highest theological jurisdiction in the church, condemned a series of 219 propositions; 12 of these propositions were theses of Thomas Aquinas. This was the most serious condemnation possible in the Middle Ages; its repercussions were felt for centuries.
Question: Which Roman Catholic leader received the Nobel Prize for Peace and a special dispensation from the pope to expedite the process of canonization?
Answer: Mother Teresawas the founder of the Order of the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic congregation of women dedicated to the poor, particularly to the destitute of India. She was the recipient of numerous honours, including the 1979 Nobel Prize for Peace. Within two years of Mother Teresa's death in 1997, the process to declare her a saint had begun, and Pope John Paul II issued a special dispensation to expedite the process of canonization. She became a saint in 2016.
Question: Which Roman Catholic organization, founded in 1928, has a name that means “Work of God”?
Answer: Opus Dei is a theologically conservative Roman Catholic lay and clerical organization that was founded in 1928. Its name means, in Latin, “Work of God.”
Question: Which pope’s struggle with King Philip IV of France marked the end of papal spiritual dominance in medieval Europe and the rise of the national monarchies?
Answer: An attack on Boniface VIII during his papacy marked the first open rejection of papal spiritual dominance by the rising national monarchies of the West—above all, France.
Question: Who was the first Frankish king to convert to Roman Catholicism?
Answer: Clovis I, king of the Franks and ruler of much of Gaul from 481 to 511, did not convert to Roman Catholicism directly from paganism. Prior to accepting Catholicism, he was interested in the Christian heresy Arianism, sympathetic with it, and perhaps even leaning toward adopting it.
Question: What historic event strengthened anti-Catholic feelings in England?
Answer: The Gunpowder Plot was a conspiracy of English Roman Catholics to blow up Parliament and King James I, his queen, and his eldest son on November 5, 1605. The leader of the plot, Robert Catesby, and his four coconspirators were angered by James’s refusal to grant more religious toleration to Catholics. They apparently hoped that the confusion that would follow the murder of the king, his ministers, and the members of Parliament would provide an opportunity for English Catholics to take over the country. Instead, the plot bitterly intensified Protestant suspicions of Catholics and led to the rigorous enforcement of the recusancy law, which fined those who refused to attend Anglican services.
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