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France's New African Policy
During 1997 a gradual sea change in France’s policy toward Africa reached its culmination. Gone or going was France’s paternalism...
French Influence in Africa as of 1997: Linguistic, Monetary, and Military. Thematic map.
Water availability has for millennia shaped the culture of the people in the part of the world now commonly referred to as...
Water Resources and Water-Diversion Projects in Countries of the Middle East and North Africa Region. Thematic map.
The New World Disorder
My friend Flora Lewis summed up the year 1991 in these pages, with appropriate tentativeness, as "a time of transition."...
The Shrinking Ph.D. Job Market
Since the 1980s the market for new Ph.D.’s to fill tenure-track positions in U.S. colleges and universities has decreased...
Inventors and Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
Read about the people and machines that transformed Western society in the 18th and 19th centuries.
A Factory Interior, watercolor, pen and gray ink, graphite, and white goache on wove paper by unknown artist, c. 1871-91; in the Yale Center for British Art. Industrial Revolution England
25 Decade-Defining Events in U.S. History
Which events were the most important in any given decade of U.S. history? This list tries to answer that question. See if...
The Battle of New Orleans, by E. Percy Moran, c. 1910. Andrew Jackson, War of 1812.
Europe's Crumbling Social Network
The European welfare state suffered a year of crisis in 1997. In the years after World War II, generations of Europeans had...
European Social Security and Welfare Spending. Thematic map.
Military Commanders of World War I
Learn more about the commanders of World War I.
Meeting of leaders in W.W.I, General Hindenburg, Kaiser William II, General Ludendorff examine maps during World War I in Germany.
6 Interesting Facts About Fidel Castro
From his famous beard to his ubiquitous cigar, learn more about Fidel Castro.
Fidel Castro addressing the General Assembly, United Nations, New York, October 14, 1979.
Timeline of the September 11 Attacks
How the tragic day in 2001 unfolded.
Clouds of smoke rise from fires at the World Trade Center Towers as a result of terrorist attack on September 11, 2001. Photographed 9:54 am in Lower Manhattan.
Don’t think there is anything to know about Cleveland? Take this quiz and see how wrong you are.
Downtown Cleveland after sunset. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum (left). Museum and hall of fame in Cleveland that celebrates the history and cultural significance of rock music
Why Does COVID-19 Disproportionately Affect African Americans, Hispanics, and Latinos?
As the COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded in the United States and increasing amounts of data have come in, it has become apparent...
Harlem resident Eleanor Kennedy, left, waits in line during a (coronavirus) COVID-19 antibody test drive at the Abyssinian Baptist Church, in the Harlem neighborhood of the Manhattan. Churches in low income communities across New York are offering COVID-1
English Language Imperialism
Seen in its simplest terms, language imperialism involves the transfer of a dominant language to other peoples. The transfer...
The English Language Across the World. Thematic map.
Racial Integration in Australia and New Zealand
By 1997 public opinion in Australia and New Zealand was demanding that a solution be found to the great gap in the standards...
St. Paul’s Contributions to the New Testament
Which books of the Bible did he write?
The fresco St. Paul the Apostle in Herz Jesus church by Friedrich Stummel and Karl Wenzel from end of 19 and the beginning of the 20 century
Poverty in South Asia
The South Asian region, which comprises India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Maldives, in 1997 accounted...
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