United States
Media
  • Urban settlement
  • Classic patterns of siting and growth
  • New factors in municipal development
  • The new look of the metropolitan area
  • Individual and collective character of cities
  • The supercities
  • Traditional regions of the United States
  • The hierarchy of culture areas
  • The cultural hearths
  • New England
  • The South
  • The Midland
  • The newer culture areas
  • The Midwest
  • The problem of “the West”
  • People
  • Ethnic distribution
  • Ethnic European Americans
  • African Americans
  • Hispanics
  • Asian Americans
  • Middle Easterners
  • Native Americans
  • Religious groups
  • Immigration
  • Economy
  • Strengths and weaknesses
  • Taxation
  • Labour force
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
  • Resources and power
  • Minerals
  • Biological resources
  • Power
  • Manufacturing
  • Finance
  • Foreign trade
  • Transportation
  • Roads and railroads
  • Water and air transport
  • Government and society
  • Constitutional framework
  • The executive branch
  • The legislative branch
  • The judicial branch
  • State and local government
  • Political process
  • Suffrage
  • Voting and elections
  • Money and campaigns
  • Political parties
  • Security
  • National security
  • Domestic law enforcement
  • Health and welfare
  • Housing
  • Education
  • Cultural life
  • Literature
  • The visual arts and postmodernism
  • The theatre
  • Motion pictures
  • Television
  • Popular music
  • Dance
  • Sports
  • Audiences
  • History
  • Colonial America to 1763
  • The European background
  • Settlement
  • Virginia
  • Maryland
  • The New England colonies
  • The middle colonies
  • The Carolinas and Georgia
  • Imperial organization
  • The growth of provincial power
  • Political growth
  • Population growth
  • Economic growth
  • Land, labour, and independence
  • Cultural and religious development
  • Colonial culture
  • From a city on a hill to the Great Awakening
  • Colonial America, England, and the wider world
  • The Native American response
  • The American Revolution and the early federal republic
  • Prelude to revolution
  • The tax controversy
  • Constitutional differences with Britain
  • The Continental Congress
  • The American Revolutionary War
  • Treaty of Paris
  • Foundations of the American republic
  • Problems before the Second Continental Congress
  • State politics
  • The Constitutional Convention
  • The social revolution
  • Religious revivalism
  • The United States from 1789 to 1816
  • The Federalist administration and the formation of parties
  • The Jeffersonian Republicans in power
  • Madison as president and the War of 1812
  • The Indian-American problem
  • The United States from 1816 to 1850
  • The Era of Mixed Feelings
  • Effects of the War of 1812
  • National disunity
  • The economy
  • Transportation revolution
  • Beginnings of industrialization
  • Social developments
  • Birth of American Culture
  • The people
  • Cities
  • Education and the role of women
  • Wealth
  • Jacksonian democracy
  • The democratization of politics
  • The Jacksonians
  • The major parties
  • Minor parties
  • An age of reform
  • Abolitionism
  • Support of reform movements
  • Religious-inspired reform
  • Expansionism and political crisis at midcentury
  • Westward expansion
  • Attitudes toward expansionism
  • The Civil War
  • Prelude to war, 1850–60
  • Sectionalism and slavery
  • A decade of political crises
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Polarization over slavery
  • Secession and the politics of the Civil War, 1860–65
  • The coming of the war
  • The political course of the war
  • Moves toward emancipation
  • Sectional dissatisfaction
  • Fighting the Civil War
  • Foreign affairs
  • Aftermath
  • Reconstruction and the New South, 1865–1900
  • Reconstruction, 1865–77
  • Reconstruction under Abraham Lincoln
  • Lincoln’s plan
  • The Radicals’ plan
  • Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson
  • Johnson’s policy
  • “Black Codes”
  • Civil rights legislation
  • The South during Reconstruction
  • The Ulysses S. Grant administrations, 1869–77
  • The New South, 1877–90
  • The era of conservative domination, 1877–90
  • Jim Crow legislation
  • Booker T. Washington and the Atlanta Compromise
  • The transformation of American society, 1865–1900
  • National expansion
  • Growth of the nation
  • Immigration
  • Westward migration
  • Urban growth
  • The West
  • The mineral empire
  • The open range
  • The expansion of the railroads
  • Indian policy
  • Industrialization of the U.S. economy
  • The growth of industry
  • The dispersion of industry
  • Industrial combinations
  • Foreign commerce
  • Labour
  • Formation of unions
  • The Haymarket Riot
  • National politics
  • The Rutherford B. Hayes administration
  • The administrations of James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur
  • Grover Cleveland’s first term
  • The surplus and the tariff
  • The public domain
  • The Interstate Commerce Act
  • The election of 1888
  • The Benjamin Harrison administration
  • The Sherman Antitrust Act
  • The silver issue
  • The McKinley tariff
  • The agrarian revolt
  • The Populists
  • The election of 1892
  • Cleveland’s second term
  • Economic recovery
  • Imperialism, the Progressive era, and the rise to world power, 1896–1920
  • American imperialism
  • The Spanish-American War
  • The new American empire
  • The Open Door in the Far East
  • Building the Panama Canal and American domination in the Caribbean
  • The Progressive era
  • The character and variety of the Progressive movement
  • Origins of progressivism
  • Urban reforms
  • Reform in state governments
  • Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive movement
  • Republican troubles under William Howard Taft
  • The Republican insurgents
  • The 1912 election
  • The New Freedom and its transformation
  • The rise to world power
  • Woodrow Wilson and the Mexican Revolution
  • The struggle for neutrality
  • Loans and supplies for the Allies
  • German submarine warfare
  • Arming for war
  • The United States enters the Great War
  • Break with Germany
  • Mobilization
  • America’s role in the war
  • Wilson’s vision of a new world order
  • The Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty
  • The fight over the treaty and the election of 1920
  • The United States from 1920 to 1945
  • The postwar Republican administrations
  • Postwar conservatism
  • Peace and prosperity
  • New social trends
  • The Great Depression
  • The New Deal
  • The first New Deal
  • Relief
  • Agricultural recovery
  • Business recovery
  • The second New Deal and the Supreme Court
  • The culmination of the New Deal
  • An assessment of the New Deal
  • World War II
  • The road to war
  • The United States at war
  • War production
  • Financing the war
  • Social consequences of the war
  • The 1944 election
  • The new U.S. role in world affairs
  • The United States since 1945
  • The peak Cold War years, 1945–60
  • The Truman Doctrine and containment
  • Postwar domestic reorganization
  • The Red Scare
  • The Korean War
  • Peace, growth, and prosperity
  • Eisenhower’s second term
  • Domestic issues
  • World affairs
  • An assessment of the postwar era
  • The Kennedy and Johnson administrations
  • The New Frontier
  • The Great Society
  • The civil rights movement
  • Latino and Native American activism
  • Social changes
  • The Vietnam War
  • The 1970s
  • The Richard M. Nixon administration
  • Foreign affairs
  • Domestic affairs
  • The Watergate scandal
  • The Gerald R. Ford administration
  • The Jimmy Carter administration
  • Foreign affairs
  • Domestic policy
  • The late 20th century
  • The Ronald Reagan administration
  • The George Bush administration
  • The Bill Clinton administration
  • The 21st century
  • The George W. Bush administration
  • The Barack Obama administration
  • First term
  • Election and inauguration
  • Tackling the “Great Recession,” the “Party of No,” and the emergence of the Tea Party movement
  • Negotiating health care reform
  • Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)
  • Deepwater Horizon oil spill
  • Military de-escalation in Iraq and escalation in Afghanistan
  • The 2010 midterm elections
  • WikiLeaks, the “Afghan War Diary,” and the “Iraq War Log”
  • The repeal of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” the ratification of START, and the shooting of Gabrielle Giffords
  • Budget compromise
  • The Arab Spring, intervention in Libya, and the killing of Osama bin Laden
  • The debt ceiling debate
  • The failed “grand bargain”
  • Raising the debt ceiling, capping spending, and the efforts of the “super committee”
  • Occupy Wall Street, withdrawal from Iraq, and slow economic recovery
  • Deportation policy changes, the immigration law ruling, and sustaining Obamacare’s “individual mandate”
  • The 2012 presidential campaign, a fluctuating economy, and the approaching “fiscal cliff”
  • The Benghazi attack and Superstorm Sandy
  • Second Term
  • The 2012 election
  • The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting
  • “Sequester” cuts, the Benghazi furor, and Susan Rice on the hot seat
  • The IRS scandal, the Justice Department’s AP phone records seizure, and Edward Snowden’s leaks
  • Removal of Mohammed Morsi, Obama’s “red line” in Syria, and chemical weapons
  • The decision not to respond militarily in Syria
  • The 2013 government shutdown
  • The Obamacare rollout
  • The Iran nuclear deal, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, and the Ukraine crisis
  • The rise of ISIL (ISIS), the Bowe Bergdahl prisoner swap, and imposition of stricter carbon emission standards
  • The child migrant border surge, air strikes on ISIL (ISIS), and the 2014 midterm elections
  • Normalizing relations with Cuba, the USA FREEDOM Act, and the Office of Personnel Management data breach
  • The Ferguson police shooting, the death of Freddie Gray, and the Charleston church shooting
  • Same-sex marriage and Obamacare Supreme Court rulings and final agreement on the Iran nuclear deal
  • New climate regulations, the Keystone XL pipeline, and intervention in the Syrian Civil War
  • The Merrick Garland nomination and Supreme Court rulings on public unions, affirmative action, and abortion
  • The Orlando nightclub shooting, the shooting of Dallas police officers, and the shootings in Baton Rouge
  • The Donald Trump administration
  • The campaign for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination
  • The campaign for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination
  • Hillary Clinton’s private e-mail server, Donald Trump’s Access Hollywood tape, and the 2016 general election campaign
  • Trump’s victory and Russian interference in the presidential election
  • “America First,” the Women’s Marches, Trump on Twitter, and “fake news”
  • Scuttling U.S. participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership, reconsidering the Keystone XL pipeline, and withdrawing from the Paris climate agreement
  • ICE enforcement and removal operations
  • The travel ban
  • Pursuing “repeal and replacement” of Obamacare
  • John McCain’s opposition and the failure of “skinny repeal”
  • Neil Gorsuch’s confirmation to the Supreme Court, the air strike on Syria, and threatening Kim Jong-Un with “fire and fury”
  • Violence in Charlottesville, the dismissal of Steve Bannon, the resignation of Michael Flynn, and the investigation of possible collusion between Russia and the Trump campaign
  • Jeff Session’s recusal, James Comey’s firing, and Robert Mueller’s appointment as special counsel
  • Hurricanes Harvey and Maria and the mass shootings in Las Vegas, Parkland, and Santa Fe
  • The #MeToov movement, the Alabama U.S. Senate special election, and the Trump tax cut
  • Withdrawing from the Iran nuclear agreement, Trump-Trudeau conflict at the G7 summit, and imposing tariffs
  • The Trump-Kim 2018 summit, “zero tolerance,” and separation of immigrant families
  • The Supreme Court decision upholding the travel ban, its ruling on Janus v. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, No. 16-1466, and the retirement of Anthony Kennedy
  • The indictment of Paul Manafort, the guilty pleas of Michael Flynn and George Papadopoulos, and indictments of Russian intelligence officers
  • Cabinet turnover
  • Trump’s European trip and the Helsinki summit with Vladimir Putin
  • The USMCA trade agreement, the allegations of Christine Blasey Ford, and the Supreme Court confirmation of Brett Kavanaugh
  • Central American migrant caravans, the pipe-bomb mailings, and the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting
  • The 2018 midterm elections
  • The 2018–19 government shutdown
  • Sessions’s resignation, choosing a new attorney general, and the ongoing Mueller investigation
  • The Mueller report
  • Presidents of the United States
  • Vice presidents of the United States
  • First ladies of the United States
  • State maps, flags, and seals
  • State nicknames and symbols
  • Eisenhower’s second term

    Despite suffering a heart attack in 1955 and a case of ileitis that required surgery the next year, Eisenhower stood for reelection in 1956. His opponent was once again Stevenson. Two world crises dominated the campaign. On October 23, Hungarians revolted against communist rule, an uprising that was swiftly crushed by Red Army tanks. On October 29, Israel invaded Egypt, supported by British and French forces looking to regain control of the Suez Canal and, perhaps, to destroy Egypt’s president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had nationalized the canal in July. Eisenhower handled both crises deftly, forcing the invaders to withdraw from Egypt and preventing events in Hungary from triggering a confrontation between the superpowers. Owing in part to these crises, Eisenhower carried all but seven states in the election. It was a purely personal victory, however, for the Democrats retained control of both houses of Congress.

    Domestic issues

    Although the Eisenhower administration can, in general, be characterized as a period of growth and prosperity, some problems did begin to arise during the second term. In 1957–58 an economic recession hit and unemployment rose to its highest level since 1941. Labour problems increased in intensity, with some 500,000 steelworkers going on strike for 116 days in 1959. There was even evidence of corruption on the Eisenhower staff. The president remained personally popular, but public discontent was demonstrated in the large majorities gained by the Democrats in the congressional elections of 1958.

    Problems associated with postwar population trends also began to be recognized. The U.S. population, which had grown markedly throughout the 1950s, passed 179 million in 1960. Growth was concentrated in the West, and the country became increasingly urbanized as the middle class moved from the cities to new suburban developments. The migration left cities without their tax base but with responsibility for an increasing number of poor residents. It also resulted in a huge increase in commuters, which in turn led to continuing problems of traffic and pollution.

    During Eisenhower’s second term, race became a central national concern for the first time since Reconstruction. Some civil rights advances had been made in previous years. In 1954 the Supreme Court had ruled that racially segregated schools were unconstitutional. The decision provoked intense resistance in the South but was followed by a chain of rulings and orders that continually narrowed the right to discriminate. In 1955 Martin Luther King, Jr., led a boycott of segregated buses in Montgomery, Alabama, giving rise to the nonviolent civil rights movement. But neither the president nor Congress became involved in the race issue until 1957, when the segregationist governor of Arkansas blocked the integration of a high school in Little Rock. Eisenhower then sent federal troops to enforce the court’s order for integration. Congress was similarly prompted to pass the first civil rights law in 82 years, the Civil Rights Act of 1957, which set the stage for the more far-reaching legislation that would follow in the 1960s.

    World affairs

    On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union orbited the first artificial satellite, arousing fears that the United States was falling behind the Soviets technologically. This prompted Eisenhower, who generally held the line on spending, to sign the National Defense Education Act of 1958, which provided extensive aid to schools and students in order to bring American education up to what were regarded as Soviet levels of achievement. The event also strengthened demands for the acceleration of the arms and space races, which eventually led to the U.S. Moon landing on July 20, 1969, and to a remarkable expansion of scientific knowledge. In 1958, threatened and actual conflicts between governments friendly to Western powers and unfriendly or communist forces in Lebanon, the islands of Quemoy and Matsu offshore of China, Berlin, and Cuba caused additional concern. Only a minority believed that the United States was still ahead in military and space technology, though in fact this was true.

    The illness of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles in March 1959, and his subsequent resignation, led the president to increase his own activity in foreign affairs. He now traveled more and met more often with heads of state. The most important meeting was to be a summit in 1960 with Khrushchev and Western leaders to discuss such matters as Berlin, German reunification, and arms control. But two weeks before the scheduled date an American U-2 spy plane was shot down deep inside the Soviet Union. Wrangling over this incident destroyed both the Paris summit and any hopes of bettering U.S.-Soviet relations.

    An assessment of the postwar era

    Despite great differences in style and emphasis, the administrations of Truman and Eisenhower were notable for their continuity. Both were essentially periods of reconstruction. After 15 years of depression and war, people were not interested in social reform but in rebuilding and expanding the educational and transportation systems, achieving stable economic growth, and, in the case of the younger generation whose lives had been most disrupted by World War II, in marrying and having children. Thus, the postwar era was the age of the housing boom, the television boom, and the baby boom, of high birth and comparatively low divorce rates, of proliferating suburbs and a self-conscious emphasis upon family “togetherness.” Though frustrating to social reformers, this was probably a necessary phase of development. Once the country had been physically rebuilt, the practical needs of a rapidly growing population had been met, and standards of living had risen, there would come another age of reform.

    The arrival of this new age was indicated in 1960 by the comparative youth of the presidential candidates chosen by the two major parties. The Democratic nominee, Sen. John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts, was 43; the Republican, Vice Pres. Nixon, was 47. They both were ardent cold warriors and political moderates. Kennedy’s relative inexperience and his religion (he was the first Roman Catholic presidential nominee since Al Smith) placed him at an initial disadvantage. But the favourable impression he created during a series of televised debates with Nixon and the support he received from blacks after he helped the imprisoned black leader Martin Luther King, Jr., enabled him to defeat Nixon in a closely contested election.

    Edgar Eugene Robinson William L. O'Neill
    United States
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