United States presidential election of 1984
United States government
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United States presidential election of 1984

United States government

United States presidential election of 1984, American presidential election held on November 6, 1984, in which Republican Ronald Reagan was elected to a second term, defeating Democrat Walter Mondale, a former U.S. vice president. Reagan won 49 states en route to amassing 525 electoral votes to Mondale’s 13—one of the biggest landslides in U.S. election history. The election was also notable for being the first time a major party had a woman on its ticket—Geraldine Ferraro, Mondale’s running mate.

Washington Monument. Washington Monument and fireworks, Washington DC. The Monument was built as an obelisk near the west end of the National Mall to commemorate the first U.S. president, General George Washington.
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The campaign

During the primaries, Reagan faced no opposition and was easily renominated by the Republican Party. On the Democratic side, however, the 1984 campaign was notable. Jesse Jackson, an eloquent African American preacher who had been a young activist in the civil rights movement in the 1960s, announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1983. At the time, no one believed he would win either nomination or election, but his public stature guaranteed him equal opportunity to compete seriously for the nomination.

The Democratic primaries were contested—in addition to Jackson—by one former governor (Reubin Askew of Florida), two former senators (George McGovern of South Dakota and Mondale), and four incumbent senators (Alan Cranston of California, John Glenn of Ohio, Gary Hart of Colorado, and Ernest Hollings of South Carolina). The pre-primary odds makers had favoured Mondale, with Glenn considered the strongest challenger, but Glenn ran a lacklustre campaign and foundered early. So did most of the others, but Hart came in second in the Iowa caucuses and won the New Hampshire primary. Quick to spot what seemed to be a trend, the media all but wrote off Mondale. No longer the front-runner, Mondale abandoned his defensive stance. Borrowing a slogan from a television commercial for the hamburger chain Wendy’s ("Where’s the beef?"), he found a way to deflate Hart’s pretensions as the candidate of "new ideas" and finally slogged his way to the nomination.

Mondale made history by choosing as his running mate Geraldine Ferraro—the first woman selected by a major political party for its presidential ticket. At the time, Ferraro was a three-term congresswoman from New York, and it was hoped that her nomination would galvanize the campaign. It did initially, but the Democratic ticket was derailed almost immediately by a monthlong controversy over the finances of Ferraro and her husband, a New York real estate operator. The Mondale-Ferraro ticket attempted, without success, to find an issue that would resonate with voters. Fairness between rich and poor, alleged misbehaviour by Reagan aides, and Reagan’s close ties with aggressive fundamentalist groups all failed to dent the approval ratings of the man supporters called "the great communicator" and enemies called "the Teflon president" because no charges ever stuck to him. Perhaps worst for the Mondale campaign, however, was Mondale’s pledge at the Democratic convention in San Francisco, where he stated:

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By the end of my first term, I will reduce the Reagan budget deficit by two-thirds. Let’s tell the truth. It must be done, it must be done. Mr. Reagan will raise taxes, and so will I. He won’t tell you. I just did.

This pledge to raise taxes backfired, giving Reagan and the Republicans ammunition in their desire to paint the Democratic ticket as “tax-and-spend liberals.” A brief upward blip in Mondale’s fortunes came when, in the first of two nationally televised debates, Reagan appeared tired and confused. His inept performance brought into the open the hitherto unmentioned issue of Reagan’s age (73), and for a brief interval the Democrats took heart. By the second debate, however, the president was back in command. Mondale needed a major Reagan mistake, and it did not come. Indeed, at that second debate, on October 28, Reagan was asked about being the oldest president in U.S. history and whether there was any doubt he could do the job. Reagan disarmingly responded, saying:

I want you to know that also I will not make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit for political purposes my opponent’s youth and inexperience.

Laughter—including from Mondale—ensued. With that statement, age became a nonissue, and Democrats saw little hope of stopping the Reagan juggernaut. Apart from the debates, the president appeared only in controlled and euphoric settings, insulated from the press. His campaign capitalized on the new mood of national pride and self-congratulation that had reached a peak in the Los Angeles Olympic Games. The economic recovery helped, but interviewers and exit pollers found a preference for Reagan even among voters who disagreed with administration policies, because for them he represented leadership, patriotism, and optimism.

Reagan won virtually every demographic group except African Americans. His margin of victory over Mondale was nearly 17 million popular votes, the second largest in history; it was surpassed only by Richard Nixon’s margin over McGovern in 1972. His electoral landslide of 525–13 was second only to Franklin Roosevelt’s 523–8 margin over Alf Landon in 1936. Mondale carried only the District of Columbia (three electoral votes) by a convincing margin. He won his home state of Minnesota by a scant 3,800 votes (less than 0.2 percent).

For the results of the previous election, see United States presidential election of 1980. For the results of the subsequent election, see United States presidential election of 1988.

Results of the 1984 election

The results of the 1984 U.S. presidential election are provided in the table.

American presidential election, 1984
presidential candidate political party electoral votes popular votes
Source: Federal Election Commission.
525
54,455,075
David Bergland
227,204
Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr.
Independent
78,773
Sonia Johnson
Citizens
71,976
Bob Richards
Populist
66,241
Dennis L. Serrette
Independent Alliance
46,809
Gus Hall
Communist
36,225
Mel Mason
Socialist Workers
24,681
Larry Holmes
Workers World
15,327
Delmar Dennis
American
13,149
Ed Winn
Workers League
10,798
This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.
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