Science

How can the sky be blue one day and stormy the next? Why do heavy objects tend to fall downwards when dropped? How are birds able to fly (and why can’t I do the same?)? Human beings have long been curious about the world in which we live, striving to identify connections among the phenomenons we witness and to understand how it all works. The field of science has developed over many centuries as a way of studying and understanding the world, beginning with the primitive stage of simply noting important regularities in nature and continuing through the rise of modern science. The modern-day sciences cover a vast range of fields, including biology, chemistry, meteorology, astronomy, physics, and much more.
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Featured content, August 07, 2020

9 Britannica Articles That Explain the Meaning of Life
(…or lack thereof.)
List / Science
Spiral Galaxy type Sa-Sb or Sa/Sb in the constellation Virgo. The majestic Sombrero Galaxy Messier 104 (M104) or NGC 4594. The team took six pictures of the galaxy, stitched them together to create the final composite image. Photo from May-June 2003
Understanding Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion
Find out why planets move the way they do.
Companion / Science
Solar System with the sun and planets amid stars. Illustration Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Neptune Uranus space orbit
Are Bats Rodents?
They kind of look like mice with wings. Are they?
Demystified / Science
Flying bat
The Oldest Human Ancestor
In 2017, scientists identified fossils of a primitive sea creature they say is the oldest known ancestor of a wide range...
#WTFact / Science
Artist's reconstruction of Saccorhytus coronarius, based on the original fossil finds. The actual creature was probably no more than a millimeter in size.
Gedankenexperiment
Gedankenexperiment, (German: “thought experiment”) term used by German-born physicist Albert Einstein to describe his unique...
Encyclopedia / Science
Philosophy of science
Philosophy of science, the study, from a philosophical perspective, of the elements of scientific inquiry. This article discusses...
Encyclopedia / Science
Aristotle
Evolution
Evolution, theory in biology postulating that the various types of plants, animals, and other living things on Earth have...
Encyclopedia / Science
The geologic time scale from 650 million years ago to the present, showing major evolutionary events.
Heredity
Heredity, the sum of all biological processes by which particular characteristics are transmitted from parents to their offspring....
Encyclopedia / Science
human chromosomes

Science Quizzes

Thunderstorm cloud-to-ground lightning discharge with cumulonimbus clouds in field. weather storm thunderstorm atmospheric disturbance cumulonimbus clouds thunder and lightning Homepage blog 2011, science and technology
Climate Change: Fact or Fiction?
What is causing the oceans to become more acidic? Do plants and animals have alternatives to migration in the face of climate...
Weed. Flower. Taraxacum. Dandelion. T. officinale. Close-up of yellow dandelion flowers.
This or That? Annual vs. Perennial
Do you know which plants come back year after year? Test your knowledge of annuals and perennials with this quiz.
Slowworm. Anguis fragilis. Blindworm. Lizard. Anguidae. Slowworm in the palm of a hand.
This or That? Warm-blooded vs. Cold-blooded
Some animals regulate their body temperature naturally, and some don’t. Is a platypus warm-blooded or cold-blooded? Test...
Approximate-natural-colour (left) and false-colour (right) pictures of Callisto, one of Jupiter's satellitesNear the centre of each image is Valhalla, a bright area surrounded by a scarp ring (visible as dark blue at right).Valhalla was probably caused b
This or That?: Moon vs. Asteroid
So you’ve got the planets down pat--let’s see if you know your moons. Are these astronomical bodies moons or asteroids?
A whale shark (Rhincodon typus) near a snorkeller in Australia. The huge fish feed on small organisms filtered from the water and are not dangerous to humans. Scuba diver, fishes, ichthyology, fish plates, marine biology, sharks, giant fishes
Sharks: Fact or Fiction?
Is it true that sharks have to swim continuously? How many teeth does a shark have? Test your knowledge with this quiz.
Flower. Day lily, Day Lilies.Daylily. Daylilies. Garden. Close-up of pink daylilies in bloom.
(Not) All in the Family
Plants have families, too! Try to figure out which plants don’t belong in these famous families.
Sea otter (Enhydra lutris), also called great sea otter, rare, completely marine otter of the northern Pacific, usually found in kelp beds. Floats on back. Looks like sea otter laughing. saltwater otters
Animal Group Names
You may have heard of a herd of cattle or a school of fish, but what is a group of jellyfish called? Test your knowledge...
Herd of African elephants and their calves in African savannah with egrets. Outdoors, grassland, mammal, maternal, animal, safari, plains, wildlife, family.
Elephantidae: Fact or Fiction?
Can elephants run? How long does an elephant live? Test your knowledge of Asian and African elephants with this quiz.
Big Kmart store in Ontario, Ore.
Microeconomics Basics
What is the "invisible hand"? Does taking this quiz have any positive externalities? There’s only one way to find out.
Currency. Money. Cash. Dollars. Bills. Pile of ten, twenty, fifty, and hundred dollar bills.
Macroeconomics Basics
Do you know a Phillips curve from an Engle curve? Inflate your knowledge of macroeconomics with this quiz.
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Science
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Science Subcategories

subcategory placeholder Astronomy
Human beings have always been fascinated by the celestial sphere above, whose twinkling lights have inspired many theories and artistic endeavors. Study of the solar system has provoked more than just peaceful meditation, however; a major controversy among astronomers arose in the 16th century when Copernicus publicly championed heliocentrism, a Sun-centric model of the solar system that was in direct opposition to Ptolemy's Earth-centered model, which had been generally accepted from the 2nd century CE onward. But humankind's fascination with the world beyond Earth has also led to some landmark moments in history, as when space exploration took a giant step forward with the advent of technology that allowed humans to travel to the Moon and to build spacecraft capable of exploring the rest of the solar system and beyond.
Articles
Chordate Biology
If it’s alive, biology will define it, study it, observe all its functions, follow its vital processes, and interact with it, all in order to understand the life that animates it. In one of biology's best-known examples of such studious investigation, Charles Darwin came up with his scientific theory of evolution by natural selection after systematically observing a variety of plants and animals; his work acted as the foundation upon which modern evolutionary theory is built. But biology’s principles also operate within a plethora of other related fields, including biochemistry, biomedicine, biophysics, and microbiology.
Articles
Black girdle-tailed lizard (Cordylus nigra). Birds, Reptiles & Other Vertebrates
Although it can be hard to imagine that a peacock and a crocodile have much of anything in common, these animals are actually descendants of the same prehistoric vertebrates. Birds are thought to have descended from carnivorous dinosaurs that began growing feathers by the Late Jurassic Period; thus, birds are technically one lineage of reptiles. This evolutionary link highlights the way in which seemingly incongruous creatures can, in fact, share a common ancestor (though that doesn't mean that we should expect waterfowl and crocodiles to become friends anytime soon).
Articles
  • Snake
    reptile
  • Turtle
    reptile
  • Fish
    animal
  • Mantid (Mantis religiosa). Bugs, Mollusks & Other Invertebrates
    Some insects are so displeasing to humans that the word "bug" has come to be used as a verb meaning "to bother or annoy." Yet, in addition to being critically important—because they naturally recycle decaying matter—in maintaining balance within the food chain, bugs can also be fascinating creatures, whether in regard to the water strider's ability to run across the surface of water or in regard to assassin bugs' varied and creative means of catching and killing their prey. Mollusks, another group of invertebrates, get less of a bad rap. Their ranks include nearly 100,000 described species of soft-bodied animals that are usually wholly or partly enclosed in a calcium carbonate shell; examples include snails, clams, oysters, squids, and octopuses.
    Articles
  • Jellyfish
    marine invertebrate
  • Coral
    invertebrate
  • Worm
    animal
  • periodic table Chemistry
    How do you use raw plant materials to manufacture a best-selling perfume? How do you engineer household products that are compliant with environmentally-oriented guidelines? The answers to these questions require an understanding of the laws of chemistry, the science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, as well as the transformations that such substances undergo and the energy that is released or absorbed during those processes. Chemistry is also concerned with the utilization of natural substances and the creation of artificial ones. Over time, more than 8,000,000 different chemical substances, both natural and artificial, have been characterized and produced. Chemistry's vast scope comprises organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, and industrial chemistry, along with biochemistry, environmental chemistry, medicinal chemistry, and much more. Through the dedicated efforts of people such as Robert Boyle, Dmitri Mendeleev, John Dalton, Marie Curie, and Rosalind Franklin, the field of chemistry has led to exciting innovations as well as crucial advances in our understanding of how the world functions, starting with just the miniscule and unassuming atom.
    Articles
  • Biochemistry
    science
  • Neon
    chemical element
  • Biogeochemistry
  • subcategory placeholder Earth Science, Geologic Time & Fossils
    Planet Earth has billions of years of history, from the time when it was an inhospitable ball of hot magma to when its surface stabilized into a variety of beautiful and diverse zones capable of supporting many life-forms. Many are the species that lived through the various geologic eras and left a trace of their existence in the fossils that we study today. But Earth is never done settling, as we can see from the earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and other phenomena manifested in Earth’s crust, oceans, and atmosphere.
    Articles
  • Cambrian Period
    geochronology
  • Trilobite
    fossil arthropod
  • Keeling Curve
    atmospheric science
  • Grinnell Glacier shrinkage Environment
    Biological diversity is key to a healthy ecosystem, whether it’s a small biological community or the global biosphere. Ecology, which studies the relationships between organisms and their environment, is an invaluable science that helps us understand what allows an ecological community to thrive.
    Articles
    Meerkat, or suricate (Suricata suricatta). Mammals
    These are the animals to which humans tend to relate the most, perhaps because aspects of their behavior can sometimes resemble the way that we ourselves behave. The protective instinct of a mother bear, the gamboling way that kittens play, and the loyalty displayed by a dog are all traits that we can identify with in the course of our own lives. Mammals are well-equipped to handle different climates and biomes because of their ability to regulate their own body temperatures and internal environment, both in excessive heat and aridity and in severe cold.
    Articles
  • Llama
    mammal
  • Elephant
    mammal
  • Wallaby
    marsupial
  • Plot of the cubic equation f(x) = x3 − 3x + 2. The plotted points are where changes in curvature occur. Mathematics
    Although stock portrayals of mathematicians often involve a studious person standing in front of a chalkboard that's covered with mind-bogglingly complex scrawled mathematical problems (call it the "Good Will Hunting" effect), the chaotic-looking equations may obscure the fact that mathematics is, at its heart, a science of structure, order, and relation that deals with logical reasoning and quantitative calculation. There's a method to all that madness! The history of mathematics can be traced back to ancient Mesopotamia, whose clay tablets revealed that the level of mathematical competence was already high as early as roughly the 18th century BCE. Over the centuries, mathematics has evolved from elemental practices of counting, measuring, and describing the shapes of objects into a crucial adjunct to the physical sciences and technology.
    Articles
  • Blaise Pascal
    French philosopher and scientist
  • Arithmetic
  • Mathematics
  • mandacaru cactus Plants
    Life on Earth owes much to plants. The vast majority of plants carry out photosynthesis to transform light energy into chemical energy, which is the way that virtually all energy in the biosphere becomes available to living things (including us humans). As photosynthetic organisms, plants occupy the base of Earth's food webs and are consumed directly or indirectly by all higher life-forms, thereby functioning as the major source of food for humans and other animals. Plants' photosynthetic activity also produces the air that we breathe: almost all the oxygen in the atmosphere is due to the process of photosynthesis. Still not convinced about the merits of plants? Consider the fact that many plants not only serve up crucial nutrients and breathable air but also look good doing it. Many plants are admired for their striking aesthetic qualities, and flowers such as tulips, lilies, sunflowers, and daisies beautify fields, gardens, windowsills, and bouquets the world over. Plants are also a primary source of consumer goods, such as building materials, textile fibers, and pharmaceuticals.
    Articles
  • Plant
    organism
  • Baobab
    tree genus
  • Solanales
    plant order
  • Acoustics Physics
    What’s the matter? The matter is our whole observable universe—with that material substance that constitutes it—and it is the subject of study of physics. The laws that govern motion observed by Newton, the gravitational force that regulates the progress of all celestial bodies, the interaction between subatomic particles, and the nuclear engineering that created the atomic bomb are examples of what this important discipline is all about. Minkowski’s space-time concept, which reformulated Einstein’s special theory of relativity, has bridged physics with philosophy in a conversation that has fascinated the modern concept of physics.
    Articles
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