Politics & Political Systems

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Politics & Political Systems Encyclopedia Articles

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International relations
International relations, the study of the relations of states with each other and with international organizations and certain subnational entities (e.g., bureaucracies, political parties, and interest groups). It is related to a number of other academic disciplines, including political science,...
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Election
Election, the formal process of selecting a person for public office or of accepting or rejecting a political proposition by voting. It is important to distinguish between the form and the substance of elections. In some cases, electoral forms are present but the substance of an election is...
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2008 Canadian federal election results
Intelligence
Intelligence, in government and military operations, evaluated information concerning the strength, activities, and probable courses of action of foreign countries or nonstate actors that are usually, though not always, enemies or opponents. The term also is used to refer to the collection,...
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United Nations
United Nations (UN), international organization established on October 24, 1945. The United Nations (UN) was the second multipurpose international organization established in the 20th century that was worldwide in scope and membership. Its predecessor, the League of Nations, was created by the...
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United Nations General Assembly
League of Nations
League of Nations, an organization for international cooperation established on January 10, 1920, at the initiative of the victorious Allied powers at the end of World War I. The terrible losses of World War I produced, as years went by and peace seemed no nearer, an ever-growing public demand that...
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League of Nations
Presidency of the United States of America
Presidency of the United States of America, chief executive office of the United States. In contrast to many countries with parliamentary forms of government, where the office of president, or head of state, is mainly ceremonial, in the United States the president is vested with great authority and...
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United States: 2000 presidential election
Fascism
Fascism, political ideology and mass movement that dominated many parts of central, southern, and eastern Europe between 1919 and 1945 and that also had adherents in western Europe, the United States, South Africa, Japan, Latin America, and the Middle East. Europe’s first fascist leader, Benito...
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Mussolini, Benito
Public administration
Public administration, the implementation of government policies. Today public administration is often regarded as including also some responsibility for determining the policies and programs of governments. Specifically, it is the planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling of...
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Marxism
Marxism, a body of doctrine developed by Karl Marx and, to a lesser extent, by Friedrich Engels in the mid-19th century. It originally consisted of three related ideas: a philosophical anthropology, a theory of history, and an economic and political program. There is also Marxism as it has been...
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Karl Marx
Government
Government, the political system by which a country or community is administered and regulated. Most of the key words commonly used to describe governments—words such as monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy—are of Greek or Roman origin. They have been current for more than 2,000 years and have not...
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The earliest cities for which there exist records appeared around the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Gradually civilization spread northward and around the Fertile Crescent. The inset map shows the countries that occupy this area today.
Zapatista National Liberation Army
Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN), guerrilla group in Mexico, founded in the late 20th century and named for the early 20th-century peasant revolutionary Emiliano Zapata. On Jan. 1, 1994, the Zapatistas staged a rebellion from their base in Chiapas, the southernmost Mexican state, to...
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Democracy
Democracy, literally, rule by the people. The term is derived from the Greek dēmokratiā, which was coined from dēmos (“people”) and kratos (“rule”) in the middle of the 5th century bce to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens. The etymological origins...
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voting in the 2012 U.S. presidential election
Political science
Political science, the systematic study of governance by the application of empirical and generally scientific methods of analysis. As traditionally defined and studied, political science examines the state and its organs and institutions. The contemporary discipline, however, is considerably...
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Socialism
Socialism, social and economic doctrine that calls for public rather than private ownership or control of property and natural resources. According to the socialist view, individuals do not live or work in isolation but live in cooperation with one another. Furthermore, everything that people...
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Henri de Saint-Simon, lithograph by L. Deymaru, 19th century
Political philosophy
Political philosophy, branch of philosophy that is concerned, at the most abstract level, with the concepts and arguments involved in political opinion. The meaning of the term political is itself one of the major problems of political philosophy. Broadly, however, one may characterize as political...
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Diorite stela inscribed with the Code of Hammurabi, 18th century bce.
Anarchism
Anarchism, cluster of doctrines and attitudes centred on the belief that government is both harmful and unnecessary. Anarchist thought developed in the West and spread throughout the world, principally in the early 20th century. Derived from the Greek root anarchos meaning “without authority,”...
Encyclopedia / Politics & Political Systems
anarchy symbol
Political system
Political system, the set of formal legal institutions that constitute a “government” or a “state.” This is the definition adopted by many studies of the legal or constitutional arrangements of advanced political orders. More broadly defined, however, the term comprehends actual as well as...
Encyclopedia / Politics & Political Systems
League of Nations
Diplomacy
Diplomacy, the established method of influencing the decisions and behaviour of foreign governments and peoples through dialogue, negotiation, and other measures short of war or violence. Modern diplomatic practices are a product of the post-Renaissance European state system. Historically,...
Encyclopedia / Politics & Political Systems
Ramses II
Liberalism
Liberalism, political doctrine that takes protecting and enhancing the freedom of the individual to be the central problem of politics. Liberals typically believe that government is necessary to protect individuals from being harmed by others, but they also recognize that government itself can pose...
Encyclopedia / Politics & Political Systems
John Locke
Political party
Political party, a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems, whose development reflects the evolution of parties. The...
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Conservatism
Conservatism, political doctrine that emphasizes the value of traditional institutions and practices. Conservatism is a preference for the historically inherited rather than the abstract and ideal. This preference has traditionally rested on an organic conception of society—that is, on the belief...
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Chateaubriand, François-Auguste-René, vicomte de
War
War, in the popular sense, a conflict between political groups involving hostilities of considerable duration and magnitude. In the usage of social science, certain qualifications are added. Sociologists usually apply the term to such conflicts only if they are initiated and conducted in accordance...
Encyclopedia / Politics & Political Systems
Korean War; Seoul
Administrative law
Administrative law, the legal framework within which public administration is carried out. It derives from the need to create and develop a system of public administration under law, a concept that may be compared with the much older notion of justice under law. Since administration involves the...
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lampoon of Interstate Commerce Commission

Politics & Political Systems Subcategories

Daniel Defoe, engraving by M. Van der Gucht, after a portrait by J. Taverner, first half of the 18th century. Political Scientists
Articles
  • Daniel Defoe
    English author
  • Niccolò Machiavelli
    Italian statesman and writer
  • Alexis de Tocqueville
    French historian and political writer
  • Politics & Political Systems Encyclopedia Articles

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