Engineering

Engineering, the application of science to the optimum conversion of the resources of nature to the uses of humankind. The field has been defined by the Engineers Council for Professional Development, in the United States, as the creative application of “scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behaviour under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property.” The term engineering is sometimes more loosely defined, especially in Great Britain, as the manufacture or assembly of engines, machine tools, and machine parts.
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Railroad
Railroad, mode of land transportation in which flange-wheeled vehicles move over two parallel steel rails, or tracks, either by self-propulsion or by the propulsion of a locomotive. After the first crude beginnings, railroad-car design took divergent courses in North America and Europe, because of...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
The New Castle, built by Richard Trevithick in 1803, the first locomotive to do actual work.
Hand tool
Hand tool, any of the implements used by craftspersons in manual operations, such as chopping, chiseling, sawing, filing, or forging. Complementary tools, often needed as auxiliaries to shaping tools, include such implements as the hammer for nailing and the vise for holding. A craftsperson may...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
hand tools
Bridge
Bridge, structure that spans horizontally between supports, whose function is to carry vertical loads. The prototypical bridge is quite simple—two supports holding up a beam—yet the engineering problems that must be overcome even in this simple form are inherent in every bridge: the supports must...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Seto Great Bridge
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci, (Italian: “Leonardo from Vinci”) Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, and engineer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. His Last Supper (1495–98) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503–19) are among the most widely...
Biography
Leonardo da Vinci: self-portrait
Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology, the manipulation and manufacture of materials and devices on the scale of atoms or small groups of atoms. The “nanoscale” is typically measured in nanometres, or billionths of a metre (nanos, the Greek word for “dwarf,” being the source of the prefix), and materials built at this...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Examples from biological and mechanical realms illustrate various “orders of magnitude” (powers of 10), from 10−2 metre down to 10−7 metre.
Harbours and sea works
Harbours and sea works, any part of a body of water and the manmade structures surrounding it that sufficiently shelters a vessel from wind, waves, and currents, enabling safe anchorage or the discharge and loading of cargo and passengers. The construction of harbours and sea works offers some of...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Lorient
Electronics
Electronics, branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour, and effects of electrons and with electronic devices. Electronics encompasses an exceptionally broad range of technology. The term originally was applied to the study of electron behaviour and...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
The first transistor, invented by American physicists John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William B. Shockley.
Particle accelerator
Particle accelerator, any device that produces a beam of fast-moving, electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles. Physicists use accelerators in fundamental research on the structure of nuclei, the nature of nuclear forces, and the properties of nuclei not found in nature, as in the...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
schematic diagram of a linear proton resonance accelerator
Machine tool
Machine tool, any stationary power-driven machine that is used to shape or form parts made of metal or other materials. The shaping is accomplished in four general ways: (1) by cutting excess material in the form of chips from the part; (2) by shearing the material; (3) by squeezing metallic parts...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
drill press
Surveying
Surveying, a means of making relatively large-scale, accurate measurements of the Earth’s surfaces. It includes the determination of the measurement data, the reduction and interpretation of the data to usable form, and, conversely, the establishment of relative position and size according to given...
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Figure 1: Photogrammetric photographs from two short, overlapping flight strips arranged for supplying mapping details. Photo-control points are shown on only one photograph; shading indicates a typical terrain feature such as a lake (see text).
Operations research
Operations research, application of scientific methods to the management and administration of organized military, governmental, commercial, and industrial processes. Operations research attempts to provide those who manage organized systems with an objective and quantitative basis for decision; it...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Job shop sequencing problem with two solutions.
Tunnels and underground excavations
Tunnels and underground excavations, horizontal underground passageway produced by excavation or occasionally by nature’s action in dissolving a soluble rock, such as limestone. A vertical opening is usually called a shaft. Tunnels have many uses: for mining ores, for transportation—including road...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Tunnel terminology.
Naval architecture
Naval architecture, the art and science of designing boats and ships to perform the missions and to meet the requirements laid down by the prospective owners and operators. It involves knowledge of mechanics, hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, steady and unsteady body motion, strength of materials, and...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
A cargo ship passing the Golden Gate Bridge, near San Francisco.
Microscope
Microscope, instrument that produces enlarged images of small objects, allowing the observer an exceedingly close view of minute structures at a scale convenient for examination and analysis. Although optical microscopes are the subject of this article, an image may also be enlarged by many other...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
A compound microscope.
Water supply system
Water supply system, infrastructure for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage, and distribution of water for homes, commercial establishments, industry, and irrigation, as well as for such public needs as firefighting and street flushing. Of all municipal services, provision of potable...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
The primary water reservoir of São Paulo, Braz.
Construction
Construction, the techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures, primarily those used to provide shelter. Construction is an ancient human activity. It began with the purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the effects of climate. Constructed...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
construction of apartment buildings
Roads and highways
Roads and highways, traveled way on which people, animals, or wheeled vehicles move. In modern usage the term road describes a rural, lesser traveled way, while the word street denotes an urban roadway. Highway refers to a major rural traveled way; more recently it has been used for a road, in...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Sheikh Zayed Road
Draper Prize
Draper Prize, award given by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) for specific engineering achievements that have significantly affected modern society “by improving the quality of life, providing the ability to live freely and comfortably, and/or permitting access to information.” The...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Obverse side of the gold medal given to the winner of the Charles Stark Draper Prize, awarded annually by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering.
Radiation measurement
Radiation measurement, technique for detecting the intensity and characteristics of ionizing radiation, such as alpha, beta, and gamma rays or neutrons, for the purpose of measurement. The term ionizing radiation refers to those subatomic particles and photons whose energy is sufficient to cause...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Figure 1: (A) A simple equivalent circuit for the development of a voltage pulse at the output of a detector. R represents the resistance and C the capacitance of the circuit; V(t) is the time (t)-dependent voltage produced. (B) A representative current pulse due to the interaction of a single quantum in the detector. The total charge Q is obtained by integrating the area of the current, i(t), over the collection time, tc. (C) The resulting voltage pulse that is developed across the circuit of (A) for the case of a long circuit time constant. The amplitude (Vmax) of the pulse is equal to the charge Q divided by the capacitance C.
Dam
Dam, structure built across a stream, a river, or an estuary to retain water. Dams are built to provide water for human consumption, for irrigating arid and semiarid lands, or for use in industrial processes. They are used to increase the amount of water available for generating hydroelectric...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Itaipú Dam on the Upper Paraná River, north of Ciudad del Este, Paraguay.
Radar
Radar, electromagnetic sensor used for detecting, locating, tracking, and recognizing objects of various kinds at considerable distances. It operates by transmitting electromagnetic energy toward objects, commonly referred to as targets, and observing the echoes returned from them. The targets may...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Principle of radar operationThe transmitted pulse has already passed the target, which has reflected a portion of the radiated energy back toward the radar unit.
Garden and landscape design
Garden and landscape design, the development and decorative planting of gardens, yards, grounds, parks, and other types of areas. Garden and landscape design is used to enhance the settings for buildings and public areas and in recreational areas and parks. It is one of the decorative arts and is...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Palace of Versailles: gardens
Canals and inland waterways
Canals and inland waterways, natural or artificial waterways used for navigation, crop irrigation, water supply, or drainage. Despite modern technological advances in air and ground transportation, inland waterways continue to fill a vital role and, in many areas, to grow substantially. This...
Encyclopedia / Engineering
Canal along a street in Colmar, France.

Engineering Subcategories

Wernher von Braun, 1962 Aerospace Engineering
Aerospace engineering, also called aeronautical engineering, or astronautical engineering, field of engineering concerned with the design, development, construction, testing, and operation of vehicles operating in the Earth’s atmosphere or in outer space. In 1958 the first definition of aerospace engineering appeared, considering the Earth’s atmosphere and the space above it as a single realm for development of flight vehicles.
Articles
  • Qian Xuesen
    Chinese scientist
  • Aerial Experiment Association
    research organization
  • Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
    Russian scientist
  • Seto Great Bridge Civil Engineering
    Civil engineering, the profession of designing and executing structural works that serve the general public. The term was first used in the 18th century to distinguish the newly recognized profession from military engineering, until then preeminent.
    Articles
    subcategory placeholder Electrical Engineering
    Electrical and electronics engineering, the branch of engineering concerned with the practical applications of electricity in all its forms, including those of the field of electronics. Electronics engineering is that branch of electrical engineering concerned with the uses of the electromagnetic spectrum and with the application of such electronic devices as integrated circuits and transistors.
    Articles
    subcategory placeholder Industrial Engineering
    Industrial engineering, application of engineering principles and techniques of scientific management to the maintenance of a high level of productivity at optimum cost in industrial enterprises.
    Articles
    circular saw Mechanical Engineering
    Mechanical engineering, the branch of engineering concerned with the design, manufacture, installation, and operation of engines and machines and with manufacturing processes. It is particularly concerned with forces and motion.
    Articles
  • Mortar and pestle
    tools
  • Ax
    tool
  • Wrench
    tool
  • subcategory placeholder Military Engineering
    Military engineering, the art and practice of designing and building military works and of building and maintaining lines of military transport and communications. Military engineering is the oldest of the engineering skills and was the precursor of the profession of civil engineering.
    Articles
  • Marc-René, marquis de Montalembert
    French general
  • Jean-Victor Poncelet
    French mathematician
  • Henri-Alexis Brialmont
    Belgian engineer
  • subcategory placeholder Naval Architecture
    Naval architecture, the art and science of designing boats and ships to perform the missions and to meet the requirements laid down by the prospective owners and operators. It involves knowledge of mechanics, hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, steady and unsteady body motion, strength of materials, and design of structures.
    Articles
  • Naval architecture
  • William Froude
    British engineer
  • David Watson Taylor
    American naval architect
  • Aerial view of Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Nuclear Engineering
    Nuclear engineering is based on fundamental principles of physics and mathematics that describe nuclear interactions and the transport of neutrons and gamma rays. These phenomena in turn are dependent on heat transfer, fluid flow, chemical reactions, and behaviour of materials when subjected to radiation.
    Articles
  • Tsar Bomba
    Soviet thermonuclear bomb
  • Chernobyl disaster
    nuclear accident, Soviet Union [1986]
  • International Atomic Energy Agency
  • subcategory placeholder Robotics
    Robotics, Design, construction, and use of machines (robots) to perform tasks done traditionally by human beings. Robots are widely used in such industries as automobile manufacture to perform simple repetitive tasks, and in industries where work must be performed in environments hazardous to humans. Many aspects of robotics involve artificial intelligence.
    Articles
  • Robotics
    technology
  • UPC
    retailing
  • Pixel
    electronics
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